Etymology
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bad (adj.)

14世纪, “不足, 不满意, 不值钱; 不幸;” 14世纪晚期, “邪恶, 邪恶, 恶毒; 假冒;” 从13世纪的姓氏中(William Badde, Petri Badde, Asketinus Baddecheese, Rads Badinteheved). 1400年之前很少见, 而 evil 在18世纪之前更常见, 作为 good 的普通反义词. 它在其他语言中没有明显的亲属. *可能来自古英语中的贬义词 bæddel 及其缩略词 bædling “fememinate man, hermaphrodite, pederast”, 这可能与 bædan “to defile” 有关.

The orig. word, AS. bæddel, ME. baddel, on account of its sinister import, is scarcely found in literature, but, like other words of similar sense, it prob. flourished in vulgar speech as an indefinite term of abuse, and at length, divested of its original meaning, emerged in literary use as a mere adj. , badde, equiv. to the older evil. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

其他印欧语系语言中的可比词往往是从对特定品质的描述中发展起来的, 如“丑陋”, “缺陷”, “软弱”, “无信”, “无礼”, “歪歪扭扭”, “肮脏” (如希腊语 kakos, 可能来自“排泄物” 一词. “ 俄语 plochoj, 与古教会斯拉夫语 plachu” 摇摆不定, 胆小; “波斯语 gast, 古波斯语 gasta-, 与 gand” 臭气熏天“有关; 德语 schlecht, 原为” 平坦, 笔直, 光滑“, 当为” 简单, 普通“, 后为” 坏“).)

比较和超等形式 badder, baddest 是常见的 14 世纪-18 世纪, 最近使用的是 Defoe(但不是莎士比亚), 但让步于比较 worse 和超等 worst (曾属于 evilill).

意思是” 不舒服, 对不起“是1839年, 美国英语口语. 对 go bad” putrefy“是1884年的. Not bad” 相当好“是由1771年. 讽刺性的使用作为一个词的认可, 据说至少是自19世纪90年代口头, 最初在非洲裔美国人的白话, 出现在打印1928年在爵士乐的背景下. 它的出现可能来自于像 bad nigger, 被白人用作责备词, 但在黑人中有时代表一个人站出来反对不公正, 但在美国西部 bad man, 也有一定的矛盾性的表达.

These are the men who do most of the killing in frontier communities, yet it is a noteworthy fact that the men who are killed generally deserve their fate. [Farmer and Henley,” Slang and Its Analogues“]

*波斯语中的 bad 与英语单词的意义大致相同, 但语言学家认为这是一种巧合. 这些词的形式随着时间的追溯而出现分歧(波斯语 bad 来自于中波斯语 vat), 鉴于每种语言中词的数量庞大, 而人类能够发出的声音范围有限, 因此在许多语言中都存在这种偶然的融合. 与英语巧合匹配的还有韩语 mani” 多“, 汉语 pei” 付“, 纳瓦特尔语(阿兹特克语) huel” 井“, 玛雅语 hol” 洞“.

bad (n.)

14世纪末, “恶, 恶行”, 来自 bad (adj.).

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Definitions of bad
1
bad (adj.)
below average in quality or performance;
a bad recital
a bad chess player
bad (adj.)
having undesirable or negative qualities;
a bad report card
the pay is bad
the news was very bad
it was a bad light for reading
the movie was a bad choice
his sloppy appearance made a bad impression
the reviews were bad
a bad little boy
clothes in bad shape
bad luck
a bad cut
bad (adj.)
very intense;
a bad storm
a bad earthquake
a bad headache
had a big (or bad) shock
Synonyms: big
bad (adj.)
feeling physical discomfort or pain (`tough' is occasionally used colloquially for `bad');
she felt bad all over
my throat feels bad
Synonyms: tough
bad (adj.)
(of foodstuffs) not in an edible or usable condition;
bad meat
Synonyms: spoiled / spoilt
bad (adj.)
feeling or expressing regret or sorrow or a sense of loss over something done or undone;
he felt bad about breaking the vase
Synonyms: regretful / sorry
bad (adj.)
not capable of being collected;
a bad (or uncollectible) debt
Synonyms: uncollectible
bad (adj.)
nonstandard;
so-called bad grammar
bad (adj.)
not financially safe or secure;
a bad investment
Synonyms: risky / high-risk / speculative
bad (adj.)
physically unsound or diseased;
has a bad back
bad teeth
a bad heart
Synonyms: unfit / unsound
bad (adj.)
capable of harming;
smoking is bad for you
bad air
bad (adj.)
characterized by wickedness or immorality;
led a very bad life
bad (adj.)
reproduced fraudulently;
like a bad penny...
Synonyms: forged
bad (adj.)
not working properly;
a bad telephone connection
Synonyms: defective
2
bad (adv.)
with great intensity (`bad' is a nonstandard variant for `badly');
we need water bad
it hurts bad
Synonyms: badly
bad (adv.)
very much; strongly;
he wants a bicycle so bad he can taste it
Synonyms: badly
3
bad (n.)
that which is below standard or expectations as of ethics or decency;
take the bad with the good
Synonyms: badness
From wordnet.princeton.edu