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apology (n.)

15世纪初,"辩护、辩解",来自拉丁文晚期 apologia ,来自希腊文 apologia "辩护的演说",来自 apologeisthai "为自己辩护的演说",来自 apologos "交代、故事",来自 apo "离、关"(见 apo- )+ logos "演说"(见 Logos )。

在古典希腊语中,"有理有据的回答;对指控的'深思熟虑的反应'",如苏格拉底的"自辩"。"自圆其说"的英文原义产生了"坦率地表达对所犯错误的后悔"的意思,最早记载于1590年代,但这并不是主要的意义,直到18世纪约翰逊的词典将其定义为"辩护;借口",并补充说:" Apology 一般来说,它的意思是与其说是辩解,不如说是平反,它更倾向于减轻过错,而不是证明无罪。"这可能表明了意义转变的路径。旧义已倾向于转向拉丁文形式 apologia (1784年),从早期基督教著作中为信仰辩护而闻名。

Origin and meaning of apology

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Definitions of apology from WordNet

apology (n.)
an expression of regret at having caused trouble for someone;
he wrote a letter of apology to the hostess
apology (n.)
a formal written defense of something you believe in strongly;
Synonyms: apologia
apology (n.)
a poor example;
it was an apology for a meal
Synonyms: excuse
From wordnet.princeton.edu