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-ate (1)

-atus , -atum 结尾的拉丁文单词形成名词时使用的构词元素(如 estate , primate , senate )。那些通过法语传入英语的词通常以 -at 结尾,但在 15 世纪后, -e 被加了一个,以表示长元音。后缀也可以标记由拉丁语过去分词形成的形容词 -atus , -ata (如 desolate , moderate , separate );同样,它们在中古英语中常常被采用为 -at , 并在 15 世纪后加上 -e

-ate (2)

拉丁语动词的动词后缀在 -are ,与 -ate (1)相同。古英语常用形容词做动词,在词尾加一个动词结尾(如 gnornian "be sad,mourn", gnorn "sad,depressed"),但随着古英语后期和中英语早期英语单词的语素磨损,在 dryemptywarm ,等等,形容词和动词之间开始没有区别。因此习惯了一个词的形容词和动词形式的身份,16世纪以后,当英国人开始扩充以拉丁语为基础的词汇时,就干脆用拉丁语的过去分词形容词来做动词,而不改变其形式(如 aggravatesubstantiate ),于是拉丁语动词从过去分词词干中被英语化就成了习惯。

-ate (3)

在化学中,用于从酸中形成盐类名称的构词元素 -ic ;来自拉丁文 -atus-atum ,后缀用于形成形容词,进而形成名词;与 -ate (1)相同。

The substance formed, for example, by the action of acetic acid (vinegar) on lead was described in the 18th century as plumbum acetatum , i.e. acetated lead. Acetatum was then taken as a noun meaning "the acetated (product)," i.e. acetate . [W.E. Flood, "The Origins of Chemical Names," London, 1963]

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