- summer (n.1)
- "hot season of the year," Old English sumor "summer," from Proto-Germanic *sumur- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Norse, Old High German sumar, Old Frisian sumur, Middle Dutch somer, Dutch zomer, German Sommer), from PIE root *sem- (2) "summer" (cognates: Sanskrit sama "season, half-year," Avestan hama "in summer," Armenian amarn "summer," Old Irish sam, Old Welsh ham, Welsh haf "summer").
As an adjective from c.1300. Summer camp as an institution for youth is attested from 1886; summer resort is from 1823; summer school first recorded 1810; theatrical summer stock is attested from 1941 (see stock (n.2)). Old Norse sumarsdag, first day of summer, was the Thursday that fell between April 9 and 15.
- summer (n.2)
- "horizontal bearing beam," late 13c., from Anglo-French sumer, Old French somier "main beam," originally "pack horse," from Vulgar Latin *saumarius, from Late Latin sagmarius "pack horse," from sagma "packsaddle" (see sumpter).
- summer (v.)
- "to pass the summer," mid-15c., from summer (n.1). Related: Summered; summering.