further (adv.) Look up further at Dictionary.com
Old English furðor, forðor "to a more advanced position, forward, onward, beyond; farther away; later, afterward; to a greater degree or extent, in addition; moreover," etymologically representing either "forth-er" or "fore-ther." The former would be from furðum (see forth) + comparative suffix *-eron-, *-uron- (see also inner, outer).

Alternative etymology traces it to Proto-Germanic *furþeron-, from PIE *pr-tero (source also of Greek proteros "former"), from root of fore + comparative suffix also found in after, other. Senses of "in addition, to a greater extent" are later metaphoric developments.

It replaced or absorbed farrer, ferrer as comparative of far (itself a comparative but no longer felt as one). Farrer itself displaced Old English fierr in this job; farrer survived until 17c., then was reduced to dialect by rival farther.
The primary sense of further, farther is 'more forward, more onward'; but this sense is practically coincident with that of the comparative degree of far, where the latter word refers to real or attributed motion in some particular direction. Hence further, farther came to be used as the comparative of far, ... displacing the regular comparative farrer. [OED]
further (v.) Look up further at Dictionary.com
Old English (ge)fyrðan "further, impel;" see further (adj.). Compare Middle Low German vorderen, Old High German furdiran, German fördern. Related: Furthered; furthering. After the further/farther split, this sense also continued in a shadow verb farther (v.), attested from 16c. but apparently dying out 19c.
further (adj.) Look up further at Dictionary.com
Old English furðra, probably a prehistoric derivative of further (adv.). In early Middle English it meant "earlier, former, previous;" a great-grandfather was a furþur ealdefader (12c.), and a previous wife was referred to legally as a forther wife.