firm (adj.) Look up firm at
late 14c., ferm, "strong, steady" (of things), "permanent, enduring" (of agreements), "steadfast, steady" (of persons), "sound, well-founded" (of arguments), from Old French ferm "strong, vigorous; healthy, sound; steadfast, loyal, faithful" (12c.), from Latin firmus "strong, steadfast, enduring, stable," figuratively "constant, steadfast, trusty, faithful," from PIE root *dher- (2) "to hold, support" (cognates: Sanskrit dharmah "custom, law," Greek thronos "seat," Lithuanian dirzmas "strong," Welsh dir "hard," Breton dir "steel"). The spelling return to -i- in late 1500s was modeled on Latin. Related: Firmly; firmness.
firm (n.) Look up firm at
"business house," 1744, according to Barnhart from German Firma "a business, name of a business," originally "signature," from Italian firma "signature," from firmare "to sign," from Latin firmare "make firm, affirm," in Late Latin, "confirm (by signature)," from firmus "firm, stable" (see firm (adj.)).
firm (v.) Look up firm at
c. 1300, fermen "make firm, establish," from Old French fermer "consolidate; fasten, secure; build, set up; fortify" (12c.) or directly from Latin firmare "make firm; affirm; strengthen, fortify, sustain; establish, prove, declare," from firmus "strong, steadfast, stable" (see firm (adj.)). Intransitive use, "become firm" is from 1879; with up (adv.) from 1956. Related: Firmed; firming.