- a- (2)
- prefix meaning "away," from Latin a, usual form of Latin ab "off, of, away from" before consonants (see ab-). As in avert, avocation.
- a- (3)
- prefix meaning "not," from Greek a-, an- "not" (the "alpha privative"), from PIE root *ne "not" (source also of Latin nil, English un- (q.v.)). In words from Greek, such as abyssmal, adamant, amethyst; also partly nativized as a prefix of negation (asexual, amoral, agnostic).
- a- (1)
- prefix or inseparable particle, a relic of various Germanic and Latin elements.
In words derived from Old English, it commonly represents Old English an "on" (see on (prep.)), as in alive, above, asleep, aback, abroad, afoot, ashore, ahead, abed, aside, apart, etc., forming adjectives and adverbs from nouns, with the notion "in, at; engaged in." In this use it is identical to a (2).
It also can represent Middle English of (prep.) "off, from," as in anew, afresh, akin, abreast. Or it can be a reduced form of the Old English past participle prefix ge-, as in aware.
Or it can be the Old English intensive a-, originally ar- (cognate with German er- and probably implying originally "motion away from"), as in abide, arise, awake, ashamed, marking a verb as momentary, a single event. Such words sometimes were refashioned in early modern English as though the prefix were Latin (accursed, allay, affright are examples).
In words from Romanic languages, often it represents reduced forms of Latin ad- "to, at" (see ad-), or ab- "from, away, off" (see ab-); both of which by about 7c. had been reduced to a- in the ancestor of Old French. In a few cases it represents Latin ex-.
[I]t naturally happened that all these a- prefixes were at length confusedly lumped together in idea, and the resultant a- looked upon as vaguely intensive, rhetorical, euphonic, or even archaic, and wholly otiose. [OED]