viticulture (n.) Look up viticulture at
"cultivation of grapes," 1867, from French viticulture, from Latin vitis "vine" (see vise) + cultura "cultivating, cultivation" (see culture (n.)). Related: Viticultural (1855).
vitiligo (n.) Look up vitiligo at
1650s, from Latin vitiglio "a kind of cutaneous eruption, tetter" (Celsus), perhaps with an original sense of "blemish," from PIE *wi-tu-, from root *wei- (3) "vice, fault, guilt" (see vice (n.1)).
vitreous (adj.) Look up vitreous at
early 15c., "glasslike," from Latin vitreus "of glass, glassy," from vitrum "glass," which perhaps was so called for its color (compare vitrium "woad"). Vitreous humor attested from 1660s.
vitrify (v.) Look up vitrify at
1590s, from Middle French vitrifier (16c.), from Latin vitrum "glass" (see vitreous) + -ficare, comb. form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Vitrified; vitrification.
vitrine (n.) Look up vitrine at
"glass show-case," 1880, from French vitrine, from vitre "glass, window-glass," from Latin vitrum "glass" (see vitreous).
vitriol (n.) Look up vitriol at
late 14c., "sulphate of iron," from Old French vitriol (13c.), from Medieval Latin vitriolum "vitriol," noun use of neuter of vitriolus, variant of Late Latin vitreolus "of glass," from Latin vitreus "of glass, glassy," from vitrum "glass" (see vitreous). So called from its glassy appearance in certain states. Meaning "bitter or caustic feelings" first attested 1769, in reference to the corrosive properties of vitriol (when heated it produces sulfuric acid, formerly called oil of vitriol).
vitriolic (adj.) Look up vitriolic at
1660s, from French vitriolique (16c.) or from vitriol + -ic. Figurative sense "biting, caustic, very severe" is by 1841.
vitro- Look up vitro- at
word-forming element meaning "glass," from comb. form of Latin vitrum "glass" (see vitreous).
vituperate (v.) Look up vituperate at
1540s, back-formation from vituperation, or else from Latin vituperatus, past participle of vituperare. "Not in common use until the beginning of the 19th c." [OED]. Related: Vituperated; vituperating.
vituperation (n.) Look up vituperation at
mid-15c., but rare before early 19c., from Latin vituperationem (nominative vituperatio) "blame, a blaming, censuring," from past participle stem of vituperare "disparage, find fault with," from vitiperos "having faults," from vitium "fault, defect" (see vice (n.1)) + parare "prepare, provide, procure" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure"). Vituperatio was stronger than either Latin reprehensio or Modern English vituperation.
vituperative (adj.) Look up vituperative at
1727, from vituperate + -ive. Related: Vituperatively.
Vitus Look up Vitus at
from Latinized form of Svanto-vit, name of a Slavic god worshiped with ecstatic dances on the Baltic island of Rügen, transferred by Christian missionaries to Saint Vitus. The Italian form of the name is Guido.
viva (interj.) Look up viva at
1640s, from Italian viva "(long) live, may he (or she) live," third person singular present subjunctive of vivere "to live," from Latin vivere "to live," from PIE root *gwei- "to live." Probably reborrowed (1836) from Spanish viva, from vivir "to live," from Latin vivere. Sometimes also in Latin form vivat (1660s).
viva voce Look up viva voce at
also viva-voce, "by word of mouth," 1580s, Latin, literally "living-voice," ablative of viva vox.
vivace (adv.) Look up vivace at
1680s, from Italian vivace "brisk, lively," from Latin vivac-, stem of vivax "lively, vigorous; long-lived, enduring," from PIE root *gwei- "to live."
vivacious (adj.) Look up vivacious at
1640s, from Latin vivax (genitive vivacis) "lively, vigorous" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + -ous. Related: Vivaciously.
vivacity (n.) Look up vivacity at
early 15c., "liveliness, vigor," from Old French vivacite or directly from Latin vivacitatem (nominative vivacitas) "vital force, liveliness," from vivax (genitive vivacis) "lively," also "long-lived," from vivere "to live" (see vital).
vivarium (n.) Look up vivarium at
c. 1600, "game park," from Latin vivarium "enclosure for live game, park, warren, preserve, fish pond," noun use of neuter singular of vivarius "pertaining to living creatures," from vivus "alive, living" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). Meaning "glass bowl for studying living creatures" is from 1853.
vive (interj.) Look up vive at
1590s (in vive le roi), from French, literally "long live ______!" It is the French equivalent of viva (q.v.). The opposite is à bas "down! down with!" Jocular phrase vive la différence in reference to the difference between men and women is recorded from 1963. Also in vive la bagatelle, literally "long live nonsense," denoting a carefree attitude to life.
Vivian Look up Vivian at
masc. proper name, from Latin Vivianus (source also of French Vivien), literally "living, alive," (see vivid). But Klein says it is "prob. a misreading of the Celtic name Ninian."
vivid (adj.) Look up vivid at
1630s, from French vivide and perhaps also directly from Latin vividus "spirited, animated, lively, full of life," from vivus "alive," from PIE root *gwei- "to live." Extension to colors is from 1660s. Sense of "strong, distinct" (as of memories, etc.) is from 1680s; that of "very active or intense" (as of imagination, interest, etc.) is from 1853. Related: Vividly; vividness.
vivify (v.) Look up vivify at
late 14c., from Old French vivifier "come alive; give life to" (12c.), from Late Latin vivificare "make alive, restore to life," from vivificus "enlivening," from Latin vivus "alive" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Vivificate in same sense is recorded from early 15c.
viviparous (adj.) Look up viviparous at
1640s, from Late Latin viviparus "bringing forth alive," from Latin vivus "alive, living" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + parere "bring forth, bear" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth"). See viper.
vivisect (v.) Look up vivisect at
1852, back-formation from vivisection. Related: Vivisected; vivisecting.
vivisection (n.) Look up vivisection at
"dissection of a living animal," 1690s, from Latin vivus "alive" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + ending from dissection. Related: Vivisectionist.
vixen (n.) Look up vixen at
Old English *fyxen (implied in adjective fyxan), fem. of fox (see fox (n.) and cognate with Middle High German vühsinne, German füchsin). Solitary English survival of the Germanic feminine suffix -en, -in (also in Old English gyden "goddess;" mynecen "nun," from munuc "monk;" wlyfen "she-wolf," etc.). The figurative sense "ill-tempered woman" is attested from 1570s. The spelling shift from -f- to -v- began late 1500s (see V).
viz. Look up viz. at
1530s, abbreviation of videlicet "that is to say, to wit, namely" (mid-15c.), from Latin videlicet, contraction of videre licet "it is permissible to see," from videre "to see" (see vision) + licet "it is allowed," third person singular present indicative of licere "be allowed" (see licence). The -z- is not a letter, but originally a twirl, representing the usual Medieval Latin shorthand symbol for the ending -et. "In reading aloud usually rendered by 'namely.' " [OED]
vizard (n.) Look up vizard at
"mask," 1550s, altered form of vysar, viser (see visor), by influence of words in -ard. Figurative use from 1570s; common 17c. Also applied to the person with the masks, and used as a verb meaning "to conceal." Related: Vizarded; vizarding.
vizier (n.) Look up vizier at
also vizir, 1560s, from Turkish vezir "counsellor," from Arabic wazir "viceroy," literally "one who bears (the burden of office)," literally "porter, carrier," from wazara "he carried." But Klein says Arabic wazir is from Avestan viçira "arbitrator, judge." He also says it replaced Arabic katib, literally "writer," in the sense "secretary of state."
VJ day (n.) Look up VJ day at
also V-J Day, "Victory in Japan Day," 1944; it shares an origin with VE Day.
Vlach (n.) Look up Vlach at
"member of a Latin-speaking race of the Balkans, a Walachian or Rumanian," 1841, from Bulgarian vlakh or Serbian vlah, from Old Church Slavonic vlakhu, a Slavic adoptation of Germanic *walh (source of Old English wealh) "foreigner," especially applied to Celts and Latins (see Welsh).
Vladimir Look up Vladimir at
masc. proper name, from Old Church Slavonic Vladimiru "Ruling Peace," from vlasti "to rule over" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong") + miru "peace" (see Mir).
vocabulary (n.) Look up vocabulary at
1530s, "list of words with explanations," from Medieval Latin vocabularium "a list of words," from Latin vocabulum "word, name, noun," from vocare "to name, call," related to vox "voice," from PIE root *wekw- "to speak." Meaning "range of words in the language of a person or group" is first attested 1753.
vocal (adj.) Look up vocal at
late 14c., "spoken, oral," from Old French vocal (13c.), from Latin vocalis "sounding, sonorous, speaking," as a noun, "a vowel," from vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). In reference to music (as opposed to instrumental), first recorded 1580s; meaning "outspoken" first attested 1871. Vocal cords is from 1872; see cord.
vocalist (n.) Look up vocalist at
1610s, "speaker" (obsolete); 1817, "singer," as opposed to "instrumental performer;" from vocal + -ist.
vocalization (n.) Look up vocalization at
1842, "action of vocalizing;" 1855, "mode or manner of vocalizing;" from French vocalisation (1835) or else formed in English from vocalize + -ation.
vocalize (v.) Look up vocalize at
1660s, from vocal + -ize. Related: Vocalized; vocalizing.
vocation (n.) Look up vocation at
early 15c., "spiritual calling," from Old French vocacion "call, consecration; calling, profession" (13c.) or directly from Latin vocationem (nominative vocatio), literally "a calling, a being called" from vocatus "called," past participle of vocare "to call" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). Sense of "one's occupation or profession" is first attested 1550s.
vocational (adj.) Look up vocational at
1650s, from vocation + -al (1). Related: Vocationally.
vocative (adj.) Look up vocative at
early 15c., "showing the person or thing spoken to," from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocativus (casus) "(case of) calling," from vocatus, past participle of vocare "to call" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). The Latin is a translation of Greek kletike ptosis, from kletikos "related to calling," from kletos "called." As a noun from 1520s.
vociferate (v.) Look up vociferate at
1590s, a back-formation from vociferation and in part from Latin vociferatus, past participle of vociferari "to cry out, shout, exclaim," from voci-, stem of vox "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak") + ferre "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children." Related: Vociferated; vociferating.
vociferation (n.) Look up vociferation at
c. 1400, from Latin vociferationem (nominative vociferatio), "a loud calling, clamor, outcry," noun of action from past participle stem of vociferari (see vociferous).
vociferous (adj.) Look up vociferous at
1610s, from Latin vociferari "to shout, yell, cry out," from vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak") + stem of ferre "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children." Related: Vociferously; vociferousness.
vodka (n.) Look up vodka at
1802, from Russian vodka, literally "little water," diminutive of voda "water" (from PIE *woda-, suffixed form of root *wed- (1) "water; wet") + diminutive suffix -ka.
vogue (n.) Look up vogue at
1570s, the vogue, "height of popularity or accepted fashion," from Middle French vogue "fashion, success;" also "drift, swaying motion (of a boat)" literally "a rowing," from Old French voguer "to row, sway, set sail" (15c.), probably from a Germanic source. Compare Old High German wagon "to float, fluctuate," literally "to balance oneself;" German Woge "wave, billow," wogen "fluctuate, float," from PIE root *wegh- "to go, move."

Perhaps the notion is of being "borne along on the waves of fashion." Italian voga "a rowing," Spanish boga "rowing," but colloquially "fashion, reputation" also probably are from the same Germanic source. Phrase in vogue "having a prominent place in popular fashion" first recorded 1643. The fashion magazine began publication in 1892.
voice (v.) Look up voice at
mid-15c., "to be commonly said," from voice (n.). From c. 1600 as "to express, give utterance to" (a feeling, opinion, etc.); from 1867 as "utter (a letter-sound) with the vocal cords." Related: Voiced; voicing.
voice (n.) Look up voice at
late 13c., "sound made by the human mouth," from Old French voiz "voice, speech; word, saying, rumor, report" (Modern French voix), from Latin vocem (nominative vox) "voice, sound, utterance, cry, call, speech, sentence, language, word" (source also of Italian voce, Spanish voz), related to vocare "to call," from PIE root *wekw- "to speak."

Replaced Old English stefn. Meaning "ability in a singer" is first attested c. 1600. Meaning "expression of feeling, etc." (in reference to groups of people, etc., such as Voice of America) is recorded from late 14c. Meaning "invisible spirit or force that directs or suggests" (especially in the context of insanity, as in hear voices in (one's) head) is from 1911.
voiceless (adj.) Look up voiceless at
1530s, "unable to speak," from voice (n.) + -less. Meaning "having no say in affairs" is from 1630s; that of "unspoken, unuttered" is from 1816. In phonology, "unvoiced," from 1867. Related: Voicelessly; voicelessness.
voicemail (n.) Look up voicemail at
also (and originally) voice mail, by 1982; see voice (n.), mail (n.1).
void (n.) Look up void at
1610s, "unfilled space, gap," from void (adj.). Meaning "absolute empty space, vacuum" is from 1727.