unfortunate (adj.)
mid-15c., "unlucky," from un- (1) "not" + fortunate (adj.). Infortunate in same sense is from late 14c. (along with a verb infortune "to render unhappy"). In late 18c.-early 19c., unfortunate woman was a polite way to say "prostitute." The noun meaning "one who is not fortunate" is recorded from 1630s.
unfortunately (adv.)
1540s, "in an unfortunate manner, by ill-fortune," from unfortunate + -ly (2). The original meaning is now rare; the main modern sense of "sad to say, unhappily, unluckily," in parenthetical use, is recorded from 1770s.
unfortune (n.)
"misfortune, bad luck," early 15c., from un- (1) "not" + fortune (n.).
unfounded (adj.)
1640s, "having no foundation or basis," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of found (v.1).
unfree (adj.)
c.1300, from un- (1) "not" + free (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onvri, Old High German unfri, German unfrei, Middle Danish ufri.
unfrequented (adj.)
1580s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of frequent (v.).
unfriend (v.)
in the Facebook sense, attested from November 2007, from un- (1) "not" + friend (v.). Unfriended is at least as old as Shakespeare in the sense "friendless." A noun unfriend "enemy" is recorded from late 13c., chiefly in Scottish, and was still in use in the 19th century.
unfriendly (adj.)
early 15c., "not characteristic of friends, hostile, inimical," from un- (1) "not" + friendly. Similar formation in Middle Dutch onvriendelijc, Middle High German unvriuntlich, German unfreundlich. Old English had unferondlice "unkindly." Related: Unfriendliness.
unfruitful (adj.)
late 14c., "barren," from un- (1) "not" + fruitful. Originally literal; figurative sense is attested from c.1400. Related: Unfruitfully; unfruitfulness.
unfulfilled (adj.)
late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of fulfill (v.).
unfunded (adj.)
1776, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of fund (v.).
unfunny (adj.)
1858, from un- (1) "not" + funny (adj.).
unfurl (v.)
1640s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + furl (v.). Related: unfurled, unfurling.
unfurnished (adj.)
1540s, "not equipped, unprepared," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of furnish (v.). In reference to houses, apartments, etc., "not provided with furniture," it is recorded from 1580s.
ungainly (adj.)
1610s, "unfit, improper," from Middle English ungeinliche, from ungein (late 14c.) "inconvenient, disagreeable, troublesome," from un- (1) "not" + gein "kind, helpful; reliable; beneficial; suitable, appropriate; convenient," from Old Norse gegn "straight, direct, helpful," from Proto-Germanic *gagina "against" (see again). Old English had ungænge "useless, vain."
ungentlemanly (adj.)
1560s, from un- (1) "not" + gentlemanly.
ungird (v.)
Old English ongyrde, from un- (2) "opposite of" + gird (v.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ontgorden, Old High German ingurten, German entgürten. Related: Ungirded; ungirding.
unglue (v.)
1540s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + glue (v.). Related: Unglued; ungluing. Unglued in figurative sense is recorded from 1922.
ungodly (adj.)
late 14c., "irreligious, not god-fearing, not in accordance with the laws of God," from un- (1) "not" + godly (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch ongodelijc, German ungöttlich, Middle Swedish ogudhlik. Colloquial sense of "extremely annoying" is recorded from 1887.
ungovernable (adj.)
1670s, from un- (1) "not" + governable.
ungoverned (adj.)
from un- (1) "not" + past participle of govern (v.).
ungraceful (adj.)
1660s, from un- (1) "not" + graceful. Related: ungracefully.
ungracious (adj.)
c.1200, "ungrateful;" early 14c., "lacking God's grace;" early 15c., "rude, unmannerly," from un- (1) "not" + gracious (adj.). Related: Ungraciously.
ungrammatical (adj.)
1650s, from un- (1) "not" + grammatical. Related: Ungrammatically.
ungrateful (adj.)
1550s, from un- (1) "not" + grateful. Related: Ungratefully.
ungual (adj.)
"pertaining to a nail or claw," 1834, from Latin unguis "a claw, nail of the finger or toe;" cognate with Greek onyx, Old English nægel, Old Norse nagl "nail;" see nail (n.).
unguarded (adj.)
1590s, "not furnished with a guard," from un- (1) "not" + guarded. Sense of "not on one's guard, not taking heed" is attested from 1630s.
unguent (n.)
"ointment," early 15c., from Latin unguentem "ointment," from stem of unguere "to anoint or smear with ointment," from PIE root *ongw- "to salve, anoint" (cognates: Sanskrit anakti "anoints, smears," Armenian aucanem "I anoint," Old Prussian anctan "butter," Old High German ancho, German anke "butter," Old Irish imb, Welsh ymenyn "butter").
unguided (adj.)
1580s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of guide (v.).
ungulate (adj.)
"hoofed," 1802, from Late Latin ungulatus "hoofed," from ungula "hoof, claw, talon," diminutive (in form but not sense) of unguis "nail" (see ungual). Ungulata, the order of hoofed mammals, is recorded from 1839.
unh-unh
sound expressing negation or denial, attested from 1951.
unhallowed (adj.)
"not consecrated," Old English unhalgod, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hallow (v.).
unhampered (adj.)
1690s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hamper (v.).
unhand (v.)
c.1600, "to release from one's grasp," from un- (2) "opposite of" + hand (v.).
unhappily (adv.)
late 14c., "unfortunately, unluckily;" early 15c., "wretchedly, without happiness," from un- (i) "not" + happily, or from unhappy + -ly (2.). Similar formation in Old Norse unheppiliga.
unhappiness (n.)
late 15c., "misfortune," from unhappy + -ness. Meaning "mental misery" is from 1722.
unhappy (adj.)
c.1300, "causing misfortune or trouble (to oneself or others)," from un- (1) "not" + happy. Meaning "unfortunate, unlucky" is recorded from late 14c.; sense of "miserable, wretched" is recorded from late 14c. (originally via misfortune or mishap).
unharmed (adj.)
mid-14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of harm (v.).
unharness (v.)
mid-15c., "divest of armor," from un- (2) "opposite of" + harness (v.). Similar formation in Dutch ontharnassen "to disarm." Meaning "to free (a horse) from harness" is recorded from 1610s. Related: Unharnessed; unharnessing.
unhealthy (adj.)
1590s, "injurious to health," from un- (1) "not" + healthy (adj.). Earlier unhealthsome (1540s), unhealthful (1570s). Of persons, "sickly," it is attested from 1610s. Related: Unhealthily.
unheard (adj.)
c.1300 "not detected by sense of hearing," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hear. Meaning "unknown, new" is attested from late 14c. (Old English had ungehered in this sense). Usually with of since 1590s. Similar formation in Old Norse oheyrðr, Danish uhørt, Middle Dutch ongehoort, Old High German ungehoret.
unheeded (adj.)
1610s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of heed (v.).
unhelpful (adj.)
1590s, from un- (1) "not" + helpful. Related: Unhelpfully; unhelpfulness.
unheralded (adj.)
1845, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of herald (v.).
unhindered (adj.)
1610s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of hinder (v.).
unhinge (v.)
recorded earlier in the mental sense of "to disorder" the mind, etc. (1612) than in the literal one of "to take (a door, etc.) off its hinges" (1616); from un- (2) "opposite of" + hinge (n.). Hinge as a verb meaning "to attach by a hinge" is recorded only from 1758. Related: Unhinged; unhinging.
unhinged (adj.)
"thrown into confusion," 1719, past participle adjective from unhinge.
unhistorical (adj.)
1610s, "not in accordance with history, not being a part of recorded history," from un- (1) "not" + historical. Unhistoric in this sense is from 1801. Related: Unhistorically.
unhitch (v.)
1620s, from un- (2) "opposite of" + hitch (v.). Related: Unhitched; unhitching.
unholy (adj.)
Old English unhalig, "impious, profane, wicked," from un- (1) "not" + halig (see holy). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onheilich, Old Norse uheilagr, Danish unhellig, Swedish ohelig. In reference to actions, it is attested from late 14c. Colloquial sense of "awful, dreadful" is recorded from 1842.