ultramarine (n.)
1590s, "blue pigment made from lapis lazuli," from Medieval Latin ultramarinus, literally "beyond the sea," from ultra- "beyond" + marinus "of the sea" (see marine (adj.)). Said to be so called because the mineral was imported from Asia.
ultramontane (adj.)
1590s, from Middle French ultramontain "beyond the mountains" (especially the Alps), from Old French (early 14c.), from Latin ultra "beyond" (see ultra-) + stem of mons (see mount (n.)). Used especially of papal authority, though "connotation varies according to the position of the speaker or writer." [Weekley]
ultranationalism (n.)
also ultra-nationalism, 1845, from ultra- + nationalism. Related: Ultranationalist
ultrasonic (adj.)
"having frequency beyond the audible range," 1923, from ultra- + sonic. For sense, see supersonic.
ultrasonography (n.)
1960, from ultra- + sonography (see sonogram).
ultrasound (adj.)
1911, from ultra- + sound (n.1). Compare ultrasonic. In reference to ultrasonic techniques of detection or diagnosis it is recorded from 1958.
ultraviolet (adj.)
"beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum," 1840, from ultra- + violet. Ultra-red (1870) was a former name for what now is called infra-red.
ululate (v.)
1620s, back-formation from ululation, or else from Latin ululatus, past participle of ululare. Related: Ululated; ululating.
ululation (n.)
1590s, from Latin ululationem (nominative ululatio) "a howling or wailing," noun of action from past participle stem of ululare "to howl, yell, shriek, wail, lament loudly," from a reduplicated imitative root (cognates: Greek ololyzein "to cry aloud," Sanskrit ululih "a howling," Lithuanian uluti "howl," Gaelic uileliugh "wail of lamentation," Old English ule "owl").
Ulysses
Latin name for Odysseus, from Latin Ulysses, Ulixes. Famous for wandering as well as craftiness and ability at deceit. For -d- to -l- alteration, see lachrymose.
um
a sound denoting hesitation, 1670s.
Umayyad
member of a Muslim dynasty which ruled the Caliphate 661-750 C.E. and in 756 C.E. founded an emirate in Spain, 1758, from Arabic, from Umayya, proper name of an ancestor of Muhammad from whom the dynasty claimed descent.
umbel (n.)
1590s in botany, from Latin umbella "parasol, sunshade," diminutive of umbra (see umbrage).
umber (n.)
brown earthy pigment, 1560s, from Middle French ombre (in terre d'ombre), or Italian ombra (in terra di ombra), both from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage) or else from Umbra, fem. of Umber "belonging to Umbria," region in central Italy from which the coloring matter first came (compare Sienna). Burnt umber, specially prepared and redder in color, is attested from c.1650, distinguished from raw umber.
umbilical (adj.)
"pertaining to the navel," 1540s, from Medieval Latin umbilicalis "of the navel," from Latin umbilicus "navel" (see umbilicus). Umbilical cord attested by 1753 (the native term is navel string).
umbilicus (n.)
"navel," 1610s, from Latin umbilicus "the navel," also "the center" of anything, from PIE *ombh-alo-, suffixed variant form of root *(o)nobh- "navel" (see navel). In English, mostly confined to medical writing. Latin umbilicus is source of Spanish ombligo as well as Old French lombril, literally "the navel," from l'ombril, which by dissimilation became Modern French nombril (12c.).
umbles (n.)
"edible inner parts of a deer or other animal," c.1400, see humble.
umbo (n.)
"boss of a shield," 1921, from Latin umbo "shield-boss, knob, projection."
umbra (n.)
1590s, "phantom, ghost," a figurative use from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage). Astronomical sense of "shadow cast by the earth or moon during an eclipse" is first recorded 1670s. Meaning "an uninvited guest accompanying an invited one" is from 1690s in English, from a secondary sense among the Romans. Related: Umbral.
umbrage (n.)
early 15c., "shadow, shade," from Middle French ombrage "shade, shadow," from noun use of Latin umbraticum "of or pertaining to shade; being in retirement," neuter of umbraticus "of or pertaining to shade," from umbra "shade, shadow," from PIE root *andho- "blind, dark" (cognates: Sanskrit andha-, Avestan anda- "blind, dark"). Many figurative uses in 17c.; main remaining one is the meaning "suspicion that one has been slighted," first recorded 1610s; hence phrase to take umbrage at, attested from 1670s.
umbrageous (adj.)
"shady," 1580s, from French ombrageux, from Old French umbrageus, from umbre "shade," from Latin umbra (see umbrage).
umbrella (n.)
"hand-held portable canopy which opens and folds," c.1600, first attested in Donne's letters, from Italian ombrello, from Late Latin umbrella, altered (by influence of umbra) from Latin umbella "sunshade, parasol," diminutive of umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage).

A sunshade in the Mediterranean, a shelter from the rain in England; in late 17c. usage, usually as an Oriental or African symbol of dignity. Said to have been used by women in England from c.1700; the use of rain-umbrellas carried by men there traditionally is dated to c.1750, first by Jonas Hathaway, noted traveler and philanthropist. Figurative sense of "authority, unifying quality" (usually in a phrase such as under the umbrella of) is recorded from 1948.
Umbrian
c.1600, noun and adjective, in reference to Umbria, ancient region of central Italy, or its people or the Italic language they spoke.
umiak (n.)
large Eskimo boat, c.1743, from Eskimo umiaq "an open skin boat." Said by 18c.-19c. sources to be a "woman's boat," as opposed to the kayak, which was worked exclusively by men.
umlaut (n.)
1852, from German umlaut "change of sound," from um "about" (see ambi-) + laut "sound," from Old High German hlut (see listen). Coined 1774 by poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (1724-1803) but first used in its current sense "modification of vowels" 1819 by linguist Jakob Grimm (1785-1863).
umma (n.)
"the Islamic community," founded by Muhammad and bound to one another by religious ties and obligations, 1855, from Arabic 'umma "people, community, nation."
ump (n.)
short for umpire (n.), by 1915, American English.
umpire (n.)
mid-14c., noumper, from Old French nonper "odd number, not even," in reference to a third person to arbitrate between two, from non "not" (see non-) + per "equal," from Latin par (see par). Initial -n- lost by mid-15c. due to faulty separation of a noumpere, heard as an oumpere. Originally legal, the gaming sense first recorded 1714 (in wrestling).
umpire (v.)
1610s, from umpire (n.). Related: Umpired; umpiring.
umpteen (adj.)
1917, World War I army slang, from umpty + -teen. Related: Umpteenth.
umpty
1905, "of an indefinite number," originally Morse code slang for "dash," influenced by association with numerals such as twenty, thirty, etc.
un- (1)
prefix of negation, Old English un-, from Proto-Germanic *un- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German, German un-, Gothic un-, Dutch on-), from PIE *n- (source of Sanskrit a-, an- "not," Greek a-, an-, Old Irish an-, Latin in-), comb. form of PIE root *ne "not" (cognates: Avestan na, Old Church Slavonic and Lithuanian ne "not," Latin ne "that not," Greek ne- "not," Old Irish ni, Cornish ny "not"). Often euphemistic (such as untruth for "lie").

The most prolific of English prefixes, freely and widely used in Old English, where it forms more than 1,000 compounds. It underwent a mass extinction in early Middle English, but emerged with renewed vigor 16c. to form compounds with native and imported words. It disputes with Latin-derived cognate in- (1) the right to form the negation of certain words (indigestable/undigestable, etc.), and though both might be deployed in cooperation to indicate shades of meaning (unfamous/infamous), typically they are not.

It also makes words from phrases (such as uncalled-for, c.1600; undreamed-of, 1630s; uncome-at-able, 1690s; unputdownable, 1947, of a book; un-in-one-breath-utterable, Ben Jonson; etc., but the habit is not restricted to un-; such as put-up-able-with, 1812). As a prefix in telegramese to replace not and save the cost of a word, it is attested by 1936.
un- (2)
prefix of reversal, deprivation, or removal (as in unhand, undo, unbutton), Old English on-, un-, from Proto-Germanic *andi- (cognates: Old Saxon ant-, Old Norse and-, Dutch ont-, Old High German ant-, German ant-, Gothic and- "against"), from PIE *anti "facing opposite, near, in front of, before, against" (see ante).

More or less confused with un- (1) through similarity in the notions of "negation" and "reversal;" an adjective such as unlocked might represent "not locked" (un- (1)) or the past tense of unlock (un- (2)).
un-American (adj.)
"not characteristic of American principles or methods, foreign to U.S. customs," 1818, from un- (1) "not" + American (adj.).
Everything is un-American that tends either to government by a plutocracy or government by a mob. [Theodore Roosevelt, 1917]
un-British (adj.)
1746, from un- (1) "not" + British.
un-English (adj.)
"lacking in qualities regarded as typically English," 1630s, from un- (1) "not" + English (adj.).
unabashed (adj.)
1570s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of abash (v.). Related: Unabashedly.
unabated (adj.)
1610s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of abate (v.).
unable (adj.)
late 14c., "lacking in ability, incapable," from un- (1) "not" + able (adj.). Modeled on Old French inhabile or Latin inhabilis.
unabridged (adj.)
1590s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of abridge (v.). Since 19c. chiefly in reference to literary works.
unaccented (adj.)
1590s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of accent (v.).
unacceptable (adj.)
late 15c., from un- (1) "not" + acceptable. Related: Unacceptably.
unaccompanied (adj.)
1540s, "not in the company of others, having no companions," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of accompany (v.). Musical sense "without instrumental accompaniment" is first recorded 1818.
unaccomplished (adj.)
1520s, "not finished," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of accomplish (v.). Meaning "not furnished with social or intellectual accomplishments" is from 1729 (see accomplished).
unaccountable (adj.)
1640s, "inexplicable," from un- (1) "not" + accountable. Meaning "not liable to be called to account" is recorded from 1640s. Related: Unaccountably; unaccountability; unaccountableness.
unaccredited (adj.)
1828, from un- (1) "not" + accredited.
unaccustomed (adj.)
1520s, "not customary, unfamiliar," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of accustom (v.). Meaning "not accustomed or habituated" (to) is first attested 1610s (see accustomed).
unacknowledged (adj.)
1580s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of acknowledge (v.).
unacquainted (adj.)
1520s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of acquaint (v.).
unadorned (adj.)
1630s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of adorn (v.).