traumatise (v.) Look up traumatise at
chiefly British English spelling of traumatize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Traumatised; traumatising.
traumatize (v.) Look up traumatize at
1893, in reference to physical wounds; 1949 in the psychological sense, from Greek traumat-, stem of trauma (see trauma).
travail (n.) Look up travail at
"labor, toil," mid-13c., from Old French travail "work, labor, toil, suffering or painful effort, trouble; arduous journey" (12c.), from travailler "to toil, labor," originally "to trouble, torture, torment," from Vulgar Latin *tripaliare "to torture," from *tripalium (in Late Latin trepalium) "instrument of torture," probably from Latin tripalis "having three stakes" (from tria "three;" see three + palus "stake" (from PIE *pakslo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten"), which sounds ominous, but the exact notion is obscure. The verb is recorded from late 13c. in English, from the verb in Old French.
trave (n.) Look up trave at
late 14c., from Old French traf "crossbeam," from Latin trabem (nominative trabs) "beam," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).
travel (v.) Look up travel at
late 14c., "to journey," from travailen (1300) "to make a journey," originally "to toil, labor" (see travail). The semantic development may have been via the notion of "go on a difficult journey," but it also may reflect the difficulty of any journey in the Middle Ages. Replaced Old English faran. Related: Traveled; traveling. Traveled (adj.) "having made journeys, experienced in travel" is from early 15c. Traveling salesman is attested from 1885.
travel (n.) Look up travel at
late 14c., "action of travelling," from travel (v.). Travels "accounts of journeys" is recorded from 1590s. Travel-agent is from 1925.
traveler (n.) Look up traveler at
also traveller, late 14c., agent noun from travel (v.). Traveler's check is from 1891.
travelogue (n.) Look up travelogue at
"a talk on travel," 1903, a hybrid word coined by U.S. traveler Burton Holmes (1870-1958) from travel + Greek-derived -logue, abstracted from monologue.
traverse (v.) Look up traverse at
early 14c., "pass across, over, or through," from Old French traverser "to cross, place across" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *traversare, from Latin transversare "to cross, throw across," from Latin transversus "turn across" (see transverse). As an adjective from early 15c. Related: Traversed; traversing.
traverse (n.) Look up traverse at
"act of passing through a gate, crossing a bridge, etc.," mid-14c., from Old French travers, from traverser (see traverse (v.)). Meaning "a passage by which one may traverse" is recorded from 1670s. Military fortification sense of "barrier, barricade" is recorded from 1590s.
travertine (n.) Look up travertine at
1797, from Italian travertino "a kind of building stone," from Latin tiburtinus, from Tiburs, adjective from Tibur (modern Tivoli), in Latium.
travesty (n.) Look up travesty at
1670s, "literary burlesque of a serious work," from adjective meaning "dressed so as to be made ridiculous, parodied, burlesqued" (1660s), from French travesti "dressed in disguise," past participle of travestir "to disguise" (1590s), from Italian travestire "to disguise," from Latin trans "across, beyond; over" (see trans-) + vestire "to clothe" (from PIE *wes- (2) "to clothe," extended form of root *eu- "to dress").
Traviata, La Look up Traviata, La at
title of an opera by Verdi, Italian, literally "the woman led astray," from traviata literally "to lead beyond the way," from tra- "across, beyond" (from Latin trans; see trans-) + via "way" (see via).
Travis Look up Travis at
masc. proper name, also a surname (late 12c.), from an Old French word meaning "to cross over," related to traverse (v.). Probably a name for a gatekeeper or the toll collector of a bridge.
travois (n.) Look up travois at
type of American Indian transport, 1847, said to be ultimately from a Canadian Indian pronunciation of travail.
trawl (v.) Look up trawl at
1560s, from Dutch tragelen, from Middle Dutch traghelen "to drag," from traghel "dragnet," probably from Latin tragula "dragnet." Related: Trawled; trawling.
trawler (n.) Look up trawler at
1590s, agent noun from trawl.
tray (n.) Look up tray at
Old English treg, trig "flat wooden board with a low rim," from Proto-Germanic *traujam (source also of Old Swedish tro, a corn measure), from PIE *drou-, variant of root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. The primary sense may have been "wooden vessel."
treacherous (adj.) Look up treacherous at
early 14c., from Old French trecheros, tricheros "deceitful" (12c.), from trecheor, tricheor "cheat, deceiver, liar, impostor, trickster," agent noun from trechier, trichier "to cheat, trick" (see trick (n.)). Figuratively, of things, from c. 1600. Related: Treacherously; treacherousness. Middle English had treacher "deceiver, cheat, traitor."
treachery (n.) Look up treachery at
"treasonable or perfidious conduct," c. 1200, from Old French trecherie, tricherie "deceit, cheating, trickery, lies" (12c.), from trechier "to cheat, deceive" (see trick (n.)).
treacle (n.) Look up treacle at
mid-14c., "medicinal compound, antidote for poison," from Old French triacle "antidote, cure for snake-bite" (c. 1200), from Vulgar Latin *triacula, from Latin theriaca, from Greek theriake (antidotos) "antidote for poisonous wild animals," from fem. of theriakos "of a wild animal," from therion "wild animal," diminutive of ther (genitive theros) "wild animal," from PIE root *ghwer- "wild beast."

Sense of "molasses" is first recorded 1690s (the connection may be from the use of molasses as a laxative, or its use to disguise the bad taste of medicine); that of "anything too sweet or sentimental" is from 1771. Related: Treacly.
tread (n.) Look up tread at
early 13c., "a step or stepping, pressure with the foot," from tread (v.); in reference to automobile tires, it is recorded from 1906.
tread (v.) Look up tread at
Old English tredan "to tread, step on, trample; traverse, pass over" (class V strong verb; past tense træd, past participle treden), from Proto-Germanic *tred- (source also of Old Saxon tredan, Old Frisian treda, Middle Dutch treden, Old High German tretan, German treten, Gothic trudan, Old Norse troða), from PIE *der- (1) "assumed base of roots meaning 'to run, walk, step'" [Watkins]. Related: Trod; treading.
treadle (n.) Look up treadle at
"lever worked by foot," c. 1400, from Old English tredel "step, stair, sole of the foot," from tredan "to tread" (see tread (v.)) + instrumental suffix -el (1). Compare handle (n.).
treadmill (n.) Look up treadmill at
invented (and named) 1822; originally an instrument of prison discipline; from tread (v.) + mill (n.1). Treadwheel as a similar method of driving machinery is from 1570s.
As a corrective punishment, the discipline of the stepping mill has had a most salutary effect upon the prisoners, and is not likely to be easily forgotten, while it is an occupation which by no means interferes with, nor is calculated to lessen the value of, those branches of prison regulation which provide for the moral and religious improvement of the criminal. ["Description of the Tread Mill Invented by Mr. William Cubitt of Ipswich for the Employment of Prisoners," London, 1822]
By later generations regarded as a path to physical fitness.
treason (n.) Look up treason at
c. 1200, "betraying; betrayal of trust; breach of faith," from Anglo-French treson, from Old French traison "treason, treachery" (11c.; Modern French trahison), from Latin traditionem (nominative traditio) "delivery, surrender, a handing down, a giving up," noun of action from past participle stem of tradere "deliver, hand over," from trans- "over" (see trans-) + dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). A doublet of tradition. The Old French form was influenced by the verb trair "betray."
Vpon Thursday it was treason to cry God saue king James king of England, and vppon Friday hye treason not to cry so. [Thomas Dekker, "The Wonderfull Yeare 1603"]
In old English law, high treason is violation by a subject of his allegiance to his sovereign or to the state; distinguished from petit treason, treason against a subject, such as murder of a master by his servant. Constructive treason was a judicial fiction whereby actions carried out without treasonable intent, but found to have the effect of treason, were punished as though they were treason itself. The protection against this accounts for the careful wording of the definition of treason in the U.S. Constitution.
treasonable (adj.) Look up treasonable at
"of or pertaining to treason," late 14c., from treason + -able. Related: Treasonably.
treasonous (adj.) Look up treasonous at
mid-15c., from treason + -ous. Related: Treasonously.
treasure (v.) Look up treasure at
late 14c., "to amass treasure; to store up for the future," also figurative, "regard as precious, retain carefully in the mind," from treasure (n.). Related: Treasured; treasuring.
treasure (n.) Look up treasure at
mid-12c., tresor, from Old French tresor "treasury, hoard, treasure" (11c., Modern French trésor), from Gallo-Roman *tresaurus, from Latin thesaurus "treasury, treasure" (source also of Spanish, Italian tesoro), from Greek thesauros "store, treasure, treasure house" (see thesaurus). In Middle English also thresur, etc.; modern spelling is from 16c. Replaced Old English goldhord. General sense of "anything valued" is recorded from c. 1200. Treasure hunt is first recorded 1913. For treasure trove, see trove.
treasurer (n.) Look up treasurer at
late 13c., from Old North French, Anglo-French tresorer, Old French tresorier, from tresor (see treasure (n.)). Treasury bill attested from 1797.
treasury (n.) Look up treasury at
c. 1300, "room for treasure," from Old French tresorie "treasury" (11c.), from tresor (see treasure (n.)). Meaning "department of state that controls public revenue" is recorded from late 14c. An Old English word for "room for treasure" was maðm-hus and for "treasury," feo-hus (see fee).
treat (n.) Look up treat at
late 14c., "action of discussing terms," from treat (v.). Sense of "a treating with food and drink, an entertainment given as a compliment or expression of regard" (1650s) was extended by 1770 to "anything that affords much pleasure."
treat (v.) Look up treat at
c. 1300, "negotiate, bargain, deal with," from Old French traitier "deal with, act toward; set forth (in speech or writing)" (12c.), from Latin tractare "manage, handle, deal with, conduct oneself toward," originally "drag about, tug, haul, pull violently," frequentative of trahere (past participle tractus) "to pull, draw" (see tract (n.1)).

Meaning "to entertain with food and drink without expense to the recipient by way of compliment or kindness (or bribery)" is recorded from c. 1500. Sense of "deal with, handle, or develop in speech or writing" (early 14c.) led to the use in medicine "to attempt to heal or cure, to manage in the application of remedies" (1781). Related: Treated; treating.
treatable (adj.) Look up treatable at
c. 1300, "amenable to reason," from Anglo-French tretable, Old French traitable, and in part from treat (v.) + -able. Of wounds, diseases, etc., "receptive to treatment," early 15c.
treatise (n.) Look up treatise at
early 14c., from Anglo-French tretiz (mid-13c.), contracted from Old French traitis "treatise, account," from traitier "deal with; set forth in speech or writing" (see treat (v.)).
treatment (n.) Look up treatment at
1560s, "conduct or behavior toward someone or something," from treat (v.) + -ment. In the medical sense, it is first recorded 1744.
treaty (n.) Look up treaty at
late 14c., "treatment, discussion," from Anglo-French treté, Old French traitié "assembly, agreement, dealings," from Latin tractatus "discussion, handling, management," from tractare "to handle, manage" (see treat (v.)). Sense of "contract or league between nations or sovereigns" is first recorded early 15c.
treble (v.) Look up treble at
"to multiply by three," early 14c., from Old French trebler, from treble "triple" (see treble (adj.)). Related: Trebled; trebling.
treble (n.) Look up treble at
"highest part in music, soprano," mid-14c., from Anglo-French treble, Old French treble "a third part," noun use of adjective (see treble (adj.)). In early contrapuntal music, the chief melody was in the tenor, and the treble was the "third" part above it (after the alto).
treble (adj.) Look up treble at
"three times, triple," c. 1300, from Old French treble (12c.), from Latin triplus "threefold" (see triple). Related: Trebly.
trebuchet (n.) Look up trebuchet at
"medieval stone-throwing engine of war," c. 1300 (in Anglo-Latin from early 13c.), from Old French trebuchet (12c.) "stone-throwing siege engine," from trabuchier "to overturn, fall to the ground, overthrow" (11c.), from tra- (from Latin trans-, here expressing "displacement") + Old French buc "trunk, bulk," from Frankish *buk- "trunk of the body," from Proto-Germanic *bheu-, variant of *beu-, used in forming words loosely associated with swelling (such as German bauch "belly;" see bull (n.2)).
tree (v.) Look up tree at
"to chase up a tree," 1700, from tree (n.). Meaning "take a tree-like form" is from 1884. Related: Treed; treeing.
tree (n.) Look up tree at
Old English treo, treow "tree" (also "timber, wood, beam, log, stake"), from Proto-Germanic *trewam (source also of Old Frisian tre, Old Saxon trio, Old Norse tre, Gothic triu "tree"), from PIE *drew-o-, suffixed variant form of root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.
The line which divides trees from shrubs is largely arbitrary, and dependent upon habit rather than size, the tree having a single trunk usually unbranched for some distance above the ground, while a shrub has usually several stems from the same root and each without a proper trunk. [Century Dictionary]
The widespread use of words originally meaning "oak" in the sense "tree" probably reflects the importance of the oak to ancient Indo-Europeans. In Old English and Middle English also "thing made of wood," especially the cross of the Crucifixion and a gallows (such as Tyburn tree, famous gallows outside London). Middle English also had plural treen, adjective treen (Old English treowen "of a tree, wooden"). For Dutch boom, German Baum, the usual words for "tree," see beam (n.). Meaning "framework of a saddle" is from 1530s. Meaning "representation of familial relationships in the form of a tree" is from c. 1300. Tree-hugger, contemptuous for "environmentalist" is attested by 1989.
Minc'd Pyes do not grow upon every tree,
But search the Ovens for them, and there they be.
["Poor Robin," Almanack, 1669]
tree-frog (n.) Look up tree-frog at
1738, from tree (n.) + frog (n.1).
tree-house (n.) Look up tree-house at
1867, from tree (n.) + house (n.).
tree-top (n.) Look up tree-top at
1520s, from tree (n.) + top (n.).
treeless (adj.) Look up treeless at
1742, from tree (n.) + -less.
tref (n.) Look up tref at
Welsh, literally "hamlet, home, town," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).
trefoil (n.) Look up trefoil at
late 14c., type of clover, from Anglo-French trifoil (13c.), Old French trefueil "clover, clover-leaf," from Latin trifolium "three-leaved plant," from tri- "three" (see tri-) + folium "leaf" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom"). As a type of ornamental figure in medieval architecture, early 15c.