telluric (adj.) Look up telluric at
1800, "containing tellurium;" 1836, "pertaining to Earth as a planet;" 1842, "pertaining to or proceeding from the earth;" the last two senses from Latin tellus, tellum (genitive telluris) "earth, the earth" (see tellurian) + -ic.
telluride (n.) Look up telluride at
1849, "compound of tellurium," from tellurium + -ide.
tellurium (n.) Look up tellurium at
metallic element, 1800, coined 1798 in Modern Latin by German chemist and mineralogist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) from Latin tellus (genitive telluris) "earth" (see tellurian). With metallic element ending -ium.
telly (n.) Look up telly at
chiefly British English shortening of television, attested by 1942.
telophase (n.) Look up telophase at
1895 in cytology, from Greek telo-, comb. form of telos "the end, fulfillment, completion" (see tele-) + phase (n.).
telos (n.) Look up telos at
"ultimate object or aim," 1904, from Greek telos "the end, fulfillment, completion" (see tele-).
telson (n.) Look up telson at
last section of the abdomen of a crustacean, 1855, from Greek telson "a limit, boundary" (see tele-).
Telugu (n.) Look up Telugu at
Dravidian language of southern India, 1731.
temblor (n.) Look up temblor at
"earthquake," 1876, from American Spanish temblor "earthquake," from Spanish temblor, literally "a trembling," from temblar "to tremble," from Vulgar Latin *tremulare (see tremble (v.)).
temerarious (adj.) Look up temerarious at
"rash, reckless," 1530s, from Latin temerarius "rash, heedless, thoughtless, indiscreet," from temere "blindly, rashly, by chance" (see temerity). Related: Temerariously; temerariousness.
temerity (n.) Look up temerity at
late 14c., from Latin temeritatem (nominative temeritas) "blind chance, accident; rashness, indiscretion, foolhardiness," from temere "by chance, at random; indiscreetly, rashly," related to tenebrae "darkness," from PIE root *teme- "dark" (cognates: Sanskrit tamas- "darkness," tamsrah "dark;" Avestan temah "darkness;" Lithuanian tamsa "darkness," tamsus "dark;" Old Church Slavonic tima "darkness;" Old High German dinstar "dark;" Old Irish temel "darkness"). The connecting notion is "blindly, without foreseeing."
temp (adj.) Look up temp at
1909, American English, shortened form of temporary (job, employee, etc.). As a noun by 1932; as a verb by 1973. Related: Temped; temping.
temp (n.) Look up temp at
1886, short for temperature.
temper (v.) Look up temper at
late Old English temprian "to moderate, bring to a proper or suitable state, to modify some excessive quality, to restrain within due limits," from Latin temperare "observe proper measure, be moderate, restrain oneself," also transitive, "mix correctly, mix in due proportion; regulate, rule, govern, manage," usually described as from tempus "time, season" (see temporal), with a sense of "proper time or season." Meaning "to make (steel) hard and elastic" is from late 14c. Sense of "to tune the pitch of a musical instrument" is recorded from c. 1300. Related: Tempered; tempering.
temper (n.) Look up temper at
late 14c., "due proportion of elements or qualities," from temper (v.). The sense of "characteristic state of mind, inclination, disposition" is first recorded 1590s; that of "calm state of mind, tranquility" in c. 1600; and that of "angry state of mind" (for bad temper) in 1828. Meaning "degree of hardness and resiliency in steel" is from late 15c.
tempera (n.) Look up tempera at
also tempra, 1832, from Italian tempera (in phrase pingere a tempera), back-formation from temperare "to mix colors, temper," from Latin temperare "to mix in due proportion" (see temper (v.)).
temperament (n.) Look up temperament at
late 14c., "proportioned mixture of elements," from Latin temperamentum "proper mixture, a mixing in due proportion," from temperare "to mix" (see temper (v.)). In medieval theory, it meant a combination of qualities (hot, cold, moist, dry) that determined the nature of an organism; thus also "a combination of the four humors (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and melancholic) that made up a person's characteristic disposition." General sense of "habit of mind, natural disposition" is from 1821.
temperamental (adj.) Look up temperamental at
"of or pertaining to temperament," 1640s, from temperament + -al (1); in the sense of "moody" it is recorded from 1907. Related: Temperamentally.
temperance (n.) Look up temperance at
mid-14c., "self-restraint, moderation," from Anglo-French temperaunce (mid-13c.), from Latin temperantia "moderation, sobriety, discretion, self-control," from temperans, present participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)). Latin temperantia was used by Cicero to translate Greek sophrosyne "moderation." In English, temperance was used to render Latin continentia or abstinentia, specifically in reference to drinking alcohol and eating; hence by early 1800s it had come to mean "abstinence from alcoholic drink."
temperate (adj.) Look up temperate at
late 14c., of persons, "modest, forbearing, self-restrained, not swayed by passion;" of climates or seasons, "not liable to excessive heat or cold," from Latin temperatus "restrained, regulated, limited, moderate, sober, calm, steady," from past participle of temperare "to moderate, regulate" (see temper (v.)). Related: Temperately; temperateness. Temperate zone is attested from 1550s.
temperature (n.) Look up temperature at
mid-15c., "fact of being tempered, proper proportion;" 1530s, "character or nature of a substance," from Latin temperatura "a tempering, moderation," from temperatus, past participle of temperare "to be moderate; to mingle in due proportion" (see temper (v.)). Sense of "degree of heat or cold" first recorded 1670 (Boyle), from Latin temperatura, used in this sense by Galileo. Meaning "fever, high temperature" is attested from 1898.
tempered (adj.) Look up tempered at
1650s, "brought to desired hardness" (of metals, especially steel), past participle adjective from temper (v.). Meaning "toned down by admixture" is from 1650s; of music or musical instruments, "tuned," from 1727.
tempest (n.) Look up tempest at
"violent storm," late 13c., from Old French tempeste "storm; commotion, battle; epidemic, plague" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *tempesta, from Latin tempestas "a storm; weather, season, time, point in time, season, period," also "commotion, disturbance," related to tempus "time, season" (see temporal).

Sense evolution is from "period of time" to "period of weather," to "bad weather" to "storm." Words for "weather" originally were words for "time" in languages from Russia to Brittany. Figurative sense of "violent commotion" in English is recorded from early 14c. Tempest in a teapot attested from 1818; the image in other forms is older, such as storm in a creambowl (1670s).
tempestuous (adj.) Look up tempestuous at
late 14c., from Late Latin tempestuosus "stormy, turbulent," from Latin tempestas "storm, commotion, time" (see tempest). The figurative sense is older in English; literal sense is from c. 1500. Related: Tempestuously; tempestuousness.
Templar (n.) Look up Templar at
late 13c., from Anglo-French templer, Old French templier (c. 1200), from Medieval Latin templaris (mid-12c.), member of the medieval religious/military order known as Knights Templars (c.1118-1312), so called because they had headquarters in a building near Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem (see temple (n.1)). Their distinguishing garb was a white mantle with a red cross.
template (n.) Look up template at
1670s, templet "horizontal piece under a girder or beam," probably from French templet "weaver's stretcher," diminutive of temple, which meant the same thing, from Latin templum "plank, rafter," also "consecrated place" (see temple (n.1)).

The meaning "pattern or gauge for shaping a piece of work" is first recorded 1819 in this form, earlier temple (1680s); the form was altered mid-19c., probably influenced by plate [Barnhart], but the pronunciation did not begin to shift until more recently (templet is still the primary entry for the word in Century Dictionary).
temple (n.1) Look up temple at
"building for worship, edifice dedicated to the service of a deity or deities," Old English tempel, from Latin templum "piece of ground consecrated for the taking of auspices, building for worship of a god," of uncertain signification. Commonly referred to PIE root *tem- "to cut" (see tome), on notion of "place reserved or cut out" [Watkins], or to root *temp- "to stretch" [Klein's sources], on notion of "cleared space in front of an altar" (see tenet). Compare Greek temenos "sacred area around a temple," literally "place cut off," from stem of temnein "to cut." Figurative sense of "any place regarded as occupied by divine presence" was in Old English. Applied to Jewish synagogues from 1590s.
temple (n.2) Look up temple at
"side of the forehead," mid-14c., from Old French temple "side of the forehead" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *tempula (plural taken as fem. singular), from Latin tempora, plural of tempus (genitive temporis) "side of the forehead," perhaps originally "the thin stretch of skin at the side of the forehead," from PIE *temp- "to stretch," an extension of the root *ten- "to stretch" (see tenet), from the notion of "stretched," thus "thin," which is the notion in cognate Old English ðunwange, literally "thin cheek." Or possibly associated with tempus span "timely space" (for a mortal blow with a sword).
tempo (n.) Look up tempo at
"relative speed of a piece of music," 1724, from Italian tempo, literally "time" (plural tempi), from Latin tempus "time, season, portion of time" (see temporal). Extended (non-musical) senses by 1898.
temporal (adj.) Look up temporal at
late 14c., "worldly, secular;" also "terrestrial, earthly; temporary, lasting only for a time," from Old French temporal "earthly," and directly from Latin temporalis "of a time, but for a time, temporary," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season, proper time or season," of unknown origin. Related: Temporally.
temporality (n.) Look up temporality at
late 14c., "temporal power," from Late Latin temporalitas, from temporalis "of a time, but for a time" (see temporal).
temporary (adj.) Look up temporary at
"lasting only for a time," 1540s, from Latin temporarius "of seasonal character, lasting a short time," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season" (see temporal, late 14c., which was the earlier word for "lasting but for a time"). The noun meaning "person employed only for a time" is recorded from 1848. Related: Temporarily; temporariness.
temporize (v.) Look up temporize at
"to comply with the times; to yield ostensibly to the current of opinion or circumstances," 1550s (implied in temporizer), from Middle French temporiser "to pass one's time, wait one's time" (14c.), from Medieval Latin temporizare "pass time," perhaps via Vulgar Latin *temporare "to delay," from Latin tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Related: Temporized; temporizing.
tempt (v.) Look up tempt at
c. 1200, of the devil, flesh, etc., "draw or entice to evil or sin, lure (someone) from God's law; be alluring or seductive," from Old French tempter (12c.), from Latin temptare "to feel, try out, attempt to influence, test," a variant of tentare "handle, touch, try, test." The Latin alteration is "explainable only as an ancient error due to some confusion" [Century Dictionary]. From late 14c. as "to provoke, defy" (God, fate, etc.). Related: Tempted; tempting.
temptation (n.) Look up temptation at
c. 1200, "act of enticing someone to sin," also "an experience or state of being tempted," from Old French temptacion (12c., Modern French tentation), from Latin temptationem (nominative temptatio), noun of action from past participle stem of temptare "to feel, try out" (see tempt). Meaning "that which tempts a person (to sin)" is from c. 1500.
tempter (n.) Look up tempter at
mid-14c., "one who solicits to sin; that which entices to evil" (originally especially the devil), from Middle French tempteur (14c.), Old French *tempteor, from Latin temptatorem, agent noun from temptare "to feel, try out" (see tempt).
tempting (adj.) Look up tempting at
"inviting, seductive, alluring," 1590s, present participle adjective from tempt (v.). Related: Temptingly.
temptress (n.) Look up temptress at
1590s, from tempter + -ess.
tempura (n.) Look up tempura at
1920, from Japanese, probably from Portuguese tempero "seasoning."
ten (n., adj.) Look up ten at
Old English ten (Mercian), tien (West Saxon), adjective and noun, from Proto-Germanic *tehun (cognates: Old Saxon tehan, Old Norse tiu, Danish ti, Old Frisian tian, Old Dutch ten, Dutch tien, Old High German zehan, German zehn, Gothic taihun "ten").

The Germanic words are from PIE *dekm "ten" (cognates: Sanskrit dasa, Avestan dasa, Armenian tasn, Greek deka, Latin decem (source of Spanish diez, French dix), Old Church Slavonic deseti, Lithuanian desimt, Old Irish deich, Breton dek, Welsh deg, Albanian djetu "ten").

Meaning "ten o'clock" is from 1712. Tenner "ten-pound note" is slang first recorded 1861; as "ten-dollar bill," 1887 (ten-spot in this sense dates from 1848). The Texan's exaggerated ten-gallon hat is from 1919. The ten-foot pole that you wouldn't touch something with (1909) was originally a 40-foot pole; the notion is of keeping one's distance, the same as in the advice to use a long spoon when you dine with the devil. Ten-four "I understand, message received," is attested in popular jargon from 1962, from use in CB and police radio 10-code (in use in U.S. by 1950).
tenable (adj.) Look up tenable at
"capable of being held or maintained," 1570s, from Middle French tenable, from Old French (12c.), from tenir "to hold," from Latin tenere "to hold, keep" (see tenet).
tenacious (adj.) Look up tenacious at
c. 1600, from Latin stem of tenacity + -ous. Related: Tenaciously; tenaciousness.
tenacity (n.) Look up tenacity at
early 15c., from Middle French ténacité (14c.) and directly from Latin tenacitas "an act of holding fast," from tenax (genitive tenacis) "holding fast, gripping, clingy; firm, steadfast," from tenere "to hold" (see tenet).
tenant (n.) Look up tenant at
early 14c., "person who holds lands by title or by lease," from Anglo-French tenaunt (late 13c.), Old French tenant "possessor; feudal tenant" (12c.), noun use of present participle of tenir "to hold," from Latin tenere "hold, keep, grasp" (see tenet). Related: Tenancy. Tenant-farmer attested from 1748.
tend (v.1) Look up tend at
"to incline, to move in a certain direction," early 14c., from Old French tendre "stretch out, hold forth, hand over, offer" (11c.), from Latin tendere "to stretch, extend, make tense; aim, direct; direct oneself, hold a course" (see tenet).
tend (v.2) Look up tend at
"attend to," c. 1200, a shortening of Middle English atenden (see attend).
tendency (n.) Look up tendency at
1620s, from Medieval Latin tendentia "inclination, leaning," from Latin tendens, present participle of tendere "to stretch, extend, aim" (see tenet). Earlier in same sense was tendaunce (mid-15c.), from Old French tendance.
tendential (adj.) Look up tendential at
1877, from Latin stem of tendency + -al (1). Related: Tendentially.
Tendenziöse is a term that has become very common in Germany to describe the Tübingen criticism, and has arisen from the lengths to which theologians of this school have shown themselves ready to go, to establish the hypothesis that the New Testament writings arose out of conflicting tendencies in the early church and efforts to bring about compromises between these factions. The word has been transferred in the translation under the form "tendential." [translator's preface to "Hermeneutics of the New Testament" by Dr. Abraham Immer, translated by Albert H. Newman, 1877]
tendentious (adj.) Look up tendentious at
"having a definite purpose," 1871, formed after or from German tendenziös, from Tendenz "tendency," from Medieval Latin tendentia (see tendency).
tender (adj.) Look up tender at
"soft, easily injured," early 13c., from Old French tendre "soft, delicate; young" (11c.), from Latin tenerem (nominative tener) "soft, delicate; of tender age, youthful," from a derivative of PIE root *ten- "stretch" (see tenet), on the notion of "stretched," hence "thin," hence "weak" or "young." Compare Sanskrit tarunah "young, tender," Greek teren "tender, delicate," Armenian t'arm "young, fresh, green."

Meaning "kind, affectionate, loving" first recorded early 14c. Meaning "having the delicacy of youth, immature" is attested in English from early 14c. Related: Tenderly; tenderness. Tender-hearted first recorded 1530s.