supermarket (n.)
1933, American English, from super- + market (n.). The 1933 reference is in an article that says the stores themselves began to open around 1931. An early word for a "superstore" was hypermarket (1967).
supermodel (n.)
1978, from super- + model (n.).
supernal (adj.)
mid-15c., "heavenly, divine," from Old French supernal "supreme" (12c.), formed from Latin supernus "situated above, that is above; celestial" (from super "above, over;" from PIE root *uper "over") as a contrast to infernal.
supernatant (adj.)
"floating on the surface," 1660s, from Latin supernatantem (nominative supernatans), present participle of supernatare "to swim above," from super "above, over" (see super-) + natare "to swim," frequentative of nare "to swim" (from PIE root *sna- "to swim"). Related: Supernatation (1620s).
supernatural (n.)
1729, "a supernatural being," from supernatural (adj.). From 1830 as "that which is above or beyond the established course of nature."
supernatural (adj.)
early 15c. "of or given by God," from Medieval Latin supernaturalis "above or beyond nature, divine," from Latin super "above" (see super-) + natura "nature" (see nature (n.)). Originally with more of a religious sense, "of or given by God, divine; heavenly;" association with ghosts, etc., has predominated since 19c. Related: Supernaturalism.
That is supernatural, whatever it be, that is either not in the chain of natural cause and effect, or which acts on the chain of cause and effect, in nature, from without the chain. [Horace Bushnell, "Nature and the Supernatural," 1858]
supernaturally (adv.)
c. 1500, "from God or Heaven," from supernatural (adj.) + -ly (2).
supernova (n.)
1934, from super- + nova.
supernumerary (adj.)
"exceeding a stated number," c. 1600, from Late Latin supernumarius "excess, counted in over" (of soldiers added to a full legion), from Latin super numerum "beyond the number," from super "beyond, over" (see super-) + numerum, accusative of numerus "number" (see number (n.)). As a noun from 1630s.
superordinate (adj.)
1610s, on model of subordinate with super-. Related: Superordination.
superpose (v.)
1823, from French superposer, from super- "beyond, over" (see super-) + poser (see pose (v.1)). Related: Superposed; superposing.
superposition (n.)
1650s, from French superposition, from Late Latin superpositionem (nominative superpositio) "a placing over," noun of action from past participle stem of superponere "to place over," from super (see super-) + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)).
superpower (n.)
1944, in geopolitical sense of "nation with great interest and ability to exert force in worldwide theaters of conflict," from super- + power (n.). The word itself is attested in physical (electrical power) senses from 1922.
supersaturated (adj.)
1778, past participle adjective from verb supersaturate (1756), from super- + saturate (v.).
supersaturation (n.)
1784, from super- + saturation.
superscribe (v.)
"write on the surface" (especially of an envelope), 1590s, from Latin superscribere "write over or above" (see superscript). Related: Superscribed; superscribing.
superscript (n.)
1580s, "address or direction on a letter," from Middle French superscript, from Latin superscriptus "written above," past participle of superscribere "write over or above something (as a correction)," from super "above" (see super-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut"). Meaning "number or letter written above something" first recorded 1901.
superscription (n.)
late 14c., from Latin superscriptionem (nominative superscriptio) "a writing above," noun of action from past participle stem of superscribere (see superscript).
supersede (v.)
mid-15c., Scottish, "postpone, defer," from Middle French superceder "desist, delay, defer," from Latin supersedere literally "sit on top of;" also, with ablative, "stay clear of, abstain from, forbear, refrain from," from super "above" (see super-) + sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Meaning "displace, replace" first recorded 1640s. Related: Superseded; superseding.
supersedeas (n.)
writ to stay legal proceedings, Latin, literally "you shall desist," second person singular present subjunctive of supersedere "desist, refrain from, forebear" (see supersede).
supersession (n.)
1650s, from Medieval Latin supersessionem (nominative supersessio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin supersedere "sit on top of" (see supersede).
supersonic (adj.)
1919, "of or having to do with sound waves beyond the limit of human hearing," from super- + sonic. Attested from 1934 in sense of "exceeding the speed of sound" (especially as a measure of aircraft speed), leaving the original sense to ultrasonic (1923).
superstar (n.)
1920, in the sports and entertainment sense (Babe Ruth was one of the first so-called), from super- + star (n.).
superstition (n.)
early 13c., "false religious belief; irrational faith in supernatural powers," from Latin superstitionem (nominative superstitio) "prophecy, soothsaying; dread of the supernatural, excessive fear of the gods, religious belief based on fear or ignorance and considered incompatible with truth or reason," literally "a standing over," noun of action from past participle stem of superstare "stand on or over; survive," from super "above" (see super-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

There are many theories to explain the Latin sense development, but none has yet been generally accepted; de Vaan suggests the sense is "cause to remain in existence." Originally in English especially of religion; sense of "unreasonable notion" is from 1794.
superstitious (adj.)
late 14c., "involving faith in supernatural powers or magic; characteristic of pagan religion or false religion," from Anglo-French supersticius, Old French supersticios, or directly from Latin superstitiosus "prophetic; full of dread of the supernatural," from superstitio "prophecy, soothsaying, excessive fear of the gods" (see superstition).
superstore (n.)
1960, from super- + store (n.).
superstructure (n.)
1640s, from super- + structure (n.).
supertanker (n.)
1921, from super- + tanker.
supervene (v.)
1640s, "come as something additional," from Latin supervenire "come on top of, come in addition to, come after, follow upon," from super "over, upon" (see super-) + venire "to come," from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." Related: Supervened; supervening.
supervenient (adj.)
1590s, from Latin supervenientem (nominative superveniens), present participle of supervenire "come in addition to" (see supervene). Related: Superveniently.
supervention (n.)
1640s, from Late Latin superventionem (nominative superventio), noun of action from past participle stem of supervenire "come in addition to" (see supervene).
supervise (v.)
late 15c., "to look over" (implied in supervising), from Medieval Latin supervisus, past participle of supervidere "oversee, inspect," from Latin super "over" (see super-) + videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Meaning "to oversee and superintend the work or performance of others" is attested from 1640s. Related: Supervised.
supervision (n.)
1630s, from Medieval Latin supervisionem (nominative supervisio), noun of action from past participle stem of supervidere "oversee, inspect" (see supervise).
supervisor (n.)
"one who inspects and directs the work of others," mid-15c., from Medieval Latin supervisor, agent noun from supervidere "oversee, inspect" (see supervise).
supervisory (adj.)
1828, from supervise + -ory.
superwoman (n.)
1906, as female equivalent of superman in the Nietzschean sense. From 1976 in the sense of "one who successfully combines career and motherhood."
supinate (v.)
1831, "to place the hand so that the palm is turned upward," from Latin supinatus, past participle of supinare "to bend back," related to supinus (see supine). Related: Supinated; supinating; supinator.
supination (n.)
1660s, from Late Latin supinationem (nominative supinatio), noun of action from past participle stem of supinare (see supinate).
supine (adj.)
c. 1500, "lying on the back," from Latin supinus "bent backwards, thrown backwards, lying on the back," figuratively "inactive, indolent," from PIE *(s)up- (see sub-). The grammatical use for "Latin verbal noun formed from the past participle stem" (mid-15c.) is from Late Latin supinum verbum "supine verb," perhaps so called because, though furnished with a noun case ending, it "falls back" on the verb. Related: Supinely.
supper (n.)
mid-13c., soper, "the last meal of the day," from Old French soper "evening meal," noun use of infinitive soper "to eat the evening meal," which is of Germanic origin (see sup (v.1)).
Formerly, the last of the three meals of the day (breakfast, dinner, and supper); now applied to the last substantial meal of the day when dinner is taken in the middle of the day, or to a late meal following an early evening dinner. Supper is usually a less formal meal than late dinner. [OED]
Applied since c. 1300 to the last meal of Christ.
suppertime (n.)
also supper-time, late 14c., from supper + time (n.).
supplant (v.)
early 14c., "to trip up, overthrow, defeat, dispossess," from Old French suplanter, sosplanter "to trip up, overthrow, drive out, usurp," or directly from Latin supplantare "trip up, overthrow," from assimilated form of sub "under" (see sub-) + planta "sole of the foot" (see plant (n.)). Meaning "replace one thing with another" first recorded 1670s. There is a sense evolution parallel in Hebrew akabh "he beguiled," from akebh "heel."
supple (adj.)
c. 1300, "soft, tender," from Old French souple, sople "pliant, flexible; humble, submissive" (12c.), from Gallo-Roman *supples, from Latin supplex "submissive, humbly begging, beseeching, kneeling in entreaty, suppliant," literally "bending, kneeling down," perhaps an altered form of *supplacos "humbly pleading, appeasing," from sub "under" (see sub-) + placare "to calm, appease, quiet, soothe, assuage," causative of placere "to please" (see please, and compare supplication).

Meaning "pliant" is from late 14c.; figurative sense of "artfully obsequious, capable of adapting oneself to the wishes and opinions of others" is from c. 1600. Supple-chapped (c. 1600) was used of a flatterer. Related: Suppleness.
supplement (v.)
1829, from supplement (n.). Compare Spanish suplementar. Related: Supplemented; supplementing.
supplement (n.)
late 14c., from Latin supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up" (see supply (v.)).
supplemental (adj.)
c. 1600, from supplement (n.) + -al (1). Related: Supplementally. Generally "added to supply what is wanted," whereas supplementary historically tends toward "added as something secondary or supernumerary."
supplementary (adj.)
1660s, "added as something extra," from supplement (n.) + -ary. Suppletory in the same sense is from 1620s.
suppliant (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French suppliant, noun use of present participle of supplier "to plead humbly, entreat, beg, pray," (Old French souploier, 12c.), from Latin supplicare "beg, beseech" (see supplication). Originally in English especially at law; sense of "humble petitioner" is from mid-16c. As an adjective, "supplicating, entreating" from 1580s. Related: Suppliance; suppliantly.
supplicant (adj.)
1590s, from Latin supplicantem (nominative supplicans), present participle of supplicare "plead humbly" (see supplication). As a noun from 1590s, "a humble petitioner."
supplicate (v.)
early 15c., "beg for, beseech," back-formation from supplication or else from Latin supplicatus, past participle of supplicare "plead humbly, beseech, kneel down." Related: Supplicated; supplicating.