sultanate (n.) Look up sultanate at
1794, from sultan + -ate (1).
sultry (adj.) Look up sultry at
1590s, "oppressively hot, close and moist" (of weather), ultimately from swelter + alteration of -y (2), either as a contraction of sweltry or from obsolete verb sulter "to swelter" (1580s), alteration of swelter. Figurative sense of "hot with lust" is attested from 1704; of women, "lascivious, sensual, arousing desire" it is recorded from 1940. Related: Sultriness.
sum (n.) Look up sum at
c. 1300, summe, "quantity or amount of money," from Anglo-French and Old French summe, somme "amount, total; collection; essential point; summing up, conclusion" (13c., Modern French somme), from Latin summa "the top, summit; chief place, highest rank; main thing, chief point, essence, gist; an amount (of money)," noun use (via phrases such as summa pars, summa res) of fem. of summus "highest, uppermost," from PIE *sup-mos-, from root *uper "over" (see super-).

The sense development from "highest" to "total number, the whole" probably is via the Roman custom of adding up a stack of figures from the bottom and writing the sum at the top, rather than at the bottom as now (compare the bottom line).

General sense of "numerical quantity" of anything, "a total number" is from late 14c. Meaning "essence of a writing or speech" also is attested from mid-14c. Meaning "aggregate of two or more numbers" is from early 15c.; sense of "arithmetical problem to be solved" is from 1803. Sum-total is attested from late 14c., from Medieval Latin summa totalis.
sum (v.) Look up sum at
early 14c., "to count, count up, calculate, reckon," from Old French sommer "to count, add up," or directly from Medieval Latin summare, from summa (see sum (n.)). Meaning "briefly state the substance of" is first recorded 1620s (since c. 1700 usually with up). Related: Summed; summing.
sum- Look up sum- at
assimilated form of sub- before -m-.
sumac (n.) Look up sumac at
also sumach, c. 1300, "preparation of dried, chopped leaves of a plant of the genus Rhus" (used in tanning and dyeing and as an astringent), from Old French sumac (13c.), from Medieval Latin sumach, from Arabic summaq, from Syrian summaq "red." Of the tree itself from 1540s; later applied to a North American plant species.
Sumatra Look up Sumatra at
said to be from Sanskrit Samudradvipa "ocean-island." Related: Sumatran.
Sumerian (adj.) Look up Sumerian at
1874, from French Sumérien (1872), "pertaining to Sumer," name of a district in ancient Babylonia, once the seat of a great civilization. As the name of a language from 1887. Related: Sumeria.
summa cum laude Look up summa cum laude at
Latin, literally "with highest praise."
summarily (adv.) Look up summarily at
1520s, "briefly, in few words," from summary + -ly (2). Meaning "without hesitation or formality" is from 1620s.
summarise (v.) Look up summarise at
chiefly British English spelling of summarize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Summarised; summarising; summarisation.
summarization (n.) Look up summarization at
1860, noun of action from summarize.
summarize (v.) Look up summarize at
1837, American English, from summary + -ize. Related: Summarized; summarizing.
summary (adj.) Look up summary at
early 15c., "brief, abbreviated; containing the sum or substance only," from Medieval Latin summarius "of or pertaining to the sum or substance," from Latin summa "whole, totality, gist" (see sum (n.)). Compare Latin phrase ad summam "on the whole, generally, in short." Sense of "done promptly, performed without hesitation or formality" is from 1713.
summary (n.) Look up summary at
"a summary statement or account," c. 1500, from Latin summarium "an epitome, abstract, summary," from summa "totality, gist" (see sum (n.)).
summate (v.) Look up summate at
"to add, combine," 1900, from Medieval Latin summatus, past participle of summare "to sum" (see summation). Related: Summated; summating.
summation (n.) Look up summation at
1760, "process of calculating a sum," from Modern Latin summationem (nominative summatio) "an adding up," noun of action from Late Latin summatus, past participle of summare "to sum up," from Latin summa (see sum (n.)). Meaning "a summing up" is from 1836.
summative (adj.) Look up summative at
1836, from Modern Latin summat-, stem of summatus (see summation) + -ive.
summer (n.1) Look up summer at
"hot season of the year," Old English sumor "summer," from Proto-Germanic *sumur- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Norse, Old High German sumar, Old Frisian sumur, Middle Dutch somer, Dutch zomer, German Sommer), from PIE root *sem- (2) "summer" (cognates: Sanskrit sama "season, half-year," Avestan hama "in summer," Armenian amarn "summer," Old Irish sam, Old Welsh ham, Welsh haf "summer").

As an adjective from c. 1300. Summer camp as an institution for youth is attested from 1886; summer resort is from 1823; summer school first recorded 1810; theatrical summer stock is attested from 1941 (see stock (n.2)). Old Norse sumarsdag, first day of summer, was the Thursday that fell between April 9 and 15.
summer (n.2) Look up summer at
"horizontal bearing beam," late 13c., from Anglo-French sumer, Old French somier "main beam," originally "pack horse," from Vulgar Latin *saumarius, from Late Latin sagmarius "pack horse," from sagma "packsaddle" (see sumpter).
summer (v.) Look up summer at
"to pass the summer," mid-15c., from summer (n.1). Related: Summered; summering.
summerize (v.) Look up summerize at
1797, "to spend the summer," from summer (n.1) + -ize. From 1935 as "to prepare (something) for summer." Related: Summerized; summerizing.
summerlong (adj.) Look up summerlong at
Old English sumor lang; see summer (n.1) + long (adj.).
summertime (n.) Look up summertime at
also summer-time, late 14c., somer tyme, from summer (n.1) + time (n.). Earlier were summertide (mid-13c.), sumeres tid (late Old English). In Britain, as two words, with reference to what in U.S. is daylight saving time, recorded from 1916.
summery (adj.) Look up summery at
1812, from summer (n.1) + -y (2).
summit (n.) Look up summit at
c. 1400, "highest point, peak," from Middle French somete, from Old French somete "summit, top," diminutive of som, sum "highest part, top of a hill," from Latin summum, neuter of noun use of summus "highest," related to super "over" (see sum (n.)). The meaning "meeting of heads of state" (1950) is from Winston Churchill's metaphor of "a parley at the summit."
summon (v.) Look up summon at
c. 1200, "call, send for, ask the presence of," especially "call, cite, or notify by authority to be at a certain place at a certain time" (late 13c.), from Anglo-French sumunre and directly from Old French somonre, variant of sumundre, somondre "summon," from Vulgar Latin *summundre "to call, cite," from Latin summonere "hint to, remind privately," from sub "under" (see sub-) + monere "warn, advise" (see monitor (n.)). In part also from Medieval Latin use of summonere. Meaning "arouse, excite to action" is from 1580s. Related: Summoned; summoning.
summoner (n.) Look up summoner at
"petty officer who cites persons to appear in court," secular or ecclesiastical, early 14c. (mid-13c. as a surname), from Anglo-French sumenour, Old French somoneor, from Medieval Latin summonitorem, from past participle stem of summonere (see summon). Contracted form sumner is from mid-14c.
summons (n.) Look up summons at
"authoritative call to be at a certain place for a certain purpose," late 13c., from Old French sumunse, noun use of fem. past participle of somondre (see summon (v.)). As a verb from 1650s.
summum bonam (n.) Look up summum bonam at
Latin, literally "highest good" (in ethics), from Cicero; see summit, bene-. Plural summa bona.
sumo (n.) Look up sumo at
1880, from Japanese sumo "to compete."
sump (n.) Look up sump at
mid-15c., "marsh, morass" (from mid-13c. in place names), from Middle Dutch somp or Middle Low German sump, from Proto-Germanic *sumpaz, from PIE *swombho- "spongy." Meaning "pit to collect water" is first found 1650s. Sump-pump (1884) originally was in mining.
sumpter (n.) Look up sumpter at
c. 1300, "driver of a pack horse," from Old French sommetier "pack-horse driver," from Vulgar Latin *sagmatarius "a pack horse driver," from Late Latin sagmat- "a pack, burden," stem of sagma "packsaddle," from Greek sagma, probably related to sattein "to pack, press, stuff." Used from mid-15c. of horses and mules for carrying loads.
sumptuary (adj.) Look up sumptuary at
"pertaining to expense," c. 1600, from Latin sumptuarius "relating to expenses," from sumptus "expense, cost," from sumere "to spend, consume" (see sumptuous).
sumptuous (adj.) Look up sumptuous at
late 15c., from Old French sumptueux or directly from Latin sumptuosus "costly, very expensive; lavish, wasteful," from sumptus, past participle of sumere "to borrow, buy, spend, eat, drink, consume, employ, take, take up," contraction of *sub-emere, from sub- "under" (see sub-) + emere "to take, buy" (see exempt (adj.)). Related: Sumptuously; sumptuousness.
sun (n.) Look up sun at
Old English sunne "sun," from Proto-Germanic *sunnon (cognates: Old Norse, Old Saxon, Old High German sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, Dutch zon, German Sonne, Gothic sunno "the sun"), from PIE *s(u)wen- (cognates: Avestan xueng "sun," Old Irish fur-sunnud "lighting up"), alternative form of root *saewel- "to shine; sun" (see Sol).

Old English sunne was feminine (as generally in Germanic), and the fem. pronoun was used in English until 16c.; since then masc. has prevailed. The empire on which the sun never sets (1630) originally was the Spanish, later the British. To have one's place in the sun (1680s) is from Pascal's "Pensées"; the German imperial foreign policy sense (1897) is from a speech by von Bülow.
sun (v.) Look up sun at
1510s, "to set something in the sun," from sun (n.). Intransitive meaning "expose oneself to the sun" is recorded from c. 1600. Sun-bathing is attested from c. 1600.
sun-dance (n.) Look up sun-dance at
Native American ceremony, 1849, from sun (n.) + dance (n.).
sun-dress (n.) Look up sun-dress at
also sundress, 1942, from sun (n.) + dress (n.).
sun-dried (adj.) Look up sun-dried at
1630s in reference to vegetable matter, from sun (n.) + past participle adjective from dry (v.).
sun-up (n.) Look up sun-up at
also sunup, "sunrise," 1712, from sun (n.) + up (adv.). In local use in U.S., and, according to OED, also in Caribbean English and formerly in South Africa.
sun-wake (n.) Look up sun-wake at
rays of the setting sun reflected on water, 1891, from sun (n.) + wake (n.). Sailors' tradition says a narrow wake means good weather the following day and bad weather follows a broad wake.
sun-worship (n.) Look up sun-worship at
1670s, from sun (n.) + worship (n.). Related: Sun-worshipper (1670s in the religious sense; 1941 as "devotee of sun-tanning").
sunbeam (n.) Look up sunbeam at
Old English sunnebeam; see sun (n.) + beam (n.). As "cheerful person" from 1886.
Sunbelt (n.) Look up Sunbelt at
1969, with reference to the Southern U.S., from sun (n.) + belt (n.).
sunburn (v.) Look up sunburn at
1520s, from sun (n.) + burn (v.). Sunburnt (c. 1400) is older than sunburned (c. 1500, sunne y-brent). As a noun from 1650s.
sunburst (n.) Look up sunburst at
1816, from sun (n.) + burst (n.).
sundae (n.) Look up sundae at
1897, American English, thought to be an alteration of Sunday, perhaps re-spelled in deference to religious feelings; but the reason for the name is uncertain; perhaps "ice cream left over from Sunday, on sale later." For a fuller account of the speculations, see H.L. Mencken, "The American Language," Supplement I (1945), pp.376-7.
Sunday (n.) Look up Sunday at
first day of the week, Old English sunnandæg (Northumbrian sunnadæg), literally "day of the sun," from sunnan, oblique case of sunne "sun" (see sun (n.)) + dæg "day" (see day). A Germanic loan-translation of Latin dies solis "day of the sun," which is itself a loan-translation of Greek hemera heliou. Compare Old Saxon sunnun dag, Old Frisian sunnandei, Old Norse sunnundagr, Dutch zondag, German Sonntag "Sunday."

In European Christian cultures outside Germanic often with a name meaning "the Lord's Day" (Latin Dominica). Sunday-school dates from 1783 (originally for secular instruction); Sunday clothes is from 1640s. Sunday driver is from 1925.
sunder (v.) Look up sunder at
Old English sundrian, syndrian "to sunder, separate, divide," from sundor "separately, apart," from Proto-Germanic *sunder (cognates: Old Norse sundr, Old Frisian sunder, Old High German suntar "aside, apart;" German sondern "to separate"), from PIE root *sene- "apart, separated" (cognates: Sanskrit sanutar "far away," Avestan hanare "without," Greek ater "without," Latin sine "without," Old Church Slavonic svene "without," Old Irish sain "different"). Related: Sundered; sundering.