substantiate (v.) Look up substantiate at
1650s, "to make real, to give substance to," from Modern Latin substantiatus, past participle of substantiare, from Latin substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). Meaning "to demonstrate or prove" is attested from 1803. Related: Substantiated; substantiating.
substantiation (n.) Look up substantiation at
1760, "embodiment;" 1832, "the making good of a statement, the act of proving," noun of action from substantiate.
substantive (adj.) Look up substantive at
mid-15c., "standing by itself," from Old French substantif, from Late Latin substantivus "of substance or being, self-existent," from Latin substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). The grammatical term (late 14c.) was introduced by the French to denote the noun in contradistinction to the adjective, from Latin nomen substantivum "name or word of substance." Related: Substantival; substantively.
substantive (n.) Look up substantive at
in grammatical use, late 14c., short for noun substantive, from Late Latin substantivium, neuter of substantivus "of substance or being" (see substantive (adj.)). Latin nomen substantivum was "name or word of substance."
substation (n.) Look up substation at
also sub-station, 1864 in the policing sense, from sub- + station (n.). Power grid sense is attested from 1889.
substitute (v.) Look up substitute at
early 15c. (transitive), from Latin substitutus, past participle of substituere "put in place of another" (see substitution). Transitive use is from 1888. Related: Substituted; substituting.
substitute (n.) Look up substitute at
"one who acts in place of another," early 15c., from Middle French substitut (noun use) and directly from Latin substitutus, past participle of substituere "put in place of another" (see substitution). Military draft sense is from 1777, American English. Team sports sense is from 1849. Of foodstuffs, from 1879. As an adjective from early 15c.
substitution (n.) Look up substitution at
late 14c., "appointment of a subordinate or successor," from Middle French substitution or directly from Late Latin substitutionem (nominative substitutio) "a putting in place of (another)," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin substituere "put in place of another, place under or next to, present, submit," from sub "under" (see sub-) + statuere "set up," from PIE root *sta- "to stand," with derivatives meaning "place or thing that is standing" (see stet).
substract (v.) Look up substract at
"to subtract," 1540s, "now illiterate" [OED], "An erroneous form of subtract, common in vulger use" [Century Dictionary], from Modern Latin substractus, past participle of substrahere, alternative form of subtrahere (see subtraction). Related: Subtracted; subtracting.
substrate (n.) Look up substrate at
1810, from Modern Latin substratum (see substratum).
substratum (n.) Look up substratum at
1630s, from Modern Latin substratum (plural substrata), noun use of neuter singular past participle of Latin substernere "to spread underneath," from sub- (see sub-) + sternere (see stratum).
substructure (n.) Look up substructure at
1726, "foundation, part of a building which supports another part," from sub- + structure (n.). Earlier in this sense was substruction (1620s). Related: Substructural.
subsume (v.) Look up subsume at
1530s, from Modern Latin subsumere "to take under," from Latin sub "under" (see sub-) + sumere "to take" (see exempt (adj.)). Related: Subsumed; subsuming, subsumption.
subtend (v.) Look up subtend at
1560s, from Latin subtendere "to stretch underneath," from sub "under" (see sub-) + tendere "to stretch" (see tenet). Related: Subtended; subtending.
subterfuge (n.) Look up subterfuge at
1570s, from Middle French subterfuge (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin subterfugium "an evasion," from Latin subterfugere "to evade, escape, flee by stealth," from subter "beneath, below;" in compounds "secretly" (from PIE *sup-ter-, suffixed (comparative) form of *(s)up-; see sub-) + fugere "flee" (see fugitive (adj.)).
subterranean (adj.) Look up subterranean at
c. 1600, from Latin subterraneus "underground," from sub "under" (see sub-) + terra "earth, the ground" (see terrain) + -an.
subtext (n.) Look up subtext at
"underlying theme of a work of literature," 1950, from sub- + text (n.). Originally a term in Konstantin Stanislavsky's theory of acting. Earlier it was used in a literally sense of "text appearing below other text on a page" (1726). Latin subtextere meant "to weave under, work in below."
subtile (adj.) Look up subtile at
late 14c., "clever, dexterous, crafty; not dense, thin, rarefied," from Old French subtil (14c.), a learned Latinized reformation of earlier sotil (12c.), source of subtle (q.v.). Still used in some Bible translations in Gen. iii:1, and it survived after 17c. as a parallel formation to subtle in some material senses ("fine, delicate, thin").
subtility (n.) Look up subtility at
late 14c., "acuteness, skill, cunning," alteration of subtlety (q.v.) on model of subtile, or else from Old French subtilite, from Latin subtilitas "fineness, simplicity."
subtitle (n.) Look up subtitle at
also sub-title, 1825, "subordinate or additional title, usually explanatory," in reference to literary works, from sub- "under" + title (n.). Applied to motion pictures by 1908. As a verb from 1858. Related: Subtitled.
subtle (adj.) Look up subtle at
c. 1300 (mid-13c. as a surname), sotil, "penetrating; ingenious; refined" (of the mind); "sophisticated, intricate, abstruse" (of arguments), from Old French sotil, soutil, subtil "adept, adroit; cunning, wise; detailed; well-crafted" (12c., Modern French subtil), from Latin subtilis "fine, thin, delicate, finely woven;" figuratively "precise, exact, accurate," in taste or judgment, "fine, keen," of style, "plain, simple, direct," from sub "under" (see sub-) + -tilis, from tela "web, net, warp of a fabric" (see texture (n.)).

From early 14c. in reference to things, "of thin consistency;" in reference to craftsmen, "cunning, skilled, clever;" Depreciative sense "insidious, treacherously cunning; deceitful" is from mid-14c. Material senses of "not dense or viscous, light; pure; delicate, thin, slender; fine, consisting of small particles" are from late 14c. sotil wares were goods sold in powdered form or finely ground. Partially re-Latinized in spelling, and also by confusion with subtile.
subtlety (n.) Look up subtlety at
c. 1300, sotilte, "skill, ingenuity," from Old French sotilte "skillfulness, cunning" (Modern French subtilité), from Latin subtilitatem (nominative subtilitas) "fineness; simplicity, slenderness," noun of quality from subtilis "fine, thin, delicate" (see subtle). From late 14c. as "cleverness, shrewdness; trickery, guile, craftiness," also "thinness, slenderness, smallness; rarity." The -b- begins to appear late 14c. in English, in imitation of Latin.
subtly (adv.) Look up subtly at
early 14c., sotylleche; see subtle + -ly (2).
subtotal (n.) Look up subtotal at
1906, from sub- + total (n.). The verb is attested from 1916.
subtract (v.) Look up subtract at
1530s, "withdraw, withhold, take away, deduct," a back-formation from subtraction (q.v.), or else from Latin subtractus, past participle of subtrahere "take away, draw off." Related: Subtracted; subtracting. Mathematical calculation sense is from 1550s. Earlier verb form was subtraien (early 15c. in the mathematical sense), which is directly from the Latin verb.
Here he teches þe Craft how þou schalt know, whan þou hast subtrayd, wheþer þou hast wel ydo or no. ["Craft of Numbering," c. 1425]
subtraction (n.) Look up subtraction at
c. 1400, "withdrawal, removal," from Late Latin subtractionem (nominative subtractio) "a drawing back, taking away," from past participle stem of Latin subtrahere "take away, draw off, draw from below," from sub "from under" (see sub-) + trahere "to pull, draw" (see tract (n.1)). The mathematical sense is attested from early 15c.
Þou most know þat subtraccion is drawynge of one nowmber oute of anoþer nomber. ["The Crafte of Nombrynge," c. 1425]
subtrahend (n.) Look up subtrahend at
1670s, from Latin subtrahendus (numerus) "(number) to be subtracted," from gerundive of subtrahere "take away, draw off" (see subtraction).
subtropical (adj.) Look up subtropical at
1830, from sub- + tropical.
suburb (n.) Look up suburb at
early 14c., "area outside a town or city," whether agricultural or residential but most frequently residential, from Old French suburbe "suburb of a town," from Latin suburbium "an outlying part of a city" (especially Rome), from sub "below, near" (see sub-) + urbs (genitive urbis) "city" (see urban). Glossed in Old English as underburg. Just beyond the reach of municipal jurisdiction, suburbs had a bad reputation in 17c. England, especially those of London, and suburban had a sense of "inferior, debased, licentious" (as in suburban sinner, slang for "loose woman, prostitute"). By 1817, the tinge had shifted to "of inferior manners and narrow views." Compare also French equivalent faubourg.
[T]he growth of the metropolis throws vast numbers of people into distant dormitories where ... life is carried on without the discipline of rural occupations and without the cultural resources that the Central District of the city still retains. [Lewis Mumford, 1922]
suburban (adj.) Look up suburban at
1620s, from suburb + -an. Somewhat earlier were suburbian, suburbial (c. 1600). Latin had suburbanus "near the city" (of Rome), and in Church Latin suburbicarian was applied to the six diocese near Rome.
suburbanite (n.) Look up suburbanite at
1862, from suburban + -ite (1). Middle English used suburban (n.) in this sense (mid-14c.). An Old English word for "suburbanites" was underburhware.
suburbanization (n.) Look up suburbanization at
1898, noun of action from suburbanize. Also suburbanisation.
suburbanize (v.) Look up suburbanize at
1888 (implied in suburbanized), from suburban + -ize. Related: Suburbanizing. Also suburbanise.
suburbia (n.) Look up suburbia at
1876, from suburb + -ia, perhaps on the model of utopia.
subvention (n.) Look up subvention at
early 15c., from Old French subvencion "support, assistance, taxation" (14c.), from Late Latin subventionem (nominative subventio) "assistance," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin subvenire "come to one's aid, assist, reinforce," from sub "up to" (see sub-) + venire "to come" (see venue).
subversion (n.) Look up subversion at
late 14c., "physical destruction, demolition, ruination; overthrow of a system or law," from Old French subversion "downfall, overthrow" (12c.), from Late Latin subversionem (nominative subversio) "an overthrow, ruin, destruction," noun of action from past participle stem of subvertere (see subvert).
subversive (adj.) Look up subversive at
1640s, from Latin subvers-, past participle stem of subvertere (see subvert) + -ive. As a noun, attested from 1887. Related: Subversively; subversiveness.
subvert (v.) Look up subvert at
late 14c., "to raze, destroy, overthrow, undermine, overturn," from Old French subvertir "overthrow, destroy" (13c.), or directly from Latin subvertere "to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow," from sub "under" (see sub-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). Related: Subverted; subverting.
subway (n.) Look up subway at
1825, "underground passage" (for water pipes or pedestrians, later for electrical wires), from sub- + way (n.). The sense of "underground railway in a city" is first recorded 1892, in reference to London.
suc- Look up suc- at
the usual form of sub- before -c-, an assimiliation from Latin.
succedaneum (n.) Look up succedaneum at
"substitute," 1640s, from neuter of Latin succedaneus "succeeding, acting as substitute" (see succeed). Especially of inferior drugs substituted for better ones. Related: Succedaneous.
succeed (v.) Look up succeed at
late 14c., intransitive and transitive, "come next after, follow after another; take the place of another, be elected or chosen for" a position, from Old French succeder "to follow on" (14c.) and directly from Latin succedere "come after, follow after; go near to; come under; take the place of," also "go from under, mount up, ascend," hence "get on well, prosper, be victorious," from sub "next to, after" (see sub-) + cedere "go, move" (see cede).

Meaning "to continue, endure" is from early 15c. The sense of "turn out well, have a favorable result" in English is first recorded late 15c., with ellipsis of adverb (succeed well). Of persons, "to be successful," from c. 1500. Related: Succeeded; succeeding.
success (n.) Look up success at
1530s, "result, outcome," from Latin successus "an advance, a coming up; a good result, happy outcome," noun use of past participle of succedere "come after" (see succeed). Meaning "accomplishment of desired end" (good success) first recorded 1580s. Meaning "a thing or person which succeeds," especially in public, is from 1882.
The moral flabbiness born of the bitch-goddess SUCCESS. That -- with the squalid interpretation put on the word success -- is our national disease. [William James to H.G. Wells, Sept. 11, 1906]
Success story is attested from 1902. Among the French phrases reported by OED as in use in English late 19c. were succès d'estime "cordial reception given to a literary work out of respect rather than admiration" and succès de scandale "success (especially of a work of art) dependent upon its scandalous character."
successful (adj.) Look up successful at
1580s, from success + -ful. Originally "having or resulting in any kind of success;" since late 19c. it has tended to mean "wealthy, resulting in financial prosperity" unless otherwise indicated. Related: Successfully.
succession (n.) Look up succession at
early 14c., "fact or right of succeeding someone by inheritance," from Old French succession "inheritance; a following on" (13c.), from Latin successionem (nominative successio) "a following after, a coming into another's place, result," noun of action from successus, past participle of succedere (see succeed). Meaning "fact of being later in time" is late 14c. Meaning "a regular sequence" is from mid-15c.
successive (adj.) Look up successive at
early 15c., from Medieval Latin successivus "successive," from success-, stem of Latin succedere "to come after" (see succeed). Related: Successively.
successor (n.) Look up successor at
"one who comes after," late 13c., from Anglo-French successor and Old French successour "successor, heir" (12c., Modern French successeur), from Latin successor "follower, successor," agent noun from past participle stem of succedere "to come after" (see succeed).
succinct (adj.) Look up succinct at
early 15c., "having one's belt fastened tightly," from Middle French succincte, from Latin succinctus "prepared, ready; contracted, short," past participle of succingere "tuck up (clothes for action), gird from below," from assimilated form of sub "up from under" (see sub-) + cingere "to gird" (see cinch (n.)). Sense of "brief, concise" first recorded 1530s. Related: Succinctness.
succinctly (adv.) Look up succinctly at
1530s, from succinct + -ly (2).
succinite (n.) Look up succinite at
1816, "amber-colored mineral," from -ite (1) + Latin succinum "amber," which Klein calls a loan word from a Northern European language that has been assimilated in form to Latin succus, sucus "juice, sap." Related: Succinic, from French succinique.