submersible (adj.) Look up submersible at
1862, from submerse or from Latin submers-, past participle stem of submergere + -ible. As a noun, from 1900, "a submersible craft." Alternative adjective submergible is attested from 1820, from submerge.
submersion (n.) Look up submersion at
early 15c., "suffocation by being plunged into water," from Late Latin submersionem (nominative submersio) "a sinking, submerging," noun of action from past participle stem of submergere "to sink" (see submerge). General sense from early 17c.
submission (n.) Look up submission at
late 14c., "act of referring to a third party for judgment or decision," from Old French submission or directly from Latin submissionem (nominative submissio) "a lowering, letting down; sinking," noun of action from past participle stem of submittere "to let down, put down, lower, reduce, yield" (see submit).

Sense of "humble obedience" is first recorded mid-15c. Modern French submission has been replaced by doublet soumission. English in 16c.-17c. also had an adjective submiss "humble, submissive." Submissionist in various political historical contexts is from 1828.
submissive (adj.) Look up submissive at
1580s, "inclined to submit, yielding to authority," from Latin submiss-, past participle stem of submittere (see submission) + -ive. Masochistic sexual sense is attested by 1969. As a noun in this sense, by 1985. Related: Submissively; submissiveness.
submit (v.) Look up submit at
late 14c., "to place (oneself) under the control of another, to yield oneself," from Latin submittere "to yield, lower, let down, put under, reduce," from sub "under" (see sub-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Transitive sense of "refer to another for consideration" first recorded 1550s. Related: Submitted; submitting.
submittal (n.) Look up submittal at
"act or process of submitting," 1866, from submit (v.) + -ance. Marked "rare" in Century Dictionary and OED. Submittance (17c.) also is used.
subnormal (adj.) Look up subnormal at
1875, from sub- + normal. The noun is from 1710 in geometry; 1916, of persons.
suboptimal (adj.) Look up suboptimal at
also sub-optimal, 1901, from sub- + optimal. Related: Suboptimally.
suborbital (adj.) Look up suborbital at
also sub-orbital, 1803 of the eye; 1959 of a planet, from sub- + orbital (adj.). Related: Suborbitally.
suborder (n.) Look up suborder at
also sub-order, 1807 in biology; 1834 in architecture, from sub- + order (n.). Related: Subordinal.
subordinate (adj.) Look up subordinate at
mid-15c., "having an inferior rank," from Medieval Latin subordinatus "placed in a lower order, made subject," past participle of subordinare "place in a lower order," from Latin sub "under" (see sub-) + ordinare "arrange, set in order" (see ordain). Related: Subordinance; subordinant; subordinately. For "of or pertaining to the classificatory rank of a suborder," subordinal (1842) is used.
subordinate (v.) Look up subordinate at
"to bring into a subordinate position to something else, to make of less value, to make auxiliary or dependent," 1590s, from Medieval Latin subordinatus (see subordinate (adj.)). Related: Subordinated; subordinating.
subordinate (n.) Look up subordinate at
"one inferior in power, rank, office, etc.," 1630s, from subordinate (adj.).
subordination (n.) Look up subordination at
mid-15c., subordinacioun "hierarchical arrangement," from Medieval Latin subordinationem (nominative subordinatio), noun of action from past participle stem of subordinare (see subordinate (adj.)). Meaning "condition of being duly submissive" is from 1736.
suborn (v.) Look up suborn at
"to procure unlawfully, to bribe to accomplish a wicked purpose, especially to induce a witness to perjury, "to lure (someone) to commit a crime," 1530s, from Middle French suborner "seduce, instigate, bribe" (13c.) and directly from Latin subornare "employ as a secret agent, incite secretly," originally "equip, fit out, furnish," from sub "under, secretly" (see sub-) + ornare "equip," related to ordo "order" (see order (n.)). Related: Suborned; suborning.
subornation (n.) Look up subornation at
1520s, from Latin subornationem (nominative subornatio), noun of action from past participle stem of subornare "to provide, furnish; instigate"(see suborn).
subpar (adj.) Look up subpar at
also sub-par, 1896, from sub- + par.
subplot (n.) Look up subplot at
also sub-plot, 1812 in literature, from sub- + plot (n.).
subpoena (n.) Look up subpoena at
early 15c., sub pena, from Medieval Latin sub poena "under penalty," the first words of the writ commanding the presence of someone under penalty of failure, from Latin sub "under" (see sub-) + poena, ablative of poena "penalty" (see penal). The verb is attested from 1630s.
subprime (adj.) Look up subprime at
also sub-prime, of loans, etc., by 1978, in frequent use from 1996, from sub- + prime (adj.).
subregion (n.) Look up subregion at
also sub-region, 1830, from sub- + region (n.). Related: Subregional.
subreption (n.) Look up subreption at
"act of obtaining a favor by fraudulent suppression of facts," c. 1600, from Latin subreptionem (nominative subreptio), noun of action from past participle stem of subripere, surripere (see surreptitious). Related: Subreptitious.
subrogate (v.) Look up subrogate at
"to substitute," 1530s, from Latin subrogatus, variant of surrogatus, past participle of subrogare/surrogare "put in another's place, substitute, cause to be chosen in place of another" (see surrogate). Related: Subrogated; subrogating.
subrogation (n.) Look up subrogation at
early 15c., "irregular or unlawful placement of someone in an office," from Middle French subrogation and directly from Latin subrogationem (nominative subrogatio), noun of action from past participle stem of subrogare (see subrogate).
subscribe (v.) Look up subscribe at
early 15c., "to sign at the bottom of a document," from Latin subscribere "write, write underneath, sign one's name; register," also figuratively "assent, agree to, approve," from sub "underneath" (see sub-) + scribere "write" (see script (n.)). The meaning "give one's consent" (by subscribing one's name) first recorded mid-15c.; that of "contribute money to" 1630s; and that of "become a regular buyer of a publication" 1711, all originally literal. Related: Subscribed; subscribing.
subscriber (n.) Look up subscriber at
1590s, agent noun from subscribe.
subscript (n.) Look up subscript at
1704, "that which is written underneath," from Latin subscriptus, past participle of subscribere "write underneath" (see subscribe).
subscription (n.) Look up subscription at
c. 1400, "piece of writing at the end of a document," from Middle French subscription (Modern French souscription) and directly from Latin subscriptionem (nominative subscriptio) "anything written underneath, a signature," noun of action from past participle stem of subscribere (see subscribe). Meaning "act of subscribing money" is from 1640s.
subsection (n.) Look up subsection at
also sub-section, 1620s, from sub- + section (n.).
subsequence (n.) Look up subsequence at
c. 1500, from Late Latin subsequentia "act of following, succession," from Latin subsequens (see subsequent). Related: Subsequency.
subsequent (adj.) Look up subsequent at
"following in time, later," mid-15c., from Middle French subsequent (14c.) and directly from Latin subsequentem (nominative subsequens), present participle of subsequi "come after in time, follow closely," figuratively "imitate, conform to," from sub "closely, up to" (see sub-) + sequi "follow" (see suit (n.)). Related: Subsequently; subsequential.
subservience (n.) Look up subservience at
1670s, from subservient + -ence. Related: Subserviency (1620s).
subservient (adj.) Look up subservient at
1630s, "useful, serviceable," from Latin subservientem (nominative subserviens), present participle of subservire "assist, serve, come to the help of, lend support," from sub "under" (see sub-) + servire "serve" (see serve (v.)). The meaning "slavishly obedient" is first recorded 1794. Related: Subserviently.
subset (n.) Look up subset at
also sub-set, "subordinate set," 1897, originally in mathematics, from sub- + set (n.1).
subside (v.) Look up subside at
1680s, of objects, "to sink to the bottom," from Latin subsidere "sit down, settle, sink, fall; remain; crouch down, squat," from sub "down" (see sub-) + sidere "to settle," related to sedere "to sit" (see sedentary). Of liquid surfaces, "to sink to a lower level, be reduced" from 1706. Related: Subsided; subsiding.
subsidence (n.) Look up subsidence at
1650s, "a settling to the bottom," from Latin subsidentia "a settling down," from subsidens, from subsidere (see subside (v.)).
subsidiarity (n.) Look up subsidiarity at
1936, from German Subsidiarität, paraphrasing the Latin of Pius XI in his Quadragesimo Anno of 1931; see subsidiary + -ity.
subsidiary (adj.) Look up subsidiary at
1540s, from Latin subsidiarius "belonging to a reserve, of a reserve, reserved; serving to assist or supplement," from subsidium "a help, aid, relief, troops in reserve" (see subsidy). As a noun, c. 1600, "subsidiary thing." In Latin the word was used as a noun meaning "the reserve."
subsidise (v.) Look up subsidise at
chiefly British English spelling of subsidize. For suffix, see -ize. Related: Subsidised; subsidising.
subsidize (v.) Look up subsidize at
1755, from subsidy + -ize. Originally "to pay to hire" (mercenaries, foreign troops, etc.), also of nations, "to buy neutrality or alliance." Meaning "to bribe" is from 1815. Meaning "to support by grants of (often government) money" is from 1828. Related: Subsidized; subsidizing.
subsidy (n.) Look up subsidy at
late 14c., from Anglo-French subsidie, Old French subside "help, aid, assistance, contribution," from Latin subsidium "a help, aid, assistance, (military) reinforcements, troops in reserve," from subsidere "to settle down, stay, remain" (see subside).
subsist (v.) Look up subsist at
1540s, "to exist;" c. 1600, "retain the existing state," from Middle French subsister and directly from Latin subsistere "to stand still or firm, take a stand, take position; abide, hold out," from sub "under, up to" (see sub-) + sistere "to assume a standing position, stand still, remain; set, place, cause to stand still" (see assist (v.)). Meaning "to support oneself" (in a certain way) is from 1640s. Related: Subsisted; subsisting.
subsistence (n.) Look up subsistence at
early 15c., "existence, independence," from Late Latin subsistentia "substance, reality," in Medieval Latin also "stability," from Latin subsistens, present participle of subsistere "stand still or firm" (see subsist). Latin subsistentia is a loan-translation of Greek hypostasis "foundation, substance, real nature, subject matter; that which settles at the bottom, sediment," literally "anything set under." In the English word, meaning "act or process of support for physical life" is from 1640s.
subsistent (adj.) Look up subsistent at
1520s, from Latin subsistentem (nominative subsistens), present participle of subsistere "stand still or firm" (see subsistence).
subsoil (n.) Look up subsoil at
1799, from sub- + soil (n.).
subsonic (adj.) Look up subsonic at
also sub-sonic, 1937, from sub- + sonic. Compare supersonic.
subspecies (n.) Look up subspecies at
1690s, from sub- + species.
substance (n.) Look up substance at
c. 1300, "essential nature, real or essential part," from Old French sustance, substance "goods, possessions; nature, composition" (12c.), from Latin substantia "being, essence, material," from substans, present participle of substare "stand firm, stand or be under, be present," from sub "up to, under" (see sub-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Latin substantia translates Greek ousia "that which is one's own, one's substance or property; the being, essence, or nature of anything." Meaning "any kind of corporeal matter" is first attested mid-14c. Sense of "the matter of a study, discourse, etc." first recorded late 14c.
substandard (adj.) Look up substandard at
also sub-standard, 1909, from sub- + standard (adj.).
substantial (adj.) Look up substantial at
mid-14c., "ample, sizeable," from Old French substantiel (13c.) and directly from Latin substantialis "having substance or reality, material," in Late Latin "pertaining to the substance or essence," from substantia "being, essence, material"(see substance). Meaning "existing, having real existence" is from late 14c. Meaning "involving an essential part or point" is early 15c. Related: Substantially.