subcutaneous (adj.)
also sub-cutaneous, "under the skin," 1650s, from sub- + cutaneous. Related: Subcutaneously.
subdenomination (n.)
also sub-denomination, 1620s, from sub- + denomination.
subdivide (v.)
early 15c. (transitive), from Late Latin subdividere from sub in the sense of "resulting from further division" (see sub-) + Latin dividere (see division). Intransitive sense is from 1590s.
subdivision (n.)
early 15c., "process of dividing into smaller parts;" mid-15c., "portion of land that has been divided," noun of action from subdivide. Sense of "plot of land broken into lots for housing development" is from 1911.
subdominant (n.)
also sub-dominant, 1793, in music, from sub- + dominant (n.).
subduce (v.)
mid-15c., "to delete;" 1540s, "to withdraw oneself" (from a place, allegiance, etc.), from Latin subducere "to draw away, withdraw, remove," from sub- (see sub-) + ducere "to lead" (see duke (n.)). Related: Subduced; subducing.
subduct (v.)
1570s, "subtract," from Latin subductus, past participle of subducere "to draw away, take away" (see subduce). Geological sense is from 1971, a back-formation from subduction. Related: Subducted; subducting.
subduction (n.)
early 15c., "withdrawal, removal" (originally of noxious substances from the body), from Latin subductionem (nominative subductio) "a withdrawal, drawing up, hauling ashore," noun of action from past participle stem of subducere "to draw away, take away" (see subduce). Geological sense is attested from 1970, from French (1951).
subdue (v.)
late 14c., "to conquer and reduce to subjection," from Old French souduire, but this meant "deceive, seduce," from Latin subducere "draw away, lead away, carry off; withdraw" (see subduce). The primary sense in English seems to have been taken in Anglo-French from Latin subdere and attached to this word. Related: Subdued; subduing. As an associated noun, subdual is attested from 1670s (subduction having acquired other senses).
subdued (adj.)
c.1600, "subjugated," past participle adjective from subdue. Meaning "calmed down, reduced in intensity" is recorded from 1822.
subfusc (adj.)
"moderately dark, brownish," 1710, from Latin subfuscus, variant of suffuscus, from sub- (see sub-) + fuscus "dark, dusky" (see obfuscate). Related: Subfuscous "dusky."
subgroup (n.)
also sub-group, 1845, from sub- + group (n.).
subhead (n.)
"smaller heading or title in a book, chapter, newspaper, etc.," 1875, from sub- + head (n.) in the sense of "heading, headline." Meaning "subordinate section of a subject" is from 1670s.
subhuman (adj.)
1790, from sub- + human. The noun is first recorded 1957.
subjacent (adj.)
1590s, from Latin subiacentem (nominative subiacens) "lying beneath," present participle of subiacere "to lie underneath, lie near, adjoin," from sub- "under," also "close to" (see sub-) + iacere "to throw" (see jet (v.)).
subject (n.)
early 14c., "person under control or dominion of another," specifically a government or ruler, from Old French sogit, suget, subget "a subject person or thing" (12c., Modern French sujet), from noun use of Latin subiectus "lying under, below, near bordering on," figuratively "subjected, subdued," past participle of subicere, subiicere "to place under, throw under, bind under; to make subject, subordinate," from sub "under" (see sub-) + combining form of iacere "to throw" (see jet (v.)). In 14c., sugges, sogetis, subgit, sugette; form re-Latinized in English 16c.

Meaning "person or thing regarded as recipient of action, one that may be acted upon" is recorded from 1590s. Grammatical sense is recorded from 1630s, from Latin subjectum "grammatical subject," noun use of the neuter of the Latin past participle. Likewise some restricted uses in logic and philosophy are borrowed directly from Latin subjectum as "foundation or subject of a proposition," a loan-translation of Aristotle's to hypokeimenon. Meaning "subject matter of an art or science" is attested from 1540s, probably short for subject matter (late 14c.), which is from Medieval Latin subjecta materia, a loan translation of Greek hypokeimene hyle (Aristotle), literally "that which lies beneath."
subject (v.)
late 14c., "to make (a person or nation) subject to another by force," also "to render submissive or dependent," from Medieval Latin subiectare "place beneath," frequentative of Latin subicere "to make subject, subordinate" (see subject (n.)). Meaning "to lay open or expose to (some force or occurrence)" is recorded from early 15c. (implied in subjected). Related: Subjecting.
subject (adj.)
early 14c., from Old French suget, subject (Modern French sujet), from Latin subiectus (see subject (n.)).
subjectification (n.)
1880, noun of action from subjectify.
subjectify (v.)
1858, from subject (n.) + -ify. Related: Subjectified; subjectifying.
subjection (n.)
late 14c., "obedience, submission; servitude, bondage; lordship, control," from Anglo-French subjectioun, Old French subjection "submission; subjugation; inferior condition; captivity" (12c., Modern French sujétion), from Latin subjectionem (nominative subjectio) "a putting under," noun of action from past participle stem of subicere (see subject (n.)).
subjective (adj.)
c.1500, "characteristic of one who is submissive or obedient," from Late Latin subiectivus "of the subject, subjective," from subiectus "lying under, below, near bordering on," figuratively "subjected, subdued"(see subject (n.)). In early Modern English as "existing, real;" more restricted meaning "existing in the mind" (the mind as "the thinking subject") is from 1707, popularized by Kant and his contemporaries; thus, in art and literature, "personal, idiosyncratic" (1767). Related: Subjectively; subjectiveness.
subjectivism (n.)
1857, from subjective + -ism. Related: Subjectivist.
subjectivity (n.)
1803, from subjective + -ity. Popularized in Kantian terminology; compare French subjectivité, German subjektivität.
subjoin (v.)
"add to the end of," 1570s, from Middle French subjoin-, past participle stem of subjoindre, from Latin subjungere "to affix, append" (see subjunctive). Related: Subjoined; subjoining.
subjugable (adj.)
1850, from stem of Latin subiugare (see subjugation) + -able.
subjugate (v.)
early 15c., a back-formation from subjugation or else from Latin subiugatus, past participle of subiugare "to subjugate." Related: Subjugated; subjugating.
subjugation (n.)
late 14c., from Late Latin subiugationem (nominative subiugatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin subiugare "to subdue," literally "bring under the yoke," from sub "under" (see sub-) + iugum (see jugular).
subjugator (n.)
1795, agent noun in Latin form from subjugate.
subjunctive (n.)
"mood employed to denote an action or state as conceived and not as a fact," 1620s, from earlier adjectival use of subjunctive (1520s), from Late Latin subiunctivus "serving to join, connecting," from subiunct-, past participle stem of Latin subiungere "to append, add at the end, place under," from sub "under" (see sub-) + iungere "to join" (see jugular). The Latin modus subiunctivus probably is a grammarians' loan-translation of Greek hypotaktike enklisis "subordinated," so called because the Greek subjunctive mood is used almost exclusively in subordinate clauses.
sublease (n.)
also sub-lease, 1826, from sub- + lease (n.). As a verb from 1830s. Related: Subleased; subleasing.
sublet (v.)
1766, from sub- + let (v.).
sublimate (v.)
1590s, "raise to a high place," back-formation from sublimation or else from Medieval Latin sublimatus, past participle of sublimare "to lift up." The word was used in English from 1560s as a past participle adjective meaning "purified, refined by sublimation." Chemical/alchemical sense of "heat a solid into vapor and allow it to cool again" as a way of extracting a pure substance from dross is from c.1600. Related: Sublimated; sublimating. As a noun from 1620s.
sublimation (n.)
late 14c., in alchemy, "process of purifying by vaporizing then allowing to cool," from Medieval Latin sublimationem (nominative sublimatio) "refinement," literally "a lifting up, deliverance," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin sublimare "to raise, elevate," from sublimis "lofty, high, exalted; eminent, distinguished" (see sublime).
sublime (adj.)
1580s, "expressing lofty ideas in an elevated manner," from Middle French sublime (15c.), or directly from Latin sublimis "uplifted, high, borne aloft, lofty, exalted, eminent, distinguished," possibly originally "sloping up to the lintel," from sub "up to" + limen "lintel, threshold, sill" (see limit (n.)). The sublime (n.) "the sublime part of anything, that which is stately or imposing" is from 1670s. For Sublime Porte, former title of the Ottoman government, see Porte.
subliminal (adj.)
1873, "below the threshold" (of consciousness or sensation), formed from Latin stem of sublime (Latin limen, genitive liminis) + -al (1)). Apparently a loan-translation of German unter der Schwelle (des Bewusstseins) "beneath the threshold (of consciousness)," from Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), author of a textbook on psychology published in 1824. The scare over subliminal advertising came in 1957. Related: Subliminally.
sublimity (n.)
early 15c., "loftiness, exaltation, worthiness, nobility, glory," from Latin sublimitatem (nominative sublimitas) "loftiness, exaltation," from sublimis (see sublime).
sublingual (adj.)
1660s; see sub- + lingual. Compare French sublingual (15c.). Related: Sublingually.
sublunary (adj.)
1590s, "situated under the moon," hence "earthly, mundane" (old cosmology), from Modern Latin sublunaris, from sub- (see sub-) + lunaris (see lunar).
subluxation (n.)
"partial dislocation," 1680s, from Latin subluxationem (nominative subluxatio).
submarine (adj.)
1640s, from sub- + marine (adj.).
submarine (n.)
"submarine boat," 1899, from submarine (adj.). Earlier "a creature living under the sea" (1703). The short form sub is first recorded 1917. As a type of sandwich from 1955, so called from the shape of the roll. Related: Submariner.
submerge (v.)
c.1600 (transitive), from French submerger (14c.) or directly from Latin submergere "to plunge under, sink, overwhelm," from sub "under" (see sub-) + mergere "to plunge, immerse" (see merge). Intransitive meaning "sink under water, sink out of sight" is from 1650s, made common 20c. in connection with submarines. Related: Submerged; submerging.
submerse (v.)
early 15c., "to submerge, plunge" (transitive), from Latin submersus, past participle of submergere (see submerge). Modern use (18c.) might be a back-formation from submersion. Related: Submersed; submersing.
submersible (adj.)
1862, from submerse or from Latin submers-, past participle stem of submergere + -ible. As a noun, from 1900, "a submersible craft." Alternative adjective submergible is attested from 1820, from submerge.
submersion (n.)
early 15c., "suffocation by being plunged into water," from Late Latin submersionem (nominative submersio) "a sinking, submerging," noun of action from past participle stem of submergere "to sink" (see submerge). General sense from early 17c.
submission (n.)
late 14c., "act of referring to a third party for judgment or decision," from Old French submission or directly from Latin submissionem (nominative submissio) "a lowering, letting down; sinking," noun of action from past participle stem of submittere "to let down, put down, lower, reduce, yield" (see submit).

Sense of "humble obedience" is first recorded mid-15c. Modern French submission has been replaced by doublet soumission. English in 16c.-17c. also had an adjective submiss "humble, submissive." Submissionist in various political historical contexts is from 1828.
submissive (adj.)
1580s, "inclined to submit, yielding to authority," from Latin submiss-, past participle stem of submittere (see submission) + -ive. Masochistic sexual sense is attested by 1969. As a noun in this sense, by 1985. Related: Submissively; submissiveness.
submit (v.)
late 14c., "to place (oneself) under the control of another, to yield oneself," from Latin submittere "to yield, lower, let down, put under, reduce," from sub "under" (see sub-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Transitive sense of "refer to another for consideration" first recorded 1550s. Related: Submitted; submitting.
submittal (n.)
"act or process of submitting," 1866, from submit (v.) + -ance. Marked "rare" in Century Dictionary and OED. Submittance (17c.) also is used.