Struldbrug (n.) Look up Struldbrug at
"person who never dies but becomes senile and useless," 1726, from "Gulliver's Travels," a made-up word.
strum (v.) Look up strum at
1775, possibly imitative of the sound of running the fingers across the strings of a musical instrument. Related: Strummed; strumming. As a noun from 1793.
strumpet (n.) Look up strumpet at
"harlot; bold, lascivious woman," early 14c., of uncertain origin. One theory connects it with Latin stuprata, fem. past participle of stuprare "have illicit sexual relations with," or Late Latin strupum "dishonor, violation." But evidence for this is wanting and others suggest Middle Dutch strompe "a stocking," or strompen "to stride, to stalk" (as a prostitute might a customer). The major sources don't seem to give much preference to any of these. Weekley notes "Gregory's Chronicle (c. 1450) has streppett in same sense." In 18c.-early 19c., often abbreviated as strum and also used as a verb, which led to some odd dictionary entries:
TO STRUM: to have carnal knowledge of a woman, also to play badly on the harpsichord or any other stringed instrument. [Capt. Francis Grose, "A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1785]
strung Look up strung at
past tense and past participle of string (v.). From 1680s as an adjective; in reference to nerves, feelings, etc., from 1840. Strung out is from 1902 as "spread out in a line;" slang meaning "addicted" is recorded from 1959.
strut (v.) Look up strut at
"walk in a vain, important manner, walk with affected dignity," 1590s, from Middle English strouten "display one's clothes proudly, vainly flaunt fine attire" (late 14c.), earlier "to stick out, protrude, bulge, swell," from Old English strutian "to stand out stiffly, swell or bulge out," from Proto-Germanic *strut- (cognates: Danish strutte, German strotzen "to be puffed up, be swelled," German Strauß "fight"), from PIE root *ster- (1) "strong, firm, stiff, rigid" (see stereo-).

Originally of the air or the attitude; modern sense, focused on the walk, first recorded 1510s. Related: Strutted; strutting. To strut (one's) stuff is first recorded 1926, from strut as the name of a dance popular from c. 1900. The noun meaning "a vain and affectedly dignified manner of walking" is from c. 1600.
strut (n.) Look up strut at
"supporting brace," 1580s, perhaps from strut (v.), or a cognate word in Scandinavian (compare Norwegian strut "a spout, nozzle") or Low German (compare Low German strutt "rigid"); ultimately from Proto-Germanic *strutoz-, from root *strut- (see strut (v.)).
struthious (adj.) Look up struthious at
"of the ostrich," 1773, from Latin struthio "ostrich," from Greek strouthion (see ostrich) + -ous.
Struwwelpeter (n.) Look up Struwwelpeter at
German, name of a character in the children's book by Heinrich Hoffman (1809-1894). There was an English edition by 1848.
strychnine (n.) Look up strychnine at
powerful poisonous alkaloid, 1819, from French strychnine, from Modern Latin Strychnos, the genus name of the plant (nux vomica) from which the poison is obtained, from Greek strychnon, a kind of nightshade, of uncertain origin. The chemical was discovered 1818 by Pelletier and Caventou in the Asian tree Strychnos ignatii.
Stuart Look up Stuart at
name of the British royal family from 1603 to 1668; see steward. Attested from 1873 as an attribution for styles from that period.
stub (n.) Look up stub at
Old English stybb "stump of a tree," from Proto-Germanic *stubjaz (cognates: Middle Dutch stubbe, Old Norse stubbr), from PIE root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)). Extended 14c. to other short, thick, protruding things. Meaning "remaining part of something partially consumed" is from 1520s.
stub (v.) Look up stub at
mid-15c., "dig up stumps, dig up by the roots," from stub (n.). The sens of "strike (one's toe) against" something projecting from a surface is first recorded 1848. Meaning "to extinguish a cigarette" is from 1927. Related: Stubbed; stubbing.
stubble (n.) Look up stubble at
c. 1300, "stumps of grain stalks left in the ground after reaping," from Old French estuble "stubble" (Modern French éteule), from Vulgar Latin stupla, reduced form of Latin stipula "stalk, straw" (see stipule). Applied from 1590s to bristles on a man's unshaven face.
stubbly (adj.) Look up stubbly at
c. 1600, from stubble (n.) + -y (2). Related: Stubbliness.
stubborn (adj.) Look up stubborn at
late 14c., of uncertain origin. Earliest form is stiborn. OED, Liberman doubt any connection with stub (n.). Related: Stubbornly; stubbornness.
stubby (adj.) Look up stubby at
"short and thick," 1570s, from stub (n.) + -y (2); of persons, from 1831.
stucco (n.) Look up stucco at
fine plaster used as a wall coating, 1590s, from Italian stucco, from a Germanic source (compare Old High German stukki "crust, piece, fragment"), from Proto-Germanic *stukkjam, from PIE root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see stock (n.1)). The verb is attested from 1726. Related: Stuccoed; stuccoing.
stuck (adj.) Look up stuck at
"unable to go any further," 1885, past participle adjective from stick (v.). Colloquial stuck-up "offensively conceited, assuming an unjustified air of superiority" is recorded from 1829.
stud (n.1) Look up stud at
"nailhead, knob," late 13c., from Old English studu "pillar, prop, post," from Proto-Germanic *stud- (cognates: Old Norse stoð "staff, stick," properly "stay," Middle High German stud, Old English stow "place"), from PIE *stu-, variant of root *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Sense expanded by late 14c. to include ornamental devices fixed in and projecting from a surface. From the Old English meaning comes the specific sense "one of the small beams of a building which form a basis for the walls."
stud (n.2) Look up stud at
"horse used for breeding," Old English stod "herd of horses, place where horses are kept for breeding," from Proto-Germanic *stodo (cognates: Old Norse stoð, Middle Low German stod, Old High German stuot "herd of horses," German Stute "mare"), from PIE root *sta- "to stand," with derivatives meaning "place or thing that is standing" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic stado "herd," Lithuanian stodas "a drove of horses;" see stet). Sense of "male horse kept for breeding" is first recorded 1803; meaning "man who is highly active and proficient sexually" is attested from 1895; that of "any young man" is from 1929. Stud-poker (1864) is said to be from stud-horse poker, but that phrase is not found earlier than 1879.
stud (v.) Look up stud at
c. 1500, "set with studs;" 1560s in studded with "as though sprinkled with nails with conspicuous heads;" from stud (n.1).
student (n.) Look up student at
late 14c., from Old French estudiant "student, scholar, one who is studying" (Modern French étudiant), noun use of past participle of estudiier, from Medieval Latin studiare "to study," from Latin studium (see study (v.)). Student-teacher of a teacher in training working in a classroom is from 1851, American English.
studied (adj.) Look up studied at
1520s, "learned;" c. 1600, "studiously elaborate," past participle adjective from study (v.).
studio (n.) Look up studio at
1819, "work-room of a sculptor or painter," usually one with windows to admit light from the sky, from Italian studio "room for study," from Latin studium (see study (v.)). Motion picture sense first recorded 1911; radio broadcasting sense 1922; television sense 1938. Studio apartment first recorded 1903.
studious (adj.) Look up studious at
mid-14c. (implied in studiously) "zealous, diligent, eager," from Latin studiosus "devoted to study, assiduous, zealous," from studium "eagerness, zeal" (see study). From late 14c. as "eager to learn, devoted to learning," also, as noun, "those who study or read diligently." Related: Studiousness.
studly (adj.) Look up studly at
by 1971, American English, from stud (n.2) in the "virile male" sense + -ly (1). Related: Studliness.
study (v.) Look up study at
early 12c., "to strive toward, devote oneself to, cultivate" (translating Latin occupatur), from Old French estudiier "to study, apply oneself, show zeal for; examine" (13c., Modern French étudier), from Medieval Latin studiare, from Latin studium "study, application," originally "eagerness," from studere "to be diligent," from PIE *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)). The notion appears to be "pressing forward, thrusting toward," hence "strive after."
Martha swanc and becarcade to geforðigene þan Hælende and his þeowen þa lichamlice behefðen. Seo studdede emb þa uterlice þing. [Homily for the Feast of the Virgin Mary, c.1125]
From c. 1300 as "apply oneself to the acquisition of learning, pursue a formal course of study," also "read a book or writings intently or meditatively." From mid-14c. as "reflect, muse, think, ponder." Meaning "regard attentively" is from 1660s. Related: Studied; studying.
study (n.) Look up study at
c. 1300, "application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, intensive reading and contemplation of a book, writings, etc.," from Old French estudie "care, attention, skill, thought; study, school" (Modern French étude), from Latin studium "study, application" (see study (v.)). Also from c. 1300 as "a state of deep thought or contemplation; a state of mental perplexity, doubt, anxiety; state of amazement or wonder." From mid-14c. as "careful examination, scrutiny." Sense of "room furnished with books" is from late 14c. Meaning "a subject of study" is from late 15c. Study hall is attested from 1891, originally a large common room in a college.
stuff (n.) Look up stuff at
early 14c., "quilted material worn under chain mail," from Old French estoffe "quilted material, furniture, provisions" (Modern French étoffe), from estoffer "to equip or stock," which according to French sources is from Old High German stopfon "to plug, stuff," or from a related Frankish word (see stop (v.)), but OED has "strong objections" to this.

Sense extended to material for working with in various trades (c. 1400), then "matter of an unspecified kind" (1570s). Meaning "narcotic, dope, drug" is attested from 1929. To know (one's) stuff "have a grasp on a subject" is recorded from 1927.
stuff (v.) Look up stuff at
mid-14c., "furnish with" (goods, provisions, etc.), also "reinforce" (troops), from Old French estofer "pad, upholster, fit out" (Modern French étoffer), from estoffe, and probably also in part from stuff (n.).

From c. 1400 as "fill, cram full; fill (the belly) with food or drink, gorge;" from early 15c. as "to clog" (the sinuses, etc.); from late 14c. as "fill (a mattress, etc.) with padding, line with padding;" also in the cookery sense, in reference to filing the interior of a pastry or the cavity of a fowl or beast. The ballot-box sense is attested from 1854, American English; in expressions of contempt and suggestive of bodily orifices, it dates from 1952.
stuffed (adj.) Look up stuffed at
mid-15c., in reference to garments, "padded with stuffing," past participle adjective from stuff- (v.). Hence stuffed shirt "pompous, ineffectual person" (1913).
stuffing (n.) Look up stuffing at
1520s, "material used for filling a cushion;" 1530s, "seasoned mixture used to stuff fowls before cooking," verbal noun from stuff (v.) in the sense "fill the inside of a bird before cooking" (late 14c.).
stuffy (adj.) Look up stuffy at
1550s, "full of stuff, full of substance" (obsolete); 1831 as "poorly ventilated;" from stuff (n.) + -y (2). Sense of "pompous, smug" is from 1895. Related: Stuffily; stuffiness.
Stuka (n.) Look up Stuka at
German dive bomber of World War II, 1940, from German shortening of Sturzkampfflugzeug, from Sturz "fall" + Kampf "battle" + Flugzeug "aircraft."
stultification (n.) Look up stultification at
1803, noun of action from stultify.
stultify (v.) Look up stultify at
1766, "allege to be of unsound mind" (legal term), from Late Latin stultificare "turn into foolishness," from Latin stultus "foolish" (literally "uneducated, unmovable," from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand") + root of facere "to make" (see factitious). The first element is cognate with Latin stolidus "slow, dull, obtuse" (see stolid). Meaning "cause to appear foolish or absurd" is from 1809. Hence stultiloquy "foolish talk, silly babbling" (1650s). Related: Stultified; stultifying.
stumble (v.) Look up stumble at
c. 1300, "to trip or miss one's footing" (physically or morally), probably from a Scandinavian source (compare dialectal Norwegian stumla, Swedish stambla "to stumble"), probably from a variant of the Proto-Germanic base *stam-, source of Old English stamerian "to stammer," German stumm, Dutch stom "dumb, silent." Possibly influenced in form by stumpen "to stumble," but the -b- may be purely euphonious. Meaning "to come (upon) by chance" is attested from 1550s. Related: Stumbled; stumbling. Stumbling-block first recorded 1526 (Tindale), used in Rom. xiv:13, where usually it translates Greek skandalon.
stumble (n.) Look up stumble at
1540s, "act of stumbling," from stumble (v.). Meaning "a failure, false step" is from 1640s.
stumblebum (n.) Look up stumblebum at
"alcoholic derelict," 1932, from stumble (v.) + bum (n.2).
stump (n.) Look up stump at
"part of a tree trunk left in the ground after felling," mid-15c. (implied from late 13c. in surnames); from mid-14c. as "remaining part of a severed arm or leg;" from or cognate with Middle Low German stump (from adjective meaning "mutilated, blunt, dull"), Middle Dutch stomp "stump," from Proto-Germanic *stamp- (cognates: Old Norse stumpr, Old High German stumph, German stumpf "stump," German Stummel "piece cut off"), from PIE *stebh- "post, stem; to support" (see step (v.).
stump (v.) Look up stump at
early 13c., "to stumble over a tree-stump or other obstacle" (obsolete), from the source of stump (n.). From 1590s as "reduce to a stump." Sense of "walk stiffly and clumsily" is first recorded c. 1600. Sense of "baffle, bring to a halt by obstacles or impediments" is first recorded 1807, American English, perhaps in reference to plowing newly cleared land, but compare earlier sense "to challenge, dare" (1766).

Meaning "go on a speaking tour during a political campaign" is from 1838, American English, from phrase stump speech (1820), large tree stumps being a natural perch for rural orators (this custom is attested from 1775), especially in new settlements. Related: Stumped; stumping.
stumpy (adj.) Look up stumpy at
c. 1600, from stump (n.) + -y (2). In reference to persons of stump-like figure, from 1822.
stun (v.) Look up stun at
early 14c., "to daze or render unconscious" (from a blow, powerful emotion, etc.), probably a shortening of Old French estoner "to stun" (see astonish). Related: Stunned; stunning.
stung Look up stung at
past tense and past participle of sting (v.).
stunk Look up stunk at
past tense and past participle of stink (v.).
stunner (n.) Look up stunner at
1829, in pugilism, agent noun from stun. Meaning "beautiful woman" attested by 1848 on notion of "one who astounds or amazes."
stunning (adj.) Look up stunning at
1660s, "dazzling," present participle adjective from stun (v.). Popularized for "splendid, excellent" c. 1849. Related: Stunningly.
stunt (v.) Look up stunt at
"check in growth, dwarf," 1650s, from verb uses of Middle English adjective stunnt "foolish," from Old English stunt "short-witted, foolish" (as in stuntspræc "foolish talk"), from Proto-Germanic *stuntaz (source of Old Norse stuttr "short"). Related: Stunted; stunting.
stunt (n.) Look up stunt at
"feat to attract attention," 1878, American English college sports slang, of uncertain origin. Speculated to be a variant of colloquial stump "dare, challenge" (1871), or of German stunde, literally "hour." The movie stunt man is attested from 1930.
stupe (n.) Look up stupe at
"stupid person," 1762, shortening of stupid.