stork (n.) Look up stork at
Old English storc "stork," from Proto-Germanic *sturkaz (source also of Old Norse storkr, Swedish and Danish stork, Middle Dutch storc, Old High German storah, German Storch "stork"), from PIE *ster- "stiff" (source also of Old English stear "stiff, strong;" see stark). Perhaps so called with reference to the bird's stiff or rigid posture. But some connect the word to Greek torgos "vulture."

Old Church Slavonic struku, Russian sterkhu, Lithuanian starkus, Hungarian eszterag, Albanian sterkjok "stork" are said to be Germanic loan-words. The children's fable that babies are brought by storks (told by adults who aren't ready to go into the details) is in English by 1854, from German and Dutch nursery stories, no doubt from the notion that storks nesting on one's roof meant good luck, often in the form of family happiness.
storm (n.) Look up storm at
Old English storm "violent disturbance of the atmosphere, tempest; onrush, attack, tumult; disturbance," from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz "storm" (source also of Old Norse stormr, Old Saxon, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch, Dutch storm, Old High German sturm, German Sturm), from PIE *stur-mo-, from root *(s)twer- (1) "to turn, whirl." Old French estour "onset, tumult," Italian stormo "a fight" are Germanic loan-words. Figurative (non-meteorological) sense was in late Old English.

Storm-wind is from 1798. Storm-door first recorded 1872; storm-water is from 1847; storm-window is attested from 1824. Storm surge attested from 1872. Adverbial phrase _______ up a storm is from 1946.
storm (v.) Look up storm at
of the wind, "to rage, be violent," c. 1400, considered to be from storm (n.). Old English had styrman, cognate with Dutch stormen, Old High German sturman, German stürmen, Danish storme, Military sense "attack (a place) by scaling walls and forcing gates" (1640s) first attested in writings of Oliver Cromwell. Related: Stormed; storming. Italian stormire "make a noise" is from Germanic.
storm-trooper (n.) Look up storm-trooper at
"member of the Nazi Sturmabteilung," 1933, from storm (v.) + trooper (also see Sturmabteilung). Storm-troops (1917) translates German sturmtruppen, introduced by the German military in World War I.
stormy (adj.) Look up stormy at
early 14c., from late Old English storemig (12c.), from storm (n.) + -y (2). Figurative use by mid-14c. Related: Storminess.
story (n.2) Look up story at
"floor of a building," c. 1400, from Anglo-Latin historia "floor of a building" (c. 1200), also "picture," from Latin historia (see history). "Perhaps so called because the front of buildings in the Middle Ages often were decorated with rows of painted windows" [Barnhart].
story (n.1) Look up story at
"connected account or narration of some happening," c. 1200, originally "narrative of important events or celebrated persons of the past," from Old French estorie, estoire "story, chronicle, history," from Late Latin storia, shortened from Latin historia "history, account, tale, story" (see history).
A story is by derivation a short history, and by development a narrative designed to interest and please. [Century Dictionary]
Meaning "recital of true events" first recorded late 14c.; sense of "narrative of fictitious events meant to entertain" is from c. 1500. Not differentiated from history until 1500s. As a euphemism for "a lie" it dates from 1690s. Meaning "newspaper article" is from 1892. Story-line first attested 1941. That's another story "that requires different treatment" is attested from 1818. Story of my life "sad truth" first recorded 1938, from typical title of an autobiography.
story-board (n.) Look up story-board at
also storyboard, 1941, from story (n.1) + board (n.1).
story-book (n.) Look up story-book at
1711, from story (n.1) + book (n.). As an adjective from 1844.
story-telling (n.) Look up story-telling at
also storytelling, 1709, from story (n.1) + present participle of tell (v.). Related: Story-teller (1709).
stound (n.) Look up stound at
"time, moment" (archaic), from Old English stund "point of time, time, hour," cognate with Old Saxon stonda, Old Frisian stunde, Dutch stondi, German Stunde "hour."
stoup (n.) Look up stoup at
late 14c., "jug," especially one made of leather, also a measure for liquid, from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse staup "cup," from Proto-Germanic *staupo- (source also of Middle Low German stop, Middle Dutch stoop "a cup, vessel," Dutch stoop, Old High German stouf, German Stauf, Old English steap).
stour (n.) Look up stour at
c. 1300, "tumult, armed conflict, struggle with adversity or pain," from Anglo-French estur, Old French estour "a tumult, conflict, assault, shock, battle," from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz "storm" (source also of Old High German sturm "storm; battle;" see storm (n.)). Became obsolete, revived by Spenser and his followers in various senses; also surviving as a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "a (driving) storm" or "uproar, commotion." Italian stormo also is from Germanic.
stout (adj.) Look up stout at
c. 1300, "proud, valiant, strong," from Old French estout "brave, fierce, proud," earlier estolt "strong," from a Germanic source from West Germanic *stult- "proud, stately, strutting" (source also of Middle Low German stolt "stately, proud," German stolz "proud, haughty, arrogant, stately"), from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)). Meaning "strong in body, powerfully built" is attested from late 14c., but has been displaced by the (often euphemistic) meaning "thick-bodied, fat and large, bulky in figure," which is first recorded 1804. Original sense preserved in figurative phrase stout-hearted (1550s). Related: Stoutly; stoutness.
stout (n.) Look up stout at
1670s, "strong beer or ale," from stout (adj.). Later especially, and now usually, "porter of extra strength" (by 1762).
stove (n.) Look up stove at
mid-15c., "heated room, bath-room," from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch stove, both meaning "heated room," which was the original sense in English; a general West Germanic word (Old English stofa "bath-room," Old High German stuba, German Stube "sitting room").

Of uncertain relationship to similar words in Romance languages (Italian stufa, French étuve "sweating-room;" see stew (v.)). One theory traces them all to Vulgar Latin *extufare "take a steam bath." The meaning "device for heating or cooking" is first recorded 1610s.
stove-pipe (n.) Look up stove-pipe at
1690s, from stove (n.) + pipe (n.). As a type of hat for men, from 1851, so called for being tall and cylindrical like a stove-pipe.
stow (v.) Look up stow at
c. 1300, "to put, place (somewhere)," verbal use of Old English noun stow "a place, spot, site, locality" (common in place names), from Proto-Germanic *stowo- (source also of Old Frisian sto "place," Middle Low German, Middle Dutch stouwen, Dutch stuwen "to stow," Old High German stouwen "to stop, check," German stauen "to stow, pack; bring to a halt, hem in"), from PIE *stau- "stout, standing, strong," extended form of root *sta- "to stand" (source also of Old Church Slavonic stavljo "to place," Lithuanian stoviu "to stand;" see stet). The nautical sense of "put away to be stored, pack" (1550s) was enforced by Dutch stouwen "to cram, pack up close." Related: Stowed; stowing.
stowaway (n.) Look up stowaway at
1848, from verbal phrase stow away "conceal," in use by 1795; see stow + away.
STP (n.) Look up STP at
commercial motor oil additive, probably an initialism (acronym) of scientifically treated petroleum. As the street name of a type of psychedelic drug, attested from 1967.
strabismus (n.) Look up strabismus at
"a squinting," 1680s, medical Latin, from Greek strabismos, from strabizein "to squint," from strabos "squinting, squint-eyed," related to strobos "a whirling round," from PIE *streb(h)- "to wind, turn" (see strophe). Earlier in Englished form strabism (1650s). Related: Strabismal; strabismic; strabismical.
straddle (v.) Look up straddle at
1560s, "spread the legs wide," probably an alteration of striddle (mid-15c.), frequentative of striden (see stride (v.)). Transitive sense "place one leg on one side of and the other on the other side of" is from 1670s. U.S. colloquial figurative sense of "take up an equivocal position, appear to favor both sides" is attested from 1838. Related: Straddled; straddling. The noun is first recorded 1610s.
Stradivarius (n.) Look up Stradivarius at
valued type of violin, 1818, from Latinized form of name of Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737), violin-maker of Cremona, or his sons or pupils. Short form Strad is attested from 1884.
strafe (v.) Look up strafe at
1915, "punish, attack, bomb heavily," picked up by British soldiers from German strafen "to punish" (from Proto-Germanic *stræf-), in slogan Gott strafe England "May God punish England," current in Germany c. 1914-16 at the start of World War I. The word used for many kinds of attack at first; meaning "shoot up ground positions from low-flying aircraft" emerged as the main sense 1942. Related: Strafed; strafing.
straggle (v.) Look up straggle at
early 15c., "to wander from the proper path, stray, to rove from one's companions," perhaps from a Scandinavian source (compare dialectal Norwegian stragla "to walk laboriously"), or a frequentative of Middle English straken "to move, go." Specifically of soldiers, "be dispersed, be apart from the main body," from 1520s. Related: Straggled; straggling.
straggler (n.) Look up straggler at
1520s, agent noun from straggle (v.).
straight (n.) Look up straight at
1640s, "a level position," from straight (adj.1). From 1864 as "straight part of a race track." Poker sense attested from 1841. Meaning "conventional person" is first recorded 1967, from straight (adj.2).
straight (adj.1) Look up straight at
late 14c., "direct, undeviating; not crooked, not bent or curved," of a person, "direct, honest;" properly "stretched," adjectival use of Old English streht (earlier streaht), past participle of streccan "to stretch" (see stretch (v.)). Related: Straightly; straightness.

Meaning "true, direct, honest" is from 1520s. Of communication, "clear, unambiguous," from 1862. Sense of "undiluted, uncompromising" (as in straight whiskey, 1874) is American English, first recorded 1856. As an adverb from c. 1300, "in a straight line, without swerving or deviating." Theatrical sense of "serious" (as opposed to popular or comic) is attested from 1895; vaudeville slang straight man first attested 1923.

Go straight in the underworld slang sense is from 1919; straighten up "become respectable" is from 1907. To play it straight is from 1906 in theater, 1907 in sports ("play fair"), with figurative extension; later perhaps also from jazz. Straight arrow "decent, conventional person" is 1969, from archetypal Native American brave name. Straight shooter is from 1928. Straight As "top grades" is from 1920.
straight (adj.2) Look up straight at
"conventional," especially "heterosexual," 1941, a secondary sense evolved from straight (adj.1), probably suggested by straight and narrow path "course of conventional morality and law-abiding behavior," which is based on a misreading of Matthew vii.14 (where the gate is actually strait), and the other influence seems to be from strait-laced.
straight-edge (n.) Look up straight-edge at
1812, "bar for drawing or measuring straight lines," from straight (adj.1) + edge (n.). As the name of a punk subculture, attested by 1987, probably suggested by straight (adj.2).
straight-faced (adj.) Look up straight-faced at
1938, of persons, "with visage showing no emotion or reaction," from expression keep a straight face (1897), from straight (adj.).
straighten (v.) Look up straighten at
1540s (transitive), from straight (adj.1) + -en (1). Intransitive sense from 1891. Related: Straightened; straightening; straightener. The Middle English verb was simply straight (late 14c.).
straightforward (adj.) Look up straightforward at
1550s, "directly forward, right ahead," from straight (adj.1) + forward (adv.). In reference to language, from 1806. Related: Straightforwardly; straightforwardness.
strain (v.) Look up strain at
c. 1300, "tie, bind, fasten, gird," from present participle stem of Old French estreindre "bind tightly, clasp, squeeze," from Latin stringere (2) "draw tight, bind tight, compress, press together," from PIE root *streig- "to stroke, rub, press" (source also of Lithuanian stregti "congeal, freeze, become stiff;" Greek strangein "twist;" Old High German strician "mends nets;" Old English streccian "to stretch;" German stramm, Dutch stram "stiff").

From late 14c. as "tighten; make taut," also "exert oneself; overexert (a body part)," Sense of "press through a filter, put (a liquid) through a strainer" is from early 14c. (implied in strainer); that of "to stress beyond measure, carry too far, make a forced interpretation of" is from mid-15c. Related: Strained; straining.
strain (n.2) Look up strain at
"line of descent, lineage, breed, ancestry," c. 1200, from Old English strion, streon "a gain, acquisition, treasure; a begetting, procreation," from Proto-Germanic *streu-nam- "to pile up," from PIE root *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out" (see structure (n.)). Hence "race, stock, line" (early 14c.). Applied to animal species from c. 1600; usually involving fairly minor variations, but not distinct from breed (n.). Normal sound development would have yielded *streen, but the word was altered in late Middle English, apparently by influence of strain (n.1).
strain (n.1) Look up strain at
"injury caused by straining," c. 1400, from strain (v.). The meaning "passage of music" (1570s) probably developed from a verbal sense of "to tighten" the voice, which originally was used in reference to the strings of a musical instrument (late 14c.).
strainer (n.) Look up strainer at
"utensil which strains," early 14c., agent noun from strain (v.).
strait (n.) Look up strait at
mid-14c., "narrow, confined space or place," specifically of bodies of water from late 14c., from Old French estreit, estrait "narrow part, pass, defile, narrow passage of water," noun use of adjective (see strait (adj.)). Sense of "difficulty, plight" (usually straits) first recorded 1540s. Strait and narrow "conventional or wisely limited way of life" is recorded from mid-14c. (compare straight (adj.2)).
strait (adj.) Look up strait at
"narrow, strict" (late 13c.), from Old French estreit, estrait "tight, close-fitting, constricted, narrow" (Modern French étroit), from Latin strictus, past participle of stringere (2) "bind or draw tight" (see strain (v.)). More or less confused with unrelated straight (adj.). Related: Straightly.
strait-jacket (n.) Look up strait-jacket at
also straitjacket, 1795 as a type of restraint for lunatics, from strait (adj.) + jacket (n.); earlier in same sense was strait-waistcoat (1753). As a verb from 1863. Related: Strait-jacketed.
strait-laced (adj.) Look up strait-laced at
early 15c., of stays or bodices, "made close and tight;" see strait (adj.) + lace (v.). Figurative sense of "over-precise, prudish, strict in manners or morals" is from 1550s.
straiten (v.) Look up straiten at
1520s (transitive) "to restrict, make narrow," from strait (adj.) + -en (1). Related: straitened; straitening. Earlier verb was simply strait "to make narrow" (early 15c.).
straitened (adj.) Look up straitened at
c. 1600, "too narrow;" 1716, "reduced to hardship;" past participle adjective from strait (v.). Phrase straitened circumstances recorded from 1766.
strand (v.) Look up strand at
1620s, "to drive aground on a shore," from strand (n.1); figurative sense of "leave helpless," as of a ship left aground by the tide, is first recorded 1837. Related: Stranded; stranding.
strand (n.1) Look up strand at
"shore, beach," Old English strand "sea-shore," from Proto-Germanic *strandaz (source also of Danish and Swedish strand "beach, shore, strand," Old Norse strönd "border, edge, shore," Old Frisian strond, Middle Dutch strant, Dutch strand, Middle Low German strant, German Strand "beach"), of uncertain origin. Perhaps from PIE root *ster- "to stretch out." Strictly, the part of a shore that lies between the tide-marks. Formerly also used of river banks, hence the London street name (1246).
strand (n.2) Look up strand at
"individual fiber of a rope, string, etc.," late 15c., probably from a continental Germanic source akin to Old High German streno "lock, tress, strand of hair," Middle Dutch strene "a skein, hank of thread," German Strähne "a skein, strand," of unknown connection. Perhaps to English via an Old French form.
strange (adj.) Look up strange at
late 13c., "from elsewhere, foreign, unknown, unfamiliar," from Old French estrange "foreign, alien, unusual, unfamiliar, curious; distant; inhospitable; estranged, separated" (Modern French étrange), from Latin extraneus "foreign, external, from without" (source also of Italian strano "strange, foreign," Spanish estraño), from extra "outside of" (see extra). In early use also strounge, straunge. Sense of "queer, surprising" is attested from late 14c. In nuclear physics, from 1956.
stranger (n.) Look up stranger at
late 14c., "unknown person, foreigner," from strange + -er (1) or else from Old French estrangier "foreigner" (Modern French étranger), from estrange. Latin used the adjective extraneus as a noun to mean "stranger." The English noun never picked up the secondary sense of the adjective. As a form of address to an unknown person, it is recorded from 1817, American English rural colloquial. Meaning "one who has stopped visiting" is recorded from 1520s.
strangle (v.) Look up strangle at
late 13c., from Old French estrangler "choke, suffocate, throttle" (Modern French étrangler), from Latin strangulare "to choke, stifle, check, constrain," from Greek strangalan "to choke, twist," from strangale "a halter, cord, lace," related to strangos "twisted," from PIE root *strenk- "tight, narrow; pull tight, twist" (see string (n.)). Related: Strangled; strangling.
strangle-hold (n.) Look up strangle-hold at
also stranglehold, 1893, in wrestling, from strangle (v.) + hold (n.). Figurative use by 1901.