- stock-holder (n.)
- 1753, from stock (n.2) + agent noun from hold (v.).
- stockade (n.)
- 1610s, "a barrier of stakes," a nativization of Spanish estacada, from estaca "stake," from a Germanic source cognate with Old English staca, see stake (n.1)). Meaning "military prison" first recorded 1865. As a verb from 1755.
- capital city of Sweden; it arose mid-13c. from a fishing village; the second element in the name is holm "island" (see holm); the first is either stäk "bay" or stock "stake, pole." Related: Stockholmer.
Stockholm Syndrome is from 1978, a psychologists' term; the name derives from the Aug. 23, 1973, violent armed robbery of Sveriges Kreditbank in Stockholm, after which four bank employees were held hostage in a vault for more than five days. The hostages developed a dramatic attachment to their abuser, and a fear of would-be rescuers, that they could not explain.
- stockinet (n.)
- elastic, machine-made fabric used for undergarments, 1824, from stocking + diminutive ending -et.
- stocking (n.)
- "close-fitting garment covering the foot and lower leg," 1580s, from stock "leg covering, stocking" (late 15c.), from Old English stocu "sleeve," related to Old English stocc "trunk, log" (see stock (n.1)). Probably so called because of a fancied resemblance of legs to tree trunks, or a reference to the punishing stocks. Cognates include Old Norse stuka, Old High German stuhha, from the same Proto-Germanic source. Restriction to women's hose is 20c. As a receptacle for Christmas presents, attested from 1853; hence stocking stuffer first recorded 1945. Stocking-feet "without shoes" is from 1802.
- stockpile (n.)
- 1872, originally a term in mining, from stock (n.2) + pile (n.). Extended to general use during World War II. The verb is attested from 1921. Related: Stockpiled; stockpiling.
- stocks (n.)
- instrument of punishment and confinement formerly widely used in Europe and America (usually for vagrants and petty offenders), early 14c., from stock (n.1), because they consisted of large wooden blocks.
- stocky (adj.)
- c. 1400, "made of wood," from stock (n.1). Of plants, "of stout and sturdy growth" (not weedy) it is recorded from 1620s. Of persons, "thick-set," 1670s, suggestive of tree trunks, but compare also stock in sense of "trunk of the human body" (late 14c.).
- stockyard (n.)
- also stock-yard, "enclosure for sorting and keeping cattle, swine, sheep, etc.," typically connected with a railroad or slaughter-house, 1802, from stock (n.1) + yard (n.1).
- stodgy (adj.)
- 1823, "thick, semi-solid," from stodge "to stuff, satiate" (1670s), of unknown origin, perhaps somehow imitative. Meaning "dull, heavy" developed by 1874 from use in reference to food (1841).
- stogie (n.)
- also stogy, 1847 as an adjective, "rough, heavy, coarse" (of work shoes, etc.); as a noun, "long, cheap cigar" (1873), both shortened from Conestoga, rural region near Lancaster, Pennsylvania; both items so-called because favored by drivers of the Conestoga style of covered wagons first made there.
- stoic (n.)
- late 14c., "philosopher of the school founded by Zeno," from Latin stoicus, from Greek stoikos "pertaining to a member of or the teachings of the school founded by Zeno (c. 334-c. 262 B.C.E.), characterized by austere ethical doctrines," literally "pertaining to a portico," from stoa "porch," specifically Stoa Poikile "the Painted Porch," the great hall in Athens (decorated with frescoes depicting the Battle of Marathon) where Zeno taught (see stoa). Meaning "person who represses feelings or endures patiently" first recorded 1570s. The adjective is recorded from 1590s in the "repressing feelings" sense, c. 1600 in the philosophical sense. Compare stoical.
- stoical (adj.)
- early 15c. in reference to philosophers, from stoic + -al (2). Related: Stoically. From 1570s as "indifferent to pleasure or pain."
- stoichiometry (n.)
- "science of calculating the quantities of chemical elements involved in chemical reactions," 1807, from German Stöchiometrie (1792), coined by German chemist Jeremias Benjamin Richter (1762-1807) from Greek stoikheion "one of a row; shadow-line of a sundial," in plural "the elements" (from PIE *steigh- "to stride, step, rise") + -metry. Related: Stoichiometric.
- 1620s, from Modern Latin stoicismus, from Latin stoicus (see stoic).
- stoke (v.)
- 1680s, "to feed and stir up a fire in a fireplace or furnace," back-formation from stoker (1650s); ultimately from Dutch stoken "to stoke," from Middle Dutch stoken "to poke, thrust," related to stoc "stick, stump," from Proto-Germanic *stok- "pierce, prick," from PIE *steug-, extended form of root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see stick (v.)).
Meaning "to stir up, rouse" (feelings, etc.) is from 1837. Stoked "enthusiastic" recorded in surfer slang by 1963, but the extension of the word to persons is older, originally "to eat, to feed oneself up" (1882).
Having "stoked up," as the men called it, the brigades paraded at 10.30 a.m., ready for the next stage of the march. ["Cassell's History of the Boer War," 1901]
- stoker (n.)
- 1650s, "one who maintains the fire in a furnace," agent noun from Dutch stoken "to stoke" (see stoke (v.)).
- stola (n.)
- Latin, from Greek stole (see stole). Plural stolae.
- stole (n.)
- Old English stole "long robe, scarf-like garment worn by clergymen," from Latin stola "robe, vestment" (also source of Old French estole, Modern French étole, Spanish estola, Italian stola), from Greek stole "a long robe;" originally "garment, equipment," from root of stellein "to place, array," with a secondary sense of "to put on" robes, etc., from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)). Meaning "women's long garment of fur or feathers" is attested from 1889.
- stoled (adj.)
- "wearing a stole," 1540s; see stole.
- stolen (adj.)
- c. 1300, past participle adjective from steal (v.).
Stolen waters are sweet; and bread eaten in secret is pleasant. [Prov. ix:17, KJV]
- stolid (adj.)
- c. 1600, back-formation from stolidity, or else from Middle French stolide (16c.), from Latin stolidus "insensible, dull, slow, brutish, rude, stupid," properly "unmovable," related to stultus "foolish," from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)).
- stolidity (n.)
- 1560s, from Middle French stolidite and directly from Late Latin stoliditatem (nominative stoliditas) "dullness, obtuseness, stupidity," from Latin stolidus (see stolid).
- stolon (n.)
- "a shoot, sucker," c. 1600, from Latin stolonem (nominative stolo) "a shoot, branch, sucker," cognate with Greek stele "standing block," stelekhos "trunk, stem, log;" from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)).
- stoma (n.)
- "orifice, small opening in an animal body," 1680s, Modern Latin, from Greek stoma (genitive stomatos) "mouth; mouthpiece; talk, voice; mouth of a river; any outlet or inlet," from PIE root *stom-en-, denoting various body parts and orifices (cognates: Avestan staman- "mouth" (of a dog), Hittite shtamar "mouth," Middle Breton staffn "mouth, jawbone," Cornish stefenic "palate"). Surgical sense is attested from 1937.
- stomach (n.)
- late 14c., earlier stomak (early 14c.), "internal pouch into which food is digested," from Old French stomaque, estomac "stomach," from Latin stomachus "throat, gullet; stomach," also "taste, inclination, liking; distaste, dislike;" also "pride, indignation," which were thought to have their origin in that organ (source also of Spanish estómago, Italian stomaco), from Greek stomachos "throat, gullet, esophagus," literally "mouth, opening," from stoma "mouth" (see stoma).
Applied anciently to the openings of various internal organs, especially that of the stomach, then by the later Greek physicians to the stomach itself. The native word is maw. Some 16c. anatomists tried to correct the sense back to "esophagus" and introduce ventricle for what we call the stomach. Meaning "belly, midriff, part of the body that contains the stomach" is from late 14c.
The spelling of the ending of the word was conformed to Latin, but the pronunciation remains as in Middle English. Related: stomachial (1580s); stomachical (c. 1600); stomachic (1650s). Pugilistic stomacher "punch in the stomach" is from 1814; from mid-15c. as "vest or other garment which covers the belly." The Latin figurative senses also were in Middle English (such as "relish, inclination, desire," mid-15c.) or early Modern English. Also sometimes regarded in Middle Ages as the seat of sexual desire.
- stomach (v.)
- "tolerate, put up with," 1570s, from stomach (n.), probably in reference to digestion; earlier sense was opposite: "to be offended at, resent" (1520s), echoing Latin stomachari "to be resentful, be irritated, be angry," from stomachus (n.) in its secondary sense of "pride, indignation." Related: Stomached; stomaching.
- stomach-ache (n.)
- 1763, from stomach (n.) + ache (v.).
- stomatitis (n.)
- "inflammation of the interior of the mouth," 1859, from Greek stomato- (befdore vowels stomat-), comb. form from stem of stoma "mouth" (see stoma) + -itis "inflammation."
- stomp (v.)
- 1803, variant of stamp. Related: Stomped; stomping. Noun meaning "lively social dance" is recorded from 1912 in jazz slang.
- stone (n.)
- Old English stan, used of common rocks, precious gems, concretions in the body, memorial stones, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (cognates: Old Norse steinn, Danish steen, Old Saxon sten, Old Frisian sten, Dutch steen, Old High German stein, German Stein, Gothic stains), from PIE *stoi-no-, suffixed form of root *stai- "stone," also "to thicken, stiffen" (cognates: Sanskrit styayate "curdles, becomes hard;" Avestan stay- "heap;" Greek stear "fat, tallow," stia, stion "pebble;" Old Church Slavonic stena, Russian stiena "wall").
Sense of "testicle" is from late Old English. The British measure of weight (usually equal to 14 pounds) is from late 14c., originally a specific stone. Stone-fruit, one with a pit, is from 1520s. Stone's throw for "a short distance" is attested from 1580s. Stone Age is from 1864. To kill two birds with one stone is first attested 1650s. To leave no stone unturned is from 1540s.
- stone (adj.)
- "made of stone," Old English (which also had stænan "stonen"); see stone (n.). As an intensifying adjective recorded from 1935, first recorded in black slang, probably from earlier use in phrases like stone blind (late 14c., literally "blind as a stone"), stone deaf, stone-cold (1590s), etc. Stone cold sober dates from 1937.
- stone (v.)
- c. 1200, "to pelt with stones," from stone (n.). From c. 1600 as "to fit with stones;" 1630s as "to free from stones" (of fruit, etc.). Related: Stoned; stoning.
- stoned (adj.)
- 1510s, "having or containing stones," past participle adjective from stone (v.). From 1728 as "deprived of stones." Slang meaning "drunk; intoxicated with narcotics" is from 1930s. Stoner is from mid-14c. as "one who stones;" mid-1960s as "stuporous person."
- stonefly (n.)
- mid-15c., from stone (n.) + fly (n.). So called because the larval forms abound under stones of steams.
- Stonehenge (n.)
- early 12c., Stanenges, literally "stone gallows," perhaps so called from fancied resemblance to old-style gallows with two posts, with the second element related to the verb hang. Some antiquarians suggest the notion may be of "supported in the air, that which hangs in the air" (compare henge-clif for Latin præruptum), in reference to the lintel stones, but the order of the elements and the inflection is against this. An ancient name for it was the Giant's Dance.
- stonemason (n.)
- 1733, from stone (n.) + mason. Another name for the profession was hard-hewer (15c.). Stone-cutter is from 1530s; Old English had stanwyrhta "stone-wright."
- stonewall (n.)
- also stone wall, Old English stanwalle; see stone (n.) + wall (n.). As nickname of Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson (1824-1863), bestowed 1861 on the occasion of the First Battle of Bull Run, supposedly by Gen. Bernard Bee, urging his brigade to rally around Jackson, who was "standing like a stone wall." Bee was killed in the battle; the account of the nickname appeared in Southern newspapers within four days of the battle.
On the face of it this account has no character of authenticity, and the words ascribed to Bee smack less of the battlefield than of the editorial sanctum. ... It seems inherently probable that something was said by somebody, during or immediately after the battle, that likened Jackson or his men or both to a stone wall. [R.M. Johnston, "Bull Run: Its Strategy and Tactics," Boston, 1913]
- stonewall (v.)
- "to obstruct," 1889 in sports; 1914 in politics, from metaphoric use of stone wall (n.) for "act of obstruction" (1876). Related: Stonewalled; stonewalling (defined in Century Dictionary as "parliamentary obstruction by talking against time, raising technical objections, etc.," and identified as originally Australian).
- stoneware (n.)
- 1680s, from stone (n.) + ware (n.).
- stonework (n.)
- Old English stanweorc; see stone (n.) + work (n.).
- stony (adj.)
- also stoney, Old English stænig; see stone (n.) + -y (2). Similar formation in Old High German steinag, German Steinig, Swedish stenig. Related: Stonily; stoniness.
- past tense and past participle of stand (v.).
- stooge (n.)
- 1913, "stage assistant, actor who assists a comedian," of uncertain origin, perhaps an alteration of student (with the mispronunciation STOO-jent), in sense of "apprentice." Meaning "lackey, person used for another's purpose" first recorded 1937. The Three Stooges film slapstick act debuted in movies 1930, originally as "Ted Healy and His Stooges."
- stool (n.)
- Old English stol "seat for one person," from Proto-Germanic *stolaz (cognates: Old Frisian stol, Old Norse stoll, Old High German stuol, German Stuhl "seat," Gothic stols "high seat, throne"), from PIE *sta-lo-, locative of root *sta- "to stand" (cognates: Lithuanian pa-stolas "stand," Old Church Slavonic stolu "stool;" see stet).
Originally used of thrones (as in cynestol "royal seat, throne"); decline in sense began with adoption of chair (n.) from French, which relegated stool to small seats without arms or backs, then to "privy" (early 15c.) and thence to "bowel movement" (1530s).
- stool pigeon (n.)
- "police informer," 1859, American English; earlier "one who betrays the unwary (or is used to betray them)," 1821, originally a decoy bird (1812); said to be from decoys being fastened to stools to lure other pigeons. But perhaps related to stall "decoy bird" (c. 1500), especially "a pigeon used to entice a hawk into the net" (see stall (n.2)). Also see pigeon.
- stool-ball (n.)
- outdoor game similar to cricket, in 16c. and 17c. generally played by women alone, late 15c., from stool (n.) + ball (n.1). "The 'stool' was the wicket ... perhaps it was originally an ordinary stool" [OED].
- stoop (v.)
- "bend forward," Old English stupian "to bow, bend," from Proto-Germanic *stup- (cognates: Middle Dutch stupen "to bow, bend," Norwegian stupa "fall, drop"), from PIE *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)). Figurative sense of "condescend," especially expressing a lowering of the moral self, is from 1570s. Sense of "swoop" is first recorded 1570s in falconry. Related: Stooped; stooping. The noun meaning "an act of stooping" is from c. 1300. Stoop-shouldered attested from 1773.
- stoop (n.)
- "raised open platform at the entrance of a house," 1755, American and Canadian, from Dutch stoep "flight of steps, doorstep, threshold," from Middle Dutch, from Proto-Germanic *stap- "step" (see step (v.)).
This, unlike most of the words received [in American English] from the Dutch, has extended, in consequence of the uniform style of building that prevails throughout the country, beyond the bounds of New York State, as far as the backwoods of Canada. [Bartlett]
Also in South African English as stoep.
- stop (v.)
- Old English -stoppian (in forstoppian "to stop up, stifle"), a general West Germanic word, cognate with Old Saxon stuppon, West Frisian stopje, Middle Low German stoppen, Old High German stopfon, German stopfen "to plug, stop up," Old Low Frankish (be)stuppon "to stop (the ears)."
These words are said by many sources to be a Germanic borrowing of Vulgar Latin *stuppare "to stop or stuff with tow or oakum" (source of Italian stoppare, French étouper "to stop with tow"), from Latin stuppa "coarse part of flax, tow." In support of this theory, it is said that plugs made of tow were used from ancient times in Rhine valley. Century Dictionary says this "suits phonetically," but "is on grounds of meaning somewhat doubtful." Barnhart, for one, proposes the whole Germanic group might be native, from a base *stoppon.
Sense of "bring or come to a halt, discontinue" (mid-15c.) is from notion of preventing a flow by blocking a hole, and the word's development in this sense is unique to English, though it since has been widely adopted in other languages; perhaps influenced by Latin stupere "be stunned, be stupefied." Intransitive meaning "check oneself" is from 1680s. Meaning "make a halt or stay, tarry" is from 1711. Stop-light is from 1922; stop-sign is from 1918. Stop-motion is from 1851, originally of looms. Related: Stopped; stopping.