stinking (adj.) Look up stinking at
late 14c., earlier stinkend, from Old English stincende; present participle adjective from stink (v.). Modifying drunk, first attested 1887; stinking rich dates from 1956.
stinkpot (n.) Look up stinkpot at
also stink-pot, 1660s, from stink + pot (n.1).
stinkweed (n.) Look up stinkweed at
1793, from stink + weed (n.).
stinky (adj.) Look up stinky at
1888, from stink (n.) + -y (2). Related: Stinkiness. Stinko "of very poor quality" is from 1924.
stint (v.) Look up stint at
"to be sparing or frugal," 1722, earlier "to limit, restrain" (1510s), "cause to cease, put an end to" (mid-14c.), "cease, desist" (intransitive), c. 1200, from Old English styntan "to blunt, make dull, stupefy" probably originally "make short," from Proto-Germanic *stuntijanan, from PIE *steud-, extended form of root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)).

The Old English verb is cognate with Old Norse stytta (assimilated from earlier *stynta) "to shorten, make short, tuck up;" and the modern sense of the English word might be from Old Norse or from an unrecorded Old English sense. Related to stunt (v.) and stutter (v.). Sense of "be careful in expenditure" is from 1848. Related: Stinted; stinting. The noun is attested from c. 1300.
stipe (n.) Look up stipe at
"stalk of a plant," 1785, from French stipe, from Latin stipes "log, post, tree trunk" (see stiff (adj.)).
stipend (n.) Look up stipend at
early 15c., "periodical payment; soldier's pay," from Latin stipendium "tax, impost, tribute," in military use "pay, salary," from stips "alms, small payment, contribution of money, gift" + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). According to Klein's sources, the first element is related to Latin stipes "log, stock, trunk of a tree" (see stipe). As a verb from late 15c.
stipendiary (adj.) Look up stipendiary at
1540s, from Latin stipendiarius, from stipendium (see stipend).
stipple (v.) Look up stipple at
"paint with dots," 1670s, from Dutch stippelen "to make points," frequentative of stippen "to prick, speckle," from stip "a point," perhaps ultimately from PIE root *st(e)ig- "pointed" (see stick (v.)), or from *steip- "to stick, compress." Related: Stippled; stippling.
stipulate (v.) Look up stipulate at
1620s, "bargain, make a contract" (intransitive), back-formation from stipulation, or else from Latin stipulatus, past participle of stipulari "exact (a promise), bargain for." Transitive sense of "demand as a condition" is from 1640s. Related: Stipulated; stipulating.
stipulation (n.) Look up stipulation at
1550s, "a commitment or activity to do something" (now obsolete), from Latin stipulationem (nominative stipulatio), noun of action from past participle stem of stipulari "exact a promise, engage, bargain," of uncertain origin. Traditionally said to be from Latin stipula "stalk, straw" (see stipule) in reference to some obscure symbolic act; this is rejected by most authorities, who, however, have not come up with a better guess. De Vaan suggests "the original meaning of the verb was 'to draw/cut straws.' ... The noun stip- must have developed from a concrete object that was used for payments, but the nature of the object is unknown: a certain stalk of a plant? a measure of corn?" Meaning "act of specifying one of the terms of a contract or agreement" is recorded from 1750. Meaning "that which is stipulated or agreed upon" in English is from 1802.
stipule (n.) Look up stipule at
"small appendage at the base of the petiole of a leaf," 1793, from French stipule, from Latin stipula "stalk (of hay), straw," from PIE *stip-ola-, from root *steip- "to stick, compress" (see stiff (adj.)).
stir (v.) Look up stir at
Old English styrian "to stir, move; rouse, agitate, incite, urge" (transitive and intransitive), from Proto-Germanic *sturjan (source also of Middle Dutch stoeren, Dutch storen "to disturb," Old High German storan "to scatter, destroy," German stören "to disturb"), from PIE *(s)twer- (1) "to turn, whirl" (see storm (n.)). Related: Stirred; stirring. Stir-fry (v.) is attested from 1959.
stir (n.) Look up stir at
"commotion, disturbance, tumult," late 14c. (in phrase on steir), probably from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse styrr "disturbance, tumult," from the same root as stir (v.)). The sense of "movement, bustle" (1560s) probably is from the English verb.
stir-crazy (adj.) Look up stir-crazy at
1908, from crazy (adj.) + stir (n.) "prison" (1851), probably from Start Newgate (1757), prison in London, later any prison (1823), probably from Romany stardo "imprisoned," related to staripen "a prison." According to Barnhart, mid-19c. sturaban, sturbin "state prison" seem to be transitional forms.
stirpes (n.) Look up stirpes at
plural of stirps, Latin, literally "stem, stalk, trunk of a plant," figuratively "scion, offspring, descendant; source, origin, foundation, beginning." Hence stirpiculture "breeding of special stocks or strains."
stirring (n.) Look up stirring at
"a beginning to move," mid-14c., verbal noun from stir (v.). Figurative sense by late 14c. Related: Stirrings.
stirring (adj.) Look up stirring at
late 15c., replacing sterand, from Old English styrend "in active motion; animated, rousing,"present participle adjective from stir (v.). Related: Stirringly.
stirrup (n.) Look up stirrup at
Old English stigrap "a support for the foot of a person mounted on a horse," literally "climbing rope," from stige "a climbing, ascent" (from Proto-Germanic *stigaz "climbing;" see stair) + rap (see rope (n.)). Originally a looped rope as a help for mounting. Germanic cognates include Old Norse stigreip, Middle Dutch stegerep, Old High German stegareif, German stegreif. Surgical device used in childbirth, etc., so called from 1884. Stirrup-cup (1680s) was a cup of wine or other drink handed to a rider already on horseback and setting out on a journey, hence "a parting glass" (compare French le vin de l'etrier).
stitch (v.) Look up stitch at
c. 1200, "to stab, pierce," also "to fasten or adorn with stitches;" see stitch (n.). Surgical sense is from 1570s. Related: Stitched; stitcher; stitching.
stitch (n.) Look up stitch at
Old English stice "a prick, puncture, sting, stab," from Proto-Germanic *stikiz (source also of Old Frisian steke, Old High German stih, German Stich "a pricking, prick, sting, stab"), from PIE *stig-i-, from root *steig- "to stick; pointed" (see stick (v.)). The sense of "sudden, stabbing pain in the side" was in late Old English.

Senses in sewing and shoemaking first recorded late 13c.; meaning "bit of clothing one is (or isn't) wearing" is from c. 1500. Meaning "a stroke of work" (of any kind) is attested from 1580s. Surgical sense first recorded 1520s. Sense of "amusing person or thing" is 1968, from notion of laughing so much one gets stitches of pain (compare verbal expression to have (someone) in stitches, 1935).
stitchery (n.) Look up stitchery at
c. 1600, from stitch (v.) + -ery.
stitching (n.) Look up stitching at
1520s, verbal noun from stitch (v.).
stoa (n.) Look up stoa at
"portico," c. 1600, from Greek stoa "colonnade, corridor," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." A name given in Athens to several public buildings. The ancient stoa was "usually a detached portico, often of considerable extent, generally near a public place to afford opportunity for walking or conversation under shelter" [Century Dictionary].
stoat (n.) Look up stoat at
mid-15c., stote, "the ermine, especially in its brown summer coat," of uncertain origin. The word bears resemblance to Old Norse stutr "bull," Swedish stut "bull," Danish stud "ox," but the sense is difficult unless a common notion is "male animal."
stochastic (adj.) Look up stochastic at
1660s, "pertaining to conjecture," from Greek stokhastikos "able to guess, conjecturing," from stokhazesthai "to guess, aim at, conjecture," from stokhos "a guess, aim, fixed target, erected pillar for archers to shoot at," perhaps from PIE *stogh-, variant of root *stegh- "to stick, prick, sting." The sense of "randomly determined" is from 1934, from German stochastik (1917).
stock (v.) Look up stock at
"to supply (a store) with stock," 1620s, from stock (n.2). Meaning "to lay up in store" is from c. 1700. Earliest sense is "to imprison in stocks" (early 14c.). Related: Stocked; stocking.
stock (adj.) Look up stock at
in reference to conversation, literature, "recurring, commonplace" (as in stock phrase), 1738, figurative use from sense "kept in store for constant use" (1620s), from stock (n.2).
stock (n.2) Look up stock at
"supply for future use" (early 15c.), "sum of money" (mid-15c.), Middle English developments of stock (n.1), but the ultimate sense connection is uncertain. Perhaps the notion is of the "trunk" from which gains are an outgrowth, or from stock (n.1) in obsolete sense of "money-box" (c. 1400). Meaning "subscribed capital of a corporation" is from 1610s.

In stock "in the possession of a trader" is from 1610s. Meaning "broth made by boiling meat or vegetables" is from 1764. Theatrical use, in reference to a company regularly acting together at a given theater, is attested from 1761. Figurative phrase take stock in "regard as important" is from 1870. As the collective term for the movable property of a farm, it is recorded from 1510s; hence livestock.
stock (n.1) Look up stock at
Old English stocc "stump, post, stake, tree trunk, log," also "pillory" (usually plural, stocks), from Proto-Germanic *stukkaz "tree trunk" (source also of Old Norse stokkr "block of wood, trunk of a tree," Old Saxon, Old Frisian stok, Middle Dutch stoc "tree trunk, stump," Dutch stok "stick, cane," Old High German stoc "tree trunk, stick," German Stock "stick, cane;" also Dutch stuk, German Stück "piece"), from an extended form of PIE root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)).

Meaning "ancestry, family" (late 14c.) is a figurative use of the "tree trunk" sense (as in family tree). This is also the root of the meaning "heavy part of a tool," and "part of a rifle held against the shoulder" (1540s). Meaning "person as dull and senseless as a block or log" is from c. 1300; hence "a dull recipient of action or notice" (1540s).

Meaning "framework on which a boat was constructed" (early 15c.) led to figurative phrase on stocks "planned and commenced" (1660s). Taking stock "making an inventory" is attested from 1736. Stock, lock, and barrel "the whole of a thing" is recorded from 1817. Stock-still (late 15c.) is literally "as still as a tree trunk."
stock market (n.) Look up stock market at
"place where securities are bought and sold," 1809, from stock (n.2) + market. The original Stock Market (mid-14c.) was a fish and meat market in the City of London on or near the later site of Mansion House, so called perhaps because it occupied the site of a former stocks. Stock exchange is attested from 1773.
stock-broker (n.) Look up stock-broker at
1706, from stock (n.2) + broker.
stock-car (n.) Look up stock-car at
racing car with a basic chassis of an ordinary commercially produced vehicle, 1914, American English, from stock (n.2) + car. Earlier "a railroad car used to transport livestock" (1858).
stock-holder (n.) Look up stock-holder at
1753, from stock (n.2) + agent noun from hold (v.).
stockade (n.) Look up stockade at
1610s, "a barrier of stakes," a nativization of Spanish estacada, from estaca "stake," from a Germanic source cognate with Old English staca, see stake (n.1)). Meaning "military prison" first recorded 1865. As a verb from 1755.
Stockholm Look up Stockholm at
capital city of Sweden; it arose mid-13c. from a fishing village; the second element in the name is holm "island" (see holm); the first is either stäk "bay" or stock "stake, pole." Related: Stockholmer.

Stockholm Syndrome is from 1978, a psychologists' term; the name derives from the Aug. 23, 1973, violent armed robbery of Sveriges Kreditbank in Stockholm, after which four bank employees were held hostage in a vault for more than five days. The hostages developed a dramatic attachment to their abuser, and a fear of would-be rescuers, that they could not explain.
stockinet (n.) Look up stockinet at
elastic, machine-made fabric used for undergarments, 1824, from stocking + diminutive ending -et.
stocking (n.) Look up stocking at
"close-fitting garment covering the foot and lower leg," 1580s, from stock "leg covering, stocking" (late 15c.), from Old English stocu "sleeve," related to Old English stocc "trunk, log" (see stock (n.1)). Probably so called because of a fancied resemblance of legs to tree trunks, or a reference to the punishing stocks. Cognates include Old Norse stuka, Old High German stuhha, from the same Proto-Germanic source. Restriction to women's hose is 20c. As a receptacle for Christmas presents, attested from 1853; hence stocking stuffer first recorded 1945. Stocking-feet "without shoes" is from 1802.
stockpile (n.) Look up stockpile at
1872, originally a term in mining, from stock (n.2) + pile (n.). Extended to general use during World War II. The verb is attested from 1921. Related: Stockpiled; stockpiling.
stocks (n.) Look up stocks at
instrument of punishment and confinement formerly widely used in Europe and America (usually for vagrants and petty offenders), early 14c., from stock (n.1), because they consisted of large wooden blocks.
stocky (adj.) Look up stocky at
c. 1400, "made of wood," from stock (n.1). Of plants, "of stout and sturdy growth" (not weedy) it is recorded from 1620s. Of persons, "thick-set," 1670s, suggestive of tree trunks, but compare also stock in sense of "trunk of the human body" (late 14c.).
stockyard (n.) Look up stockyard at
also stock-yard, "enclosure for sorting and keeping cattle, swine, sheep, etc.," typically connected with a railroad or slaughter-house, 1802, from stock (n.1) + yard (n.1).
stodgy (adj.) Look up stodgy at
1823, "thick, semi-solid," from stodge "to stuff, satiate" (1670s), of unknown origin, perhaps somehow imitative. Meaning "dull, heavy" developed by 1874 from use in reference to food (1841).
stogie (n.) Look up stogie at
also stogy, 1847 as an adjective, "rough, heavy, coarse" (of work shoes, etc.); as a noun, "long, cheap cigar" (1872), earlier stoga (1869), both shortened from Conestoga, rural region near Lancaster, Pennsylvania; both items so-called because favored by drivers of the Conestoga style of covered wagons first made there.
stoic (n.) Look up stoic at
late 14c., "philosopher of the school founded by Zeno," from Latin stoicus, from Greek stoikos "pertaining to a member of or the teachings of the school founded by Zeno (c. 334-c. 262 B.C.E.), characterized by austere ethical doctrines," literally "pertaining to a portico," from stoa "porch," specifically Stoa Poikile "the Painted Porch," the great hall in Athens (decorated with frescoes depicting the Battle of Marathon) where Zeno taught (see stoa). Meaning "person who represses feelings or endures patiently" first recorded 1570s. The adjective is recorded from 1590s in the "repressing feelings" sense, c. 1600 in the philosophical sense. Compare stoical.
stoical (adj.) Look up stoical at
early 15c. in reference to philosophers, from stoic + -al (2). Related: Stoically. From 1570s as "indifferent to pleasure or pain."
stoichiometry (n.) Look up stoichiometry at
"science of calculating the quantities of chemical elements involved in chemical reactions," 1807, from German Stöchiometrie (1792), coined by German chemist Jeremias Benjamin Richter (1762-1807) from Greek stoikheion "one of a row; shadow-line of a sundial," in plural "the elements" (from PIE *steigh- "to stride, step, rise") + -metry "a measuring of." Related: Stoichiometric.
stoicism Look up stoicism at
1620s, from Modern Latin stoicismus, from Latin stoicus (see stoic).
stoke (v.) Look up stoke at
1680s, "to feed and stir up a fire in a fireplace or furnace," back-formation from stoker (1650s); ultimately from Dutch stoken "to stoke," from Middle Dutch stoken "to poke, thrust," related to stoc "stick, stump," from Proto-Germanic *stok- "pierce, prick," from PIE *steug-, extended form of root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see stick (v.)).

Meaning "to stir up, rouse" (feelings, etc.) is from 1837. Stoked "enthusiastic" recorded in surfer slang by 1963, but the extension of the word to persons is older, originally "to eat, to feed oneself up" (1882).
Having "stoked up," as the men called it, the brigades paraded at 10.30 a.m., ready for the next stage of the march. ["Cassell's History of the Boer War," 1901]
stoker (n.) Look up stoker at
1650s, "one who maintains the fire in a furnace," agent noun from Dutch stoken "to stoke" (see stoke (v.)).