- sate (v.)
- "to satisfy, surfeit," c.1600, alteration (by influence of Latin satiare "satiate") of Middle English saden "become satiated; satiate," from Old English sadian "to satiate, fill; be sated, get wearied," from Proto-Germanic *sadon "to satisfy, sate," from root *sa- "to satisfy" (see sad (adj.)). Related: Sated; sating.
- sateen (n.)
- "glossy cloth resembling satin," 1835, variant of satin (q.v.), perhaps influenced by velveteen, where the ending is a variant of -ine (1).
- satellite (n.)
- 1540s, "follower or attendant of a superior person," from Middle French satellite (14c.), from Latin satellitem (nominative satelles) "attendant, companion, courtier, accomplice, assistant," perhaps from Etruscan satnal (Klein), or a compound of roots *satro- "full, enough" + *leit- "to go" (Tucker); cf. English follow, which is constructed of similar roots.
Meaning "planet that revolves about a larger one" first attested 1660s, in reference to the moons of Jupiter, from Latin satellites, which was used in this sense 1610s by German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Galileo, who had discovered them, called them Sidera Medicæa in honor of the Medici family. Meaning "man-made machinery orbiting the Earth" first recorded 1936 as theory, 1957 as fact. Meaning "country dependent and subservient to another" is recorded from 1800.
- satiable (adj.)
- 1560s; see satiate + -able.
- satiate (v.)
- mid-15c., from Latin satiatus, past participle of satiare "fill full, satisfy," from satis "enough," from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy" (cf. Gothic saþs "satiated," Old English sæd "satisfied;" see sad). Related: Satiated; satiating.
- satiation (n.)
- 1630s, noun of action from satiate (v.).
- satiety (n.)
- 1530s, from Middle French satiété, from Latin satietatem (nominative satietas) "abundance, sufficiency, fullness," from satis "enough," from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy" (see sad).
- satin (n.)
- mid-14c., from Old French satin (14c.), perhaps from Arabic (atlas) zaytuni, literally "(satin) from Zaitun," a Chinese city, perhaps modern Quanzhou in Fukien province, southern China, a major port in the Middle Ages, with a resident community of European traders. The form of the word perhaps influenced in French by Latin seta "silk." OED finds the Arabic connection etymologically untenable and takes the French word straight from Latin. As an adjective from mid-15c.
- satinette (n.)
- also satinet, 1703, from French satinet, diminutive of satin (see satin). So called because it was thought to resemble satin.
- satire (n.)
- late 14c., "work intended to ridicule vice or folly," from Middle French satire (14c.) and directly from Latin satira "satire, poetic medley," earlier satura, in lanx satura "mixed dish, dish filled with various kinds of fruit," literally "full dish," from fem. of satur "sated" (see saturate).
First used in the literary sense in Latin in reference to a collection of poems in various meters on a variety of subjects by the late republican Roman poet Ennius. The matter of the little that survives of his verse does not seem to be particularly satiric, but in classical Latin the word came to mean especially a poem which assailed the prevailing vices, one after another. Altered in Latin by influence of Greek satyr, on mistaken notion that the literary form is related to the Greek satyr drama (see satyr).
Satire, n. An obsolete kind of literary composition in which the vices and follies of the author's enemies were expounded with imperfect tenderness. In this country satire never had more than a sickly and uncertain existence, for the soul of it is wit, wherein we are dolefully deficient, the humor that we mistake for it, like all humor, being tolerant and sympathetic. Moreover, although Americans are 'endowed by their Creator' with abundant vice and folly, it is not generally known that these are reprehensible qualities, wherefore the satirist is popularly regarded as a sour-spirited knave, and his every victim's outcry for codefendants evokes a national assent. [Ambrose Bierce, "Devil's Dictionary," 1911]
For nuances of usage, see humor (n.).
Proper satire is distinguished, by the generality of the reflections, from a lampoon which is aimed against a particular person, but they are too frequently confounded. [Johnson]
[I]n whatever department of human expression, wherever there is objective truth there is satire [Wyndham Lewis, "Rude Assignment," 1950]
- satire (v.)
- 1905, from satire (n.). Related: Satired; satiring.
- satiric (adj.)
- c.1500, from French satirique, from Late Latin satiricus, from satira (see satire (n.)). Earlier (late 14c.) as a noun meaning "a writer of satires."
- satirical (adj.)
- 1520s, from Late Latin satiricus, from Latin satira "satire, poetic medley" (see satire (n.)) + -al (1). Related: Satirically.
- satirist (n.)
- 1580s; see satire (n.) + -ist.
- satirize (v.)
- c.1600, from French satiriser (see satire (n.)). Related: Satirized; satirizing.
- satisfaction (n.)
- early 14c., "performance of an act set forth by a priest or other Church authority to atone for sin," from Old French satisfaction (12c.), from Latin satisfactionem (nominative satisfactio) "a satisfying of a creditor," noun of action from past participle stem of satisfacere (see satisfy). Senses of "contentment, appeasement" and "action of gratifying" first recorded late 14c.; the former not common before 16c.
- satisfactory (adj.)
- mid-15c., "capable of atoning for sin," from Middle French satisfactoire (14c.) and directly from Late Latin satisfactorius, from Latin satisfactus, past participle of satisfacere (see satisfy). Meaning "adequate" is from 1630s. Related: Satisfactorily; satisfactoriness.
- satisfice (v.)
- 1560s, "to satisfy" (implied in satisficed), altered of satisfy by influence of its Latin root satisfacere. A Northern English colloquial word; modern use from c.1956 may be an independent formation. Related: Satisficing.
- satisfied (adj.)
- 1816, "gratified," past participle adjective from satisfy.
- satisfy (v.)
- early 15c., from Middle French satisfier, from Old French satisfaire "pay, repay, make reparation" (14c., Modern French satisfaire), from Latin satisfacere "discharge fully, comply with, make amends," literally "do enough," from satis "enough" (from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy;" see sad) + facere "perform" (see factitious). Related: Satisfied; satisfying.
- satisfying (adj.)
- c.1600, present participle adjective from satisfy. Related: Satisfyingly.
- satori (n.)
- 1727, from Japanese, said to mean literally "spiritual awakening."
- satrap (n.)
- late 14c., "governor of a province of ancient Persia," from Latin satrapes, from Greek satrapes, from Old Persian xšathrapavan-, literally "guardian of the realm," from xšathra- "realm, province" (related to xšayathiya "king," cognate with Sanskrit kshatra; cf. shah) + pavan- "guardian," from PIE *pa- "to protect, feed" (see food). Related: Satrapy.
- sattva (n.)
- "truth" (in Hindu philosophy), from Sanskrit sattvah "truth," literally "being," cognate with Gothic sunjis, Old English soð "true" (see sooth).
- saturate (v.)
- 1530s, "to satisfy, satiate," from Latin saturatus, past participle of saturare "to fill full, sate, drench," from satur "sated, full," from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy" (see sad). Meaning "soak thoroughly" first recorded 1756. Marketing sense first recorded 1958. Related: Saturated; saturating.
- saturation (n.)
- 1550s, formed in English from saturate, or else from Late Latin saturationem (nominative saturatio), noun of action from past participle stem of saturare. Saturation bombing is from 1942, first in reference to Allied air raid on Cologne, Germany.
- Saturday (n.)
- seventh day of the week, Old English sæterdæg, sæternesdæg, literally "day of the planet Saturn," from Sæternes (genitive of Sætern; see Saturn) + Old English dæg (see day). Partial loan-translation of Latin Saturni dies "Saturn's day" (cf. Dutch Zaterdag, Old Frisian Saterdi, Middle Low German Satersdach; Irish dia Sathuirn, Welsh dydd Sadwrn). The Latin word itself is a loan-translation of Greek kronou hemera, literally "the day of Cronus."
Unlike other day names, no god substitution seems to have been attempted, perhaps because the northern European pantheon lacks a clear corresponding figure to Roman Saturn. A homely ancient Nordic custom, however, seems to be preserved in Old Norse laugardagr, Danish lørdag, Swedish lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day" (cf. Old Norse laug "bath").
German Samstag (Old High German sambaztag) appears to be from a Greek *sambaton, a nasalized colloquial form of sabbaton "sabbath," also attested in Old Church Slavonic sabota, Polish sobota, Russian subbota, Hungarian szombat, French samedi.
Saturday night has been used figuratively to suggest "drunkenness and looseness in relations between the young men and young women" since at least mid-19c. Saturday-night special "cheap, low-caliber handgun" is American English, attested from 1976 (earlier Saturday-night pistol, 1929).
- Old English Sætern, a Roman god, also "most remote planet" (then known), from Latin Saturnus, originally a name of an Italic god of agriculture, possibly from Etruscan. Derivation from Latin serere (past participle satus) "to sow" is said to be folk-etymology.
An ancient Italic deity, popularly believed to have appeared in Italy in the reign of Janus, and to have instructed the people in agriculture, gardening, etc., thus elevating them from barbarism to social order and civilization. His reign was sung by the poets as "the golden age." [Century Dictionary]
Identified with Greek Kronos, father of Zeus. Also the alchemical name for lead (late 14c.). In Akkadian, the planet was kaiamanu, literally "constant, enduring," hence Hebrew kiyyun, Arabic and Persian kaiwan "Saturn." Related: Saturnian.
- saturnalia (n.)
- time of merrymaking, 1590s, from Latin Saturnalia, ancient Roman festivals of Saturn (held in December), a time of merrymaking for all, from neuter plural of adjective Saturnalis "pertaining to Saturn," from Saturnus (see Saturn). They correspond to the Greek Kronia. The extended sense of "period of unrestrained revelry" is first attested 1782. Related: Saturnalian.
- saturnine (adj.)
- "gloomy, morose, sluggish, grave," mid-15c., literally "born under the influence of the planet Saturn," from Middle English Saturne (see Saturn) + -ine (1). Medieval physiology believed these characteristics to be caused by the astrological influence of the planet Saturn, which was the most remote from the Sun (in the limited knowledge of the times) and thus coldest and slowest in its revolution.
- satyagraha (n.)
- Indian form of passive resistance, 1920, in writings of M.K. Gandhi, from Sanskrit satyagraha "insistence on truth," from satya "truth, truthfulness" (from sat- "existing, true, virtuous," from PIE *es- "to be;" see essence) + agraha "pertinacity," from PIE *ghrebh- "to seize, reach" (see grab (v.)).
- satyr (n.)
- woodland deity, companion of Bacchus, late 14c., from Latin satyrus, from Greek satyros, of unknown origin. In pre-Roman Greek art, a man-like being with the tail and ears of a horse; the modern conception of a being part man, part goat is from Roman sculptors, who seem to have assimilated them to the fauns of native mythology. In some English bibles used curiously to translate Hebrew se'irim, a type of hairy monster superstitiously believed to inhabit deserts.
- satyriasis (n.)
- "excessively great venereal desire in the male," 1650s, medical Latin, from Greek satyriasis, from satyros (see satyr). Also in same sense satyromania (1889).
- satyric (adj.)
- c.1600, from Latin satyricus, from Greek satyrikos "pertaining to a satyr or satyrs," from satyros (see satyr).
- sauce (n.)
- mid-14c., from Old French sauce, sausse, from Latin salsa "things salted, salt food," noun use of fem. singular or neuter plural of adjective salsus "salted," from past participle of Old Latin sallere "to salt," from sal (genitive salis) "salt" (see salt (n.)).
Meaning "something which adds piquancy to words or actions" is recorded from c.1500; sense of "impertinence" first recorded 1835 (see saucy, and cf. sass). Slang meaning "liquor" first attested 1940.
- sauce (v.)
- mid-15c., "to season," from sauce (n.). From 1862 as "to speak impertinently." Related: Sauced; saucing.
- saucebox (n.)
- "one addicted to making saucy remarks," 1580s, from sauce (n.) + box (n.1).
- saucepan (n.)
- 1680s, from sauce (n.) + pan (n.). Originally a pan for cooking sauces.
- saucer (n.)
- mid-14c., from Anglo-Latin saucerium and Old French saussier (Modern French saucière) "sauce dish," from Late Latin salsarium, neuter of salsarius "of or for salted things," from Latin salsus (see sauce (n.)). Originally a small dish or pan in which sauce is set on a table. Meaning "small, round, shallow vessel for supporting a cup and retaining any liquid which might be spilled" is attested from c.1702.
- saucily (adv.)
- 1540s; see saucy + -ly (2).
- sauciness (n.)
- 1540s, from saucy + -ness.
- saucy (adj.)
- c.1500, "resembling sauce," later "impertinent, flippantly bold, cheeky" (1520s), from sauce (n.) + -y (2). The connecting notion is the figurative sense of "piquancy in words or actions." Cf. sauce malapert "impertinence" (1520s), and slang phrase to have eaten sauce "be abusive" (1520s). Also cf. salty in same senses.
- Saudi (adj.)
- 1933, from Sa'ud, family name of the rulers of Nejd from 18c. and of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia since 1932. The name is from Arabic sa'd "good fortune, happiness."
- sauerkraut (n.)
- 1630s, from German Sauerkraut, literally "sour cabbage," from sauer "sour" (from Proto-Germanic *sura-; see sour (adj.)) + Kraut "vegetable, cabbage," from Old High German krut, from Proto-Germanic *kruthan.
They pickle it [cabbage] up in all high Germany, with salt and barberies, and so keepe it all the yeere, being commonly the first dish you have served in at table, which they call their sawerkrant. [James Hart, "Klinike, or the diet of the diseased," 1633]In U.S. slang, figurative use for "a German" dates from 1858 (cf. kraut). "The effort to substitute liberty-cabbage for sauerkraut, made by professional patriots in 1918, was a complete failure." [Mencken]. French choucroute (19c.) is from Alsatian German surkrut (corresponding to German Sauerkraut), with folk etymology alteration based on chou "cabbage" + croûte "crust" (n.).
- Sauk (1)
- midwestern U.S. Indian tribe, 1722, alternative writing of Sac.
- Sauk (2)
- southern Coastal Salishan group of Native Americans, from a native Lushootseed name, probably folk-etymologized by influence of Sauk (1).
- masc. proper name, Biblical first king of Israel, from Latin Saul, from Hebrew Shaul, literally "asked for," passive participle of sha'al "he asked for."
- sault (n.)
- "waterfall or rapid," c.1600, from colonial French sault, 17c. alternative spelling of saut "to leap," from Latin saltus, from salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)).
- sauna (n.)
- 1881, from Finnish sauna.
- saunter (v.)
- late 15c., santren "to muse, be in reverie," of uncertain origin despite many absurd speculations. Meaning "walk with a leisurely gait" is from 1660s, and may be a different word. Klein suggests this sense of the word derives via Anglo-French sauntrer (mid-14c.) from French s'aventurer "to take risks," but OED finds this "unlikely." Related: Sauntered; sauntering.