sour (v.) Look up sour at
c. 1300, from sour (adj.). Compare Old High German suren, German säuern. Related: Soured; souring.
sourball (n.) Look up sourball at
1900 as "constantly grumbling person;" 1914 as a type of candy; from sour (adj.) + ball (n.1).
source (n.) Look up source at
mid-14c., "support, base," from Old French sourse "a rising, beginning, fountainhead of a river or stream" (12c.), fem. noun taken from past participle of sourdre "to rise, spring up," from Latin surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)). Meaning "a first cause" is from late 14c., as is that of "fountain-head of a river." Meaning "person or written work supplying information or evidence" is by 1777.
source (v.) Look up source at
"obtain from a specified source," 1972, from source (n.). Related: Sourced; sourcing.
sourdough (n.) Look up sourdough at
early 14c., "leavened bread," also "leaven" (late 14c.), from sour (adj.) + dough. Meaning "fermented dough" is from 1868. The meaning "Arctic prospector or pioneer" is from 1898 Yukon gold rush, from the practice of saving a lump of fermented dough as leaven for raising bread baked during the winter.
sourly (adv.) Look up sourly at
1530s, from sour (adj.) + -ly (2).
sourness (n.) Look up sourness at
Old English surnes; see sour (adj.) + -ness.
sourpuss (n.) Look up sourpuss at
1937, from sour (adj.) + puss (n.2) "face."
sous chef (n.) Look up sous chef at
early 19c., from French sous, from Old French soz (10c.), from Latin subtus "under, below" (see sub-) + chef.
sousaphone (n.) Look up sousaphone at
1903, named for U.S. bandleader and composer John Philip Sousa (1854-1932).
The first sousaphone was made by C.G. Conn in 1899 expressly for Sousa's band and its bell opened directly upward. The present bell-front type was first made in 1908. ["International Cyclopedia of Music," 1939]
souse (v.) Look up souse at
late 14c., "to pickle, steep in vinegar," from Old French sous (adj.) "preserved in salt and vinegar," from Frankish *sultja or some other Germanic source (compare Old Saxon sultia "salt water," Old High German sulza "brine"), from Proto-Germanic *salt- (see salt (n.)). Related: Soused; sousing.
souse (n.) Look up souse at
something steeped in pickle, especially "pig parts preserved and pickled," mid-15c., earlier "liquid for pickling" (late 14c.), from souse (v.) or from its French source.
soused (adj.) Look up soused at
"drunk," 1610s, from past participle of souse (v.), on notion of one "pickled" in liquor.
soutane (n.) Look up soutane at
"long, buttoned gown or frock with sleeves, outer garment of Roman Catholic ecclesiastics," 1838, from French soutane, from Old French sotane "undershirt," from Medieval Latin subtana "an under-cassock," from Latin subtus "beneath, under, below" (see sub-).
souteneur (n.) Look up souteneur at
"man who lives on the earnings of one or more prostitutes under his protection, pimp," 1906, French, literally "protector," from soutenir "to sustain" (see sustain).
souter (n.) Look up souter at
"maker or mender of shoes," Old English sutere, from Latin sutor "shoemaker," from suere "to sew, stitch" (see sew).
south (adv.) Look up south at
Old English suð "southward, to the south, southern, in the south," from Proto-Germanic *sunthaz, perhaps literally "sun-side" (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian suth "southward, in the south," Middle Dutch suut, Dutch zuid, German Süden), and related to base of *sunnon "sun" (see sun (v.)). Old French sur, sud (French sud), Spanish sur, sud are loan-words from Germanic, perhaps from Old Norse suðr.

As an adjective from c. 1300; as a noun, "one of the four cardinal points," also "southern region of a country," both late 13c. The Southern states of the U.S. have been collectively called The South since 1779 (in early use this often referred only to Georgia and South Carolina). South country in Britain means the part below the Tweed, in England the part below the Wash, and in Scotland the part below the Forth. South Sea meant "the Mediterranean" (late 14c.) and "the English Channel" (early 15c.) before it came to mean (in plural) "the South Pacific Ocean" (1520s). The nautical coat called a sou'wester (1836) protects the wearer against severe weather, such as a gale out of the southwest.
South Africa Look up South Africa at
1815 as a name for a distinct region that had been partly settled by Europeans; 1910 as the name of a nation.
southbound (adj.) Look up southbound at
1872, originally in railroading, from south + bound (adj.2).
southeast (adv.) Look up southeast at
Old English suðeast; see south + east. Related: Southeasterly; southeastern.
southerly Look up southerly at
1550s (adj.); 1570s (adv.); from southern + -ly. Related: Southerliness.
southern Look up southern at
Old English suðerne, from suð "south" (see south) + -erne, suffix denoting direction. A common Germanic compound (Old Frisian suthern, Old Norse suðroenn, Old High German sundroni). The constellation Southern Cross so called in English by 1756.
southerner (n.) Look up southerner at
1817, American English, from southern. Contrasted with Yankee by 1828.
southernmost (adj.) Look up southernmost at
1725, from southern + -most.
southland (n.) Look up southland at
Old English suðland, see south + land (n.).
southmost (adj.) Look up southmost at
Old English suðmest; see south + -most.
southpaw (n.) Look up southpaw at
"lefthander," 1885, originally baseball slang, of pitchers, often said to have been coined by Finley Peter Dunne ("Mr. Dooley"), Chicago sports journalist and humorist, in the days when, it is said, baseball diamonds regularly were laid out with home plate to the west. But south paw "a person's left hand" is attested from 1848 in the slang of pugilism.
Southron (n.) Look up Southron at
"inhabitant of the southern part of a country," late 15c., variant (originally Scottish and northern English) of southren (late 14c.), on analogy of Briton, Saxon, from Old English suðerne or Old Norse suðrænn "southern" (see southern). Popularized in English by Jane Porter's enormously popular historical novel "Scottish Chiefs" (1810), and adopted in U.S. by many in the Southern states. She also used it as an adjective. Old English had suðmann "Southman."
But the moment I heard he was in arms, I grasped at the opportunity of avenging my country, and of trampling on the proud heart of the Southron villain who had dared to inflict disgrace upon the cheek of Roger Kirkpatrick. ["Scottish Chiefs"]
southward (adj.) Look up southward at
Old English suðweard; see south + -ward.
southwest (adv.) Look up southwest at
Old English suð-west; see south + west. As a noun from early 12c. Related: Southwester; southwesterly.
southwestern (adj.) Look up southwestern at
Old English suðwesterne; see southwest + -ern. In reference to a section of the U.S., from 1806, when it meant "Mississippi and Alabama."
souvenir (n.) Look up souvenir at
1775, "a remembrance or memory," from French souvenir (12c.), from Old French noun use of souvenir (v.) "to remember, come to mind," from Latin subvenire "come to mind," from sub- "up from below" (see sub-) + venire "to come" (see venue). Meaning "token of remembrance, memento" is first recorded 1782.
souvlaki (n.) Look up souvlaki at
1959, from Modern Greek soublaki, from soubla "skewer," in classical Greek "awl," akin to Latin subula, from PIE *syu- (see sew (v)).
sovereign (n.) Look up sovereign at
late 13c., "superior, ruler, master," from Old French soverain "sovereign, lord, ruler," noun use of adjective meaning "highest, supreme, chief" (see sovereign (adj.)). Meaning "gold coin worth 22s 6d" first recorded late 15c.; value changed 1817 to 1 pound.
sovereign (adj.) Look up sovereign at
early 14c., "great, superior, supreme," from Old French soverain "highest, supreme, chief," from Vulgar Latin *superanus "chief, principal" (source also of Spanish soberano, Italian soprano), from Latin super "over" (see super-). Spelling influenced by folk-etymology association with reign. Milton spelled it sovran, as though from Italian sovrano. Of remedies or medicines, "potent in a high degree," from late 14c.
sovereignty (n.) Look up sovereignty at
mid-14c., "pre-eminence," from Anglo-French sovereynete, Old French souverainete, from soverain (see sovereign (adj.)). Meaning "authority, rule, supremacy of power or rank" is recorded from late 14c.; sense of "existence as an independent state" is from 1715.
soviet (n.) Look up soviet at
1917, from Russian sovet "governing council," literally "council," from Old Russian suvetu "assembly," from su "with" (from *su(n)- "with, together," from PIE *ksun- "with") + vetu "counsel." The whole is a loan-translation of Greek symboulion "council of advisers." As an adjective from 1918.
Soviet Union Look up Soviet Union at
informal name of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; in use in U.S. newspapers by October 1919.
sow (v.) Look up sow at
Old English sawan "to scatter seed upon the ground or plant it in the earth, disseminate" (class VII strong verb; past tense seow, past participle sawen), from Proto-Germanic *sean (cognates: Old Norse sa, Old Saxon saian, Middle Dutch sayen, Dutch zaaien, Old High German sawen, German säen, Gothic saian), from PIE root *se- (1) "to sow" (cognates: Latin sero, past tense sevi, past participle satum "to sow;" Old Church Slavonic sejo, sejati; Lithuanian seju, seti "to sow"), source of semen, season (n.), seed (n.), etc. Figurative sense was in Old English.
sow (n.) Look up sow at
Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old High German su, German Sau, Dutch zeug, Old Norse syr), from PIE root *su- (cognates: Sanskrit sukarah "wild boar, swine;" Avestan hu "wild boar;" Greek hys "swine;" Latin sus "swine," swinus "pertaining to swine;" Old Church Slavonic svinija "swine;" Lettish sivens "young pig;" Welsh hucc, Irish suig "swine; Old Irish socc "snout, plowshare"), possibly imitative of pig noise, a notion reinforced by the fact that Sanskrit sukharah means "maker of (the sound) 'su.' " Related to swine. As a term of abuse for a woman, attested from c. 1500. Sow-bug "hog louse" is from 1750.
sower (n.) Look up sower at
Old English sawere, agent noun from sow (v.).
Soweto (n.) Look up Soweto at
black African community outside Johannesburg, South Africa, formed from first letters of South Western Townships. Related: Sowetan.
sown Look up sown at
past participle of sow (v.).
sox (n.) Look up sox at
altered plural of sock (n.1), 1905, originally in commercial jargon.
soy (n.) Look up soy at
1670s, saio "soybean-based Asian fish sauce," from Dutch soya, from Japanese soyu, variant of shoyu "soy," from Chinese shi-yu, from shi "fermented soy beans" + yu "oil." Etymology reflects Dutch presence in Japan before English and American merchants began to trade there.
soya (n.) Look up soya at
"soy," 1670s; see soy. Soyaburger is attested from 1953.
soybean (n.) Look up soybean at
1795, from soy + bean (n.).
sozzled (adj.) Look up sozzled at
"drunk," 1886, from sozzle "to mix or mingle sloppily" (1836).
spa (n.) Look up spa at
"medicinal or mineral spring," 1620s, from the name of the health resort in eastern Belgium, known since 14c., that features mineral springs believed to have curative properties. The place name is from Walloon espa "spring, fountain." As "commercial establishment offering health and beauty treatments," 1960.
space (n.) Look up space at
c. 1300, "extent or area; room" (to do something), a shortening of Old French espace "period of time, distance, interval" (12c.), from Latin spatium "room, area, distance, stretch of time," of unknown origin (also source of Spanish espacio, Italian spazio).

From early 14c. as "a place," also "amount or extent of time." From mid-14c. as "distance, interval of space;" from late 14c. as "ground, land, territory; extension in three dimensions; distance between two or more points." From early 15c. as "size, bulk," also "an assigned position." Typographical sense is attested from 1670s (typewriter space-bar is from 1876, earlier space-key, 1860).

Astronomical sense of "stellar depths, immense emptiness between the worlds" is by 1723, perhaps as early as "Paradise Lost" (1667), common from 1890s. Space age is attested from 1946. Many compounds first appeared in science fiction and speculative writing, such as spaceship (1894, "A Journey in Other Worlds," John Jacob Astor); spacecraft (1928, "Popular Science"); space travel (1931); space station (1936, "Rockets Through Space"); spaceman (1942, "Thrilling Wonder Stories"). Space race attested from 1959. Space shuttle attested by 1970.
Space isn't remote at all. It's only an hour's drive away if your car could go straight upwards. [Sir Fred Hoyle, "London Observer," 1979]