shake (n.) Look up shake at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "charge, onrush," from shake (v.). Meaning "a hard shock" is from 1560s. From 1580s as "act of shaking;" 1660s as "irregular vibration." The hand-grip salutation so called by 1712. As a figure of instantaneous action, it is recorded from 1816. Phrase fair shake "honest deal" is attested from 1830, American English (Bartlett calls it "A New England vulgarism"). The shakes "nervous agitation" is from 1620s. Short for milk shake from 1911. Dismissive phrase no great shakes (1816, Byron) perhaps is from dicing.
shake-down (n.) Look up shake-down at Dictionary.com
also shakedown, 1730, "impromptu bed made upon loose straw," from verbal phrase; see shake (v.) + down (adv.). Meaning "forced contribution" (1902) is from the verbal phrase in a slang sense "blackmail, extort" (1872). Meaning "a thorough search" is from 1914; perhaps from the notion of measuring corn. The oldest use of the verbal phrase shake down is "cause to totter and fall" (c.1400).
shake-up (n.) Look up shake-up at Dictionary.com
also shakeup, "reorganization," 1899, from verbal phrase, from shake (v.) + up (adv.).
shaken (adj.) Look up shaken at Dictionary.com
of persons, "weakened and agitated by shocks," 1640s, past participle adjective from shake (v.).
shakeout (n.) Look up shakeout at Dictionary.com
also shake-out, "business upheaval," 1895, from verbal phrase; see shake (v.) + out (adv.).
shaker (n.) Look up shaker at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "one who or which shakes," agent noun from shake (v.). Applied from 1640s (with capital initial) to various Christian sects whose devotional exercises often involved convulsions. The best-known, the American-based "Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing;" so called from 1784; the adjective with reference to furniture styles associated with these Shakers is recorded from 1866. Meaning "container for mixing cocktails, etc." is recorded from 1868. Phrase movers and shakers is attested from 1874.
Shakespeare Look up Shakespeare at Dictionary.com
surname recorded from 1248; it means "a spearman." This was a common type of English surname (Shakelance (1275), Shakeshaft (1332)). Shake (v.) in the sense of "to brandish or flourish (a weapon)" is attested from late Old English
Heo scæken on heore honden speren swiðe stronge. [Laymon, "Brut," c. 1205]
Compare also shake-buckler "a swaggerer, a bully;" shake-rag "ragged fellow, tatterdemalion." "Never a name in English nomenclature so simple or so certain in origin. It is exactly what it looks -- Shakespear" [Bardsley, "Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames," 1901]. Nevertheless, speculation flourishes. The name was variously written in contemporary records, also Shakespear, Shakespere, the last form being the one adopted by the New Shakespere Society of London and the first edition of the OED. Related: Shakespearian (1753); Shakesperean (1796); Shakesperian (1755).
shaking (n.) Look up shaking at Dictionary.com
late 14c., verbal noun from shake (v.).
shako (n.) Look up shako at Dictionary.com
cylindrical soldier's hat with plume, 1815, from Hungarian csákó, short for csákós süveg "peaked cap," from adjectival form of csáko "peak, projecting point of a cow's horn," which some European etymologists derive from German zacken "point, spike," but which Hungarian sources regard as of unknown origin.
Shakti (n.) Look up Shakti at Dictionary.com
from Sanskrit saknoti "is able, is strong," from PIE root *kak- "to enable, help."
shaky (adj.) Look up shaky at Dictionary.com
1840, of handwriting; 1841 of persons, horses, and credit; 1850 of structures; from shake (v.) + -y (2). General sense of "uncertain, of questionable integrity" is from 1834. Earliest of trees or logs, "split, having fissures" (1808). Related: Shakily; shakiness.
shale (n.) Look up shale at Dictionary.com
1747, possibly a specialized use of Middle English schale "shell, husk, pod" (late 14c.), also "fish scale," from Old English scealu (see shell (n.)) in its base sense of "thing that divides or separate," in reference to the way the rock breaks apart in layers. Compare Middle English sheel "to shell, to take off the outer husk" (late 15c.). Geological use also possibly influenced by German Schalstein "laminated limestone," and Schalgebirge "layer of stone in stratified rock."
shall (v.) Look up shall at Dictionary.com
Old English sceal, Northumbrian scule "I owe/he owes, will have to, ought to, must" (infinitive sculan, past tense sceolde), a common Germanic preterite-present verb (along with can, may, will), from Proto-Germanic *skal- (cognates: Old Saxon sculan, Old Frisian skil, Old Norse and Swedish skola, Middle Dutch sullen, Old High German solan, German sollen, Gothic skulan "to owe, be under obligation;" related via past tense form to Old English scyld "guilt," German Schuld "guilt, debt;" also Old Norse Skuld, name of one of the Norns), from PIE root *skel- (2) "to be under an obligation."

Ground sense of the Germanic word probably is "I owe," hence "I ought." The sense shifted in Middle English from a notion of "obligation" to include "futurity." Its past tense form has become should (q.v.). Cognates outside Germanic are Lithuanian skeleti "to be guilty," skilti "to get into debt;" Old Prussian skallisnan "duty," skellants "guilty."
shallop (n.) Look up shallop at Dictionary.com
"kind of light boat," 1570s, from French chaloupe, from Dutch sloep "sloop" (see sloop). Compare Spanish chalupa, Italian scialuppa.
shallot (n.) Look up shallot at Dictionary.com
"small onion," 1660s, shortened from eschalot, from French échalote, from Middle French eschalotte, from Old French eschaloigne, from Vulgar Latin *escalonia (see scallion).
shallow (adj.) Look up shallow at Dictionary.com
c.1400, schalowe "not deep," probably from or related to Old English sceald (see shoal (n.)). Of breathing, attested from 1875; of thought or feeling, "superficial," first recorded 1580s. The noun, usually shallows, is first recorded 1570s, from the adjective.
shalom Look up shalom at Dictionary.com
Jewish word of greeting, Hebrew, literally "peace," properly "completeness, soundness, welfare," from stem of shalam "was intact, was complete, was in good health." Related to Arabic salima "was safe," aslama "surrendered, submitted."
sham (n.) Look up sham at Dictionary.com
1670s, "a trick, a hoax, a fraud," also as a verb and an adjective, of uncertain origin; the words burst into use in 1677. Perhaps from sham, a northern dialectal variant of shame (n.); a derivation OED finds "not impossible." Sense of "something meant to be mistaken for something else" is from 1728. The meaning "false front" in pillow-sham (1721) is from the notion of "counterfeit." Related: Shammed; shamming; shammer. Shamateur "amateur sportsman who acts like a professional" is from 1896.
shaman (n.) Look up shaman at Dictionary.com
1690s, "priest of the Ural-Altaic peoples," probably via German Schamane, from Russian sha'man, from Tungus saman, which is perhaps from Chinese sha men "Buddhist monk," from Prakrit samaya-, from Sanskrit sramana-s "Buddhist ascetic" [OED]. Related: Shamanic.
shamanism (n.) Look up shamanism at Dictionary.com
1780, from shaman + -ism. Related: Shamanistic.
shamble (v.) Look up shamble at Dictionary.com
"to walk with a shuffling gait, walk awkwardly and unsteadily," 1680s, from an adjective meaning "ungainly, awkward" (c.1600), from shamble (n.) "table, bench" (see shambles), perhaps on the notion of the splayed legs of bench, or the way a worker sits astride it. Compare French bancal "bow-legged, wobbly" (of furniture), properly "bench-legged," from banc "bench." The noun meaning "a shambling gait" is from 1828. Related: Shambled; shambling.
shambles (n.) Look up shambles at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "meat or fish market," from schamil "table, stall for vending" (c.1300), from Old English scamol, scomul "stool, footstool (also figurative); bench, table for vending," an early Proto-Germanic borrowing (Old Saxon skamel "stool," Middle Dutch schamel, Old High German scamel, German schemel, Danish skammel "footstool") from Latin scamillus "low stool, a little bench," ultimately a diminutive of scamnum "stool, bench," from PIE root *skabh- "to prop up, support." In English, sense evolved from "place where meat is sold" to "slaughterhouse" (1540s), then figuratively "place of butchery" (1590s), and generally "confusion, mess" (1901, usually in plural).
shambolic (adj.) Look up shambolic at Dictionary.com
1961, apparently from shamble in the sense "disorder" (see shambles), perhaps on model of symbolic.
shame (n.) Look up shame at Dictionary.com
Old English scamu, sceomu "feeling of guilt or disgrace; confusion caused by shame; disgrace, dishonor, insult, loss of esteem or reputation; shameful circumstance, what brings disgrace; modesty; private parts," from Proto-Germanic *skamo (cognates: Old Saxon skama, Old Norse skömm, Swedish skam, Old Frisian scome, Dutch schaamte, Old High German scama, German Scham). The best guess is that this is from PIE *skem-, from *kem- "to cover" (covering oneself being a common expression of shame).

Until modern times English had a productive duplicate form in shand. An Old Norse word for it was kinnroði, literally "cheek-redness," hence, "blush of shame." Greek distinguished shame in the bad sense of "disgrace, dishonor" (aiskhyne) from shame in the good sense of "modesty, bashfulness" (aidos). To put (someone or something) to shame is mid-13c. Shame culture attested by 1947.
shame (v.) Look up shame at Dictionary.com
Old English scamian "be ashamed, blush, feel shame; cause shame," from the root of shame (n.). Compare Old Saxon scamian, Dutch schamen, Old High German scamen, Danish skamme, Gothic skaman, German schämen sich. Related: Shamed; shaming.
shamefaced (adj.) Look up shamefaced at Dictionary.com
"modest, bashful," 1550s, folk etymology alteration of shamefast, from Old English scamfæst "bashful," literally "restrained by shame," or else "firm in modesty," from shame (n.) + -fæst, adjectival suffix (see fast (adj.)). Related: Shamefacedly; shamefacedness.
shamefaced, -fast. It is true that the second is the original form, that -faced is due to a mistake, & that the notion attached to the word is necessarily affected in some slight degree by the change. But those who, in the flush of this discovery, would revert to -fast in ordinary use are rightly rewarded with the name of pedants .... [Fowler]
shameful (adj.) Look up shameful at Dictionary.com
Old English scamful "modest;" see shame (n.) + -ful. Meaning "disgraceful, causing shame" is from c.1300. Related: Shamefully; shamefulness. Middle English shamely (adv.) "shamefully" for some reason has fallen from use. Old English scamlic (adj.) "shameful, disgraceful," but this also could mean "modest."
shameless (adj.) Look up shameless at Dictionary.com
Old English scamleas "shameless, impudent, immodest;" see shame (n.) + -less. Related: Shamelessly; shamelessness. Similar formation in Old Norse skammlauss, Dutch schaamteloos, Old High German scamalos, German schamlos.
shammy (n.) Look up shammy at Dictionary.com
1650s, phonetic spelling of chamois. Other bungled spellings include shambo (1610s), shamois, shamoys, shammies. Compare shay from chaise; shappo (1700) for chapeau; shapperoon (1620s) for chaperon.
shampoo (v.) Look up shampoo at Dictionary.com
1762, "to massage," from Anglo-Indian shampoo, from Hindi champo, imperative of champna "to press, knead the muscles," perhaps from Sanskrit capayati "pounds, kneads." Meaning "wash the hair" first recorded 1860; extended 1954 to carpets, upholstery, etc. Related: Shampooed; shampooing.
shampoo (n.) Look up shampoo at Dictionary.com
"soap for shampooing," 1866, from shampoo (v.).
shamrock (n.) Look up shamrock at Dictionary.com
1570s, from Irish seamrog, diminutive of seamar "clover." Compare Gaelic seamrag "trefoil."
shamus (n.) Look up shamus at Dictionary.com
"police officer, detective," 1920, apparently first in "The Shamus," a detective story published that year by Harry J. Loose (1880-1943), a Chicago police detective and crime writer; the book was marketed as "a true tale of thiefdom and an expose of the real system in crime." The word is said to be probably from Yiddish shames, literally "sexton of a synagogue" ("a potent personage only next in influence to the President" [Israel Zangwill]), from Hebrew shamash "servant;" influenced by Celtic Seamus "James," as a typical name for an Irish cop.
shan't Look up shan't at Dictionary.com
by 1660s, "colloquial" [OED] contraction of shall not.
shanachie (n.) Look up shanachie at Dictionary.com
"skilled teller of tales and legends," from Old Irish sen "old," from PIE root *sen- (see senile).
shandy (n.) Look up shandy at Dictionary.com
"mix of beer and fizzy lemonade," 1888, shortening of shandygaff (1853), of obscure origin.
Shane Look up Shane at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, pronunciation-based variant of Sean.
shanghai (v.) Look up shanghai at Dictionary.com
"to drug a man unconscious and ship him as a sailor," 1854, American English, from the practice of kidnapping to fill the crews of ships making extended voyages, such as to the Chinese seaport of Shanghai.
Shanghai Look up Shanghai at Dictionary.com
Chinese seaport, literally "by the sea," from Shang "on, above" + hai "sea." In 19c., a long-legged breed of hens, supposed to have come from there; hence U.S. slang senses relating to long, tall persons or things.
Shangri La (n.) Look up Shangri La at Dictionary.com
imaginary earthly paradise, 1938, from Shangri La, name of Tibetan utopia in James Hilton's novel "Lost Horizon" (1933, film version 1937). In Tibetan, la means "mountain pass."
shank (v.) Look up shank at Dictionary.com
1927, in golf, "to strike (the ball) with the heel of the club," from shank (n.). Related: Shanked; shanking. Earlier as "to take to one's legs" (1774, Scottish); "to send off without ceremony" (1816).
shank (n.) Look up shank at Dictionary.com
Old English sceanca "leg, shank, shinbone," specifically, the part of the leg from the knee to the ankle, from Proto-Germanic *skankon- (cognates: Middle Low German schenke, German schenkel "shank, leg"), perhaps literally "that which bends," from PIE root *skeng- "crooked" (cognates: Old Norse skakkr "wry, distorted," Greek skazein "to limp"). Shank's mare "one's own legs as a means of transportation" is attested from 1774 (shanks-naig).
Shannon Look up Shannon at Dictionary.com
river in Ireland, the name is something like "old man river," from a Proto-Celtic word related to Irish sean "old" (see senile).
shantung (n.) Look up shantung at Dictionary.com
type of coarse silk, 1882, from Shantung province, in China, where the fabric was made. The place name is "east of the mountain," from shan (mountain) + dong (east). The mountain in question is Tan Shan. West of it is Shansi, from xi "west."
shanty (n.1) Look up shanty at Dictionary.com
"rough cabin," 1820, from Canadian French chantier "lumberjack's headquarters," in French, "timberyard, dock," from Old French chantier "gantry," from Latin cantherius "rafter, frame" (see gantry). Shanty Irish in reference to the Irish underclass in the U.S., is from 1928 (title of a book by Jim Tully).
shanty (n.2) Look up shanty at Dictionary.com
"sea song," 1867, alternative spelling of chanty (n.).
shantytown (n.) Look up shantytown at Dictionary.com
also shanty town, 1836, from shanty (n.1) + town.
shape (v.) Look up shape at Dictionary.com
Old English scapan, past participle of scieppan "to create, form, destine" (past tense scop), from Proto-Germanic *skapjanan "create, ordain" (cognates: Old Norse skapa, Danish skabe, Old Saxon scapan, Old Frisian skeppa, Middle Dutch schappen "do, treat," Old High German scaffan, German schaffen "shape, create, produce"), from PIE root *(s)kep- a base forming words meaning "to cut, scrape, hack" (see scabies), which acquired broad technical senses and in Germanic a specific sense of "to create."

Old English scieppan survived into Middle English as shippen, but shape emerged as a regular verb (with past tense shaped) by 1500s. The old past participle form shapen survives in misshapen. Middle English shepster (late 14c.) "dressmaker, female cutter-out," is literally "shape-ster," from Old English scieppan.

Meaning "to form in the mind" is from late 14c. Phrase Shape up (v.) is literally "to give form to by stiff or solid material;" attested from 1865 as "progress;" from 1938 as "reform;" shape up or ship out is attested from 1956, originally U.S. military slang, with the sense being "do right or get shipped up to active duty."
shape (n.) Look up shape at Dictionary.com
Old English sceap, gesceap "form; created being, creature; creation; condition; sex, genitalia," from root of shape (v.)). Meaning "contours of the body" is attested from late 14c. Meaning "condition, state" is first recorded 1865, American English. In Middle English, the word in plural also had a sense of "a woman's private parts." Shape-shifter attested from 1820. Out of shape "not in proper shape" is from 1690s. Shapesmith "one who undertakes to improve the form of the body" was used in 1715.
shapeless (adj.) Look up shapeless at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from shape (n.) + -less. Related: Shapelessly; shapelessness.