salination (n.) Look up salination at
1705; see saline (adj.) -ation, ending used in forming nouns of action.
saline (adj.) Look up saline at
"made of salt," c. 1500, probably from a Latin word related to salinum "salt cellar" and salinae "salt pits," from sal (genitive salis) "salt" (see salt (n.)). Also in Middle English as a noun meaning "salt pit" (13c.). Saline solution attested from 1833.
salinity (n.) Look up salinity at
1650s; see saline + -ity.
Salisbury steak (n.) Look up Salisbury steak at
1897, from J.H. Salisbury (1823-1905), U.S. physician and food specialist, who promoted it. Incorrect use for "hamburger" traces to World War I and the deliberate attempt to purify American English of German loan words.
Salish (n.) Look up Salish at
self-designation of the Native American people of Montana also known as Flathead, from a term containing -ish "people." The language group that includes their tongue has been called Salishan.
saliva (n.) Look up saliva at
early 15c., from Middle French salive, from Latin saliva "spittle," of unknown origin (perhaps, as Tucker suggests, somehow derived from the base of sallow (adj.)).
salivary (adj.) Look up salivary at
1709, from Latin salivarius, from saliva (see saliva).
salivate (v.) Look up salivate at
1650s, "cause to produce saliva;" intransitive sense from 1680s, from Latin salivatus, past participle of salivare, from saliva (see saliva). Figurative use in reference to anticipation by 1965. Related: Salivated; salivating.
salivation (n.) Look up salivation at
1590s, from French salivation or directly from Latin salivationem (nominative salivatio), noun of action from past participle stem of salivare (see salivate).
Salk Look up Salk at
in reference to vaccine against poliomyelitis, 1954, from U.S. virologist Jonas Edward Salk (1914-1995), who developed it.
sallow (adj.) Look up sallow at
Old English salo "dusky, dark" (related to sol "dark, dirty"), from Proto-Germanic *salwa- (source also of Middle Dutch salu "discolored, dirty," Old High German salo "dirty gray," Old Norse sölr "dirty yellow"), from PIE root *sal- (2) "dirty, gray" (source also of Old Church Slavonic slavojocije "grayish-blue color," Russian solovoj "cream-colored"). Related: Sallowness.
sallow (n.) Look up sallow at
"shrubby willow plant," Old English sealh (Anglian salh), from Proto-Germanic *salhjon (source also of Old Norse selja, Old High German salaha, and first element in German compound Salweide), from PIE *sal(i)k- "willow" (source also of Latin salix "willow," Middle Irish sail, Welsh helygen, Breton halegen "willow"). French saule "willow" is from Frankish salha, from the Germanic root. Used in Palm Sunday processions and decorations in England before the importing of real palm leaves began.
sally (n.) Look up sally at
1540s, "a sudden rush, dash, or springing forth; specifically of troops from a besieged place, attacking the besiegers," from Middle French saillie "a rushing forth," noun use of fem. past participle of saillir "to leap," from Latin salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)). Sally-port "gate or passage in a fortification to afford free egress to troops in making a sally" is from 1640s.
Sally Look up Sally at
fem. proper name, alteration of Sarah (compare Hal from Harry, Moll from Mary, etc.). Sally Lunn cakes (1780) supposedly named for the woman in Bath who first made them and sold them in the streets. Sally Ann as a nickname for Salvation Army is recorded from 1927.
sally (v.) Look up sally at
1540s, from sally (n.). Related: Sallied; sallying.
salmagundi (n.) Look up salmagundi at
1670s, from French salmigondis (16c.), originally "seasoned salt meats" (compare French salmis "salted meats"), from Middle French salmigondin (16c.), of uncertain origin; Watkins derives it from Latin sal "salt" + condire "to season, flavor." Probably related to or influenced by Old French salemine "hodgepodge of meats or fish cooked in wine," which was borrowed in Middle English as salomene (early 14c.). Figurative sense of "mixture of various ingredients" is from 1761; it was the title of Washington Irving's satirical publication (1807-08). In dialect, salmon-gundy, solomon-gundy..
salmon (n.) Look up salmon at
early 13c., from Anglo-French samoun, Old French salmun (Modern French saumon), from Latin salmonem (nominative salmo) "a salmon," probably originally "leaper," from salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)), though some dismiss this as folk etymology. Another theory traces it to Celtic. Replaced Old English læx, from PIE *lax, the more usual word for the fish (see lox). In reference to a color, from 1786.
Salmonella (n.) Look up Salmonella at
1913, the genus name, coined 1900 in Modern Latin by J. Lignières in reference to U.S. veterinary surgeon Daniel E. Salmon (1850-1914), who isolated a type of the bacteria in 1885.
Salome Look up Salome at
fem. proper name, from Late Latin, from Greek Salome, related to Salomon (see Solomon).
salon (n.) Look up salon at
1690s, "large room or apartment in a palace or great house," from French salon "reception room" (17c.), from Italian salone "large hall," from sala "hall," from a Germanic source (compare Old English sele, Old Norse salr "hall," Old High German sal "hall, house," German Saal), from Proto-Germanic *salaz, from PIE *sel- (1) "human settlement" (source also of Old Church Slavonic selo "courtyard, village," obsolete Polish siolo, Russian selo "village," Lithuanian sala "village").

Sense of "reception room of a Parisian lady" is from 1810; meaning "gathering of fashionable people" first recorded 1888 (the woman who hosts one is a salonnière). Meaning "annual exhibition of contemporary paintings and sculpture in Paris" is from its originally being held in one of the salons of the Louvre. Meaning "establishment for hairdressing and beauty care" is from 1913.
saloon (n.) Look up saloon at
1728, Englished form of salon, and originally used interchangeable with it. Meaning "large hall in a public place for entertainment, etc." is from 1747; especially a passenger boat from 1817, also used of railway cars furnished like drawing rooms (1842). Sense of "public bar" developed by 1841, American English.
saloop (n.) Look up saloop at
"sassafras tea, variously flavored," 1712, originally a variant of salep (q.v.).
Salopian (adj.) Look up Salopian at
"pertaining to Shropshire;" see Shropshire.
salsa (n.) Look up salsa at
kind of sauce, 1846; kind of dance music, 1975, from Spanish, literally "sauce," from Vulgar Latin *salsa "condiment" (see sauce (n.)). In American Spanish especially used of a kind of relish with chopped-up ingredients; the music so called from its blend of Latin jazz and rock styles.
salsify (n.) Look up salsify at
biennial plant, 1710, from French salsifis, earlier sercifi, sassify (16c.), probably from Italian erba salsifica, from Old Italian salsifica, of uncertain origin, perhaps from Latin sal "salt" + fricare "to rub."
SALT (n.) Look up SALT at
Cold War U.S.-U.S.S.R. nuclear weapons negotiations, 1968, acronym for Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (which would make SALT talks redundant, but the last element sometimes also is understood as treaty).
salt (v.) Look up salt at
Old English sealtan, from Proto-Germanic *salto- (see salt (n.)), and in part from the noun. Related: Salted; salting.
salt (n.) Look up salt at
Old English sealt "salt" (n.; also as an adjective, "salty, briny"), from Proto-Germanic *saltom (source also of Old Saxon, Old Norse, Old Frisian, Gothic salt, Dutch zout, German Salz), from PIE *sal- (1) "salt" (source also of Greek hals "salt, sea," Latin sal, Old Church Slavonic soli, Old Irish salann, Welsh halen "salt").

Modern chemistry sense is from 1790. Meaning "experienced sailor" is first attested 1840, in reference to the salinity of the sea. Salt was long regarded as having power to repel spiritual and magical evil. Many metaphoric uses reflect that this was once a rare and important resource, such as worth one's salt (1830), salt of the earth (Old English, after Matthew v.13). Belief that spilling salt brings bad luck is attested from 16c. To be above (or below) the salt (1590s) refers to customs of seating at a long table according to rank or honor, and placing a large salt-cellar in the middle of the dining table.

Salt-lick first recorded 1751; salt-marsh is Old English sealtne mersc; salt-shaker is from 1882. Salt-and-pepper "of dark and light color" first recorded 1915. To take something with a grain of salt is from 1640s, from Modern Latin cum grano salis.
salt river (n.) Look up salt river at
a tidal river, 1650s; as a proper name, used early 19c. with reference to backwoods inhabitants of the U.S., especially Kentucky. U.S. political slang phrase to row (someone) up Salt River "send (someone) to political defeat" probably owes its origin to this, as the first attested use (1828) is in a Kentucky context.
salt water (n.) Look up salt water at
Old English sealtera watera. As an adjective from 1520s. Salt-water taffy attested by 1886; so called because it originally was sold at seashore resorts, especially Atlantic City, N.J. (see taffy).
salt-box (n.) Look up salt-box at
also saltbox, "receptacle for keeping salt for domestic use," 1610s, from salt (n.) + box (n.). As a type of frame house, 1876, so called from resemblance of shape.
salt-cellar (n.) Look up salt-cellar at
mid-15c., from salt (n.) + saler "salt-cellar" (14c.), from Old French salier "salt box" (Modern French salière), from Latin salarium, noun use of adjective meaning "pertaining to salt," from a diminutive of Latin sal "salt." As the connection between *saler and "salt" was lost, salt- was tacked on to the beginning; second element altered on model of cellar.
saltation (n.) Look up saltation at
"a leap, a bound," 1620s, from Latin saltationem (nominative saltatio) "a dancing; dance," noun of action from past participle stem of saltare "to hop, dance," frequentative of salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)).
saltine (n.) Look up saltine at
"salted flat cracker," 1907, short for saltine cracker (1894), from salt (n.) + -ine (1).
saltiness (n.) Look up saltiness at
1660s, from salty + -ness.
saltire (n.) Look up saltire at
c. 1400, an ordinary that resembles a St. Andrew's Cross on a shield or flag, consisting of a bend dexter and a bend sinister crossing each other, from Middle French saultoir, literally "stirrup," from Medieval Latin saltatorium, properly neuter of Latin saltatorius "pertaining to leaping," from salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)). The connection between a stirrup and the diagonal cross is perhaps the two deltoid shapes that comprise the cross.
saltpeter (n.) Look up saltpeter at
"potassium nitrate," c. 1500, earlier salpetre (early 14c.), from Old French salpetre, from Medieval Latin sal petrae "salt of rock," from Latin sal "salt" (see salt (n.)) + petra "rock, stone" (see petrous). So called because it looks like salt encrusted on rock.
saltpetre (n.) Look up saltpetre at
chiefly British English spelling of saltpeter (q.v.); for ending, see -re.
salty (adj.) Look up salty at
mid-15c., "tasting of salt, impregnated with salt," from salt (n.) + -y (2). Meaning "racy" is from 1866, from salt in the sense of "that which gives life or pungency" (1570s, originally of words or wit). Meaning "racy, sexy" is from 1866. U.S. slang sense of "angry, irritated" is first attested 1938 (probably from similar use with regard to sailors, "tough, aggressive," attested by 1920), especially in phrase jump salty "to unexpectedly become enraged." Related: Saltily.
salubrious (adj.) Look up salubrious at
1540s, from Latin salubris "promoting health, healthful," from salus (genitive salutis) "welfare, health" (see salute (v.)). Related: Salubriously; salubriousness.
salubrity (n.) Look up salubrity at
early 15c., from Latin salubritas, from salubris "promoting health, healthful" (see salubrious).
salud Look up salud at
Spanish, literally "(good) health;" first attested in English 1931. French equivalent salut attested in English by 1921.
salutary (adj.) Look up salutary at
late 15c., from Middle French salutaire "beneficial," or directly from Latin salutaris "healthful," from salus (genitive salutis) "good health" (see salute).
salutation (n.) Look up salutation at
late 14c., from Old French salutacion "greeting," from Latin salutationem (nominative salutatio) "a greeting, saluting," noun of action from past participle stem of salutare "to greet" (see salute (v.)). As a word of greeting (elliptical for "I offer salutation") it is recorded from 1530s. Related: Salutations.
salutatorian (n.) Look up salutatorian at
1841, American English, from salutatory "of the nature of a salutation," here in the specific sense "designating the welcoming address given at a college commencement" (1702) + -ian. The address was originally usually in Latin and given by the second-ranking graduating student.
salutatory (adj.) Look up salutatory at
1690s, "pertaining to a salutation," from Latin salutatorius "pertaining to visiting or greeting," from salut-, past participle stem of salutare "to greet" (see salute (v.)). From 1702 in reference to an address which welcomes those attending commencement exercises.
salute (v.) Look up salute at
late 14c., "to greet courteously and respectfully," earlier salue (c. 1300), from Latin salutare "to greet, pay respects," literally "wish health to," from salus (genitive salutis) "greeting, good health," related to salvus "safe" (see safe (adj.)). The military and nautical sense of "display flags, fire cannons, etc., as a mark of respect" is recorded from 1580s; specific sense of "raise the hand to the cap in the presence of a superior officer" is from 1844.
salute (n.) Look up salute at
c. 1400, "act of saluting, respectful gesture of greeting, salutation," from salute (v.). The military sense is from 1690s; specifically of the hand-to-cap gesture from 1832.
salvage (n.) Look up salvage at
1640s, "payment for saving a ship from wreck or capture," from French salvage (15c.), from Old French salver "to save" (see save (v.)). The general sense of "the saving of property from danger" is attested from 1878. Meaning "recycling of waste material" is from 1918, from the British effort in World War I.
salvage (v.) Look up salvage at
1889, from salvage (n.). Related: Salvaged; salvaging.