scourge (v.) Look up scourge at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "to whip," from Old French escorgier and from scourge (n.). Figurative meaning "to afflict" (often for the sake of punishment or purification) is from late 14c. Related: Scourged; scourging.
scouse (n.) Look up scouse at Dictionary.com
1840, short for lobscouse "a sailor's stew made of meat, vegetables, and hardtack" (1706), a word of uncertain origin (compare loblolly); transferred sense of "native or inhabitant of Liverpool" (where the stew is a characteristic dish) is recorded from 1945. In reference to the regional dialect, from 1963. Related: Scouser (1959).
Lobscouse. A dish much eaten at sea, composed of salt beef, biscuit and onions, well peppered, and stewed together. [Grose, "Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1788]
scout (v.1) Look up scout at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "observe or explore as a scout, travel in search of information," from Old French escouter "to listen, heed" (Modern French écouter), from Latin auscultare "to listen to, give heed to" (see auscultate). Related: Scouted; scouting.
scout (v.2) Look up scout at Dictionary.com
"to reject with scorn," 1710, earlier "to mock" (c. 1600), of Scandinavian origin (compare Old Norse skuta, skute "to taunt"), probably from a source related to shout (v.). Related: Scouted; scouting; scoutingly.
scout (n.) Look up scout at Dictionary.com
"person who scouts, one sent out to gain information," 1550s, from scout (v.1). Boy Scout is from 1908. Scout's honor attested from 1908.
scouting (n.) Look up scouting at Dictionary.com
1640s, verbal noun from scout (v.1). Boy Scout sense from 1908.
scoutmaster (n.) Look up scoutmaster at Dictionary.com
also scout-master, 1570s, from scout (n.) + master (n.). Boy Scouting sense from 1908.
scow (n.) Look up scow at Dictionary.com
"large flat-bottomed boat," 1780, from Dutch schouw "a ferry boat, punt," from Middle Dutch scouwe, related to Old English scaldan, Old Saxon scaldan "to push (a boat) from shore."
scowl (v.) Look up scowl at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from a Scandinavian source (compare Norwegian skule "look furtively, squint, look embarrassed," Danish skule "to scowl, cast down the eyes"). Probably related to Old English sceolh "wry, oblique," Old High German scelah "curved," German scheel "squint-eyed;" from PIE root *sqel- "crooked, curved, bent." Related: Scowled; scowling.
scowl (n.) Look up scowl at Dictionary.com
c. 1500, from scowl (v.).
scrabble (v.) Look up scrabble at Dictionary.com
1530s, "to scrawl, scribble," from Dutch schrabbelen, frequentative of schrabben "to scratch," from the same root as scrape (v.). Meaning "to struggle, scramble" first recorded 1630s. Related: Scrabbled; scrabbling.
Scrabble (n.) Look up Scrabble at Dictionary.com
board game, 1949, proprietary name (registered U.S.), probably from scribble-scrabble "hasty writing" (1580s), a reduplication of scribble (n.).
scrag (n.) Look up scrag at Dictionary.com
1540s, "lean person or animal, a raw-bones;" perhaps from a Scandinavian source (compare Norwegian skragg "a lean person;" dialectal Swedish skraka "a great, dry tree; a long, lean man," skragge "old and torn thing," Danish skrog "hull of a ship, carcass," Icelandic skröggr, a nickname of the fox); perhaps from root of shrink.
scraggly (adj.) Look up scraggly at Dictionary.com
"having a rough, irregular, or ragged appearance," 1831, from scrag + -ly (1); also compare scraggy.
scraggy (adj.) Look up scraggy at Dictionary.com
early 13c., "rough, jagged" (figurative); 1570s, of landscape, "rough, rugged, stumpy;" 1610s, of persons, "gaunt and wasted, lean, thin, bony;" see scrag + -y (2), and compare scroggy, scraggly. In Scottish, scranky. Related: Scragginess.
scram (v.) Look up scram at Dictionary.com
1928, U.S. slang, either a shortened form of scramble (v.) or from German schramm, imperative singular of schrammen "depart." Related: Scrammed; scramming.
scramble (v.) Look up scramble at Dictionary.com
1580s (intransitive), perhaps a nasalized variant of scrabble (v.), in its sense of "to struggle, to scrape quickly." Transitive sense "to stir or toss together randomly" is from 1822. Broadcasting sense "to make unintelligible" is attested from 1927. Related: Scrambled; scrambling. Scrambled eggs first recorded 1843.
scramble (n.) Look up scramble at Dictionary.com
1670s, "an eager, rude contest or struggle," from scramble (v.). Meaning "a walk or ramble involving clambering and struggling with obstacles" is from 1755. Meaning "rapid take-off" first recorded 1940, R.A.F. slang.
scrannel (adj.) Look up scrannel at Dictionary.com
"thin, meager," 1630s; any modern use traces to Milton ("Lycidas," 124), who may have invented it out of dialectal scranny (see scrawny). Or it might be from a Scandinavian source akin to Norwegian skran "rubbish." Compare English dialectal and Scottish skran "scraps, broken victuals; refuse," in military slang "food."
scrap (n.1) Look up scrap at Dictionary.com
"small piece," late 14c., from Old Norse skrap "scraps, trifles," from skrapa "to scrape, scratch, cut" (see scrape (v.)). Meaning "remains of metal produced after rolling or casting" is from 1790. Scrap iron first recorded 1794.
scrap (n.2) Look up scrap at Dictionary.com
"fight," 1846, possibly a variant of scrape (n.1) on the notion of "an abrasive encounter." Weekley and OED suggest obsolete colloquial scrap "scheme, villainy, vile intention" (1670s).
scrap (v.2) Look up scrap at Dictionary.com
"to fight, brawl, box," 1867, colloquial, from scrap (n.2). Related: Scrapped; scrapping.
scrap (v.1) Look up scrap at Dictionary.com
"to make into scrap," 1883 (of old locomotives), from scrap (n.1). Related: Scrapped; scrapping.
scrap-heap (n.) Look up scrap-heap at Dictionary.com
1803, from scrap (n.1) + heap (n.).
scrapbook (n.) Look up scrapbook at Dictionary.com
also scrap-book, 1821, from scrap (n.1) + book (n.). As a verb, by 1879. Related: Scrapbooked; scrapbooking.
scrape (v.) Look up scrape at Dictionary.com
early 13c., probably from Old Norse skrapa "to scrape, erase," from Proto-Germanic *skrapojan (source also of Old English scrapian "to scrape," Dutch schrapen, German schrappen), from PIE *skerb-, extension of root *(s)ker- "to cut" (see shear (v.)). Meaning "gather by great effort, collect with difficulty" is from 1540s. Related: Scraped; scraping. To scrape the bottom of the barrel in figurative sense is from 1942, in reference to U.S. employers facing worker shortages during the war.
scrape (n.) Look up scrape at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "a scraping instrument;" late 15c., "act of scraping or scratching," from scrape (v.). Meaning "a shave" is slang from 1859. Meaning "embarrassing or awkward predicament" is recorded from 1709, as OED suggests, "probably from the notion of being 'scraped' in going through a narrow passage."
scraper (n.) Look up scraper at Dictionary.com
"instrument for scraping," 1550s, agent noun from scrape (v.). From 1560s as "miser, money-grubber;" 1610s as "fiddler;" 1792 as "barber."
scrapper (n.) Look up scrapper at Dictionary.com
"pugilist," 1874, agent noun from scrap (v.2). Later used generally of anyone or anything that tends to put up a fight.
scrapple (n.) Look up scrapple at Dictionary.com
"scraps of pork and cornmeal seasoned, boiled, and pressed into large cakes," 1850, probably a diminutive form of scrap (n.1) with -el (2). Noted especially, and perhaps originally, as a regional favorite dish in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
scrappy (adj.) Look up scrappy at Dictionary.com
"consisting of scraps," 1837, from scrap (n.1) + -y (2). Meaning "inclined to fight" (1895) is from scrap (v.2). Related: Scrappily; scrappiness.
scrapyard (n.) Look up scrapyard at Dictionary.com
also scrap-yard, 1875, from scrap (n.1) + yard (n.1).
scratch (v.) Look up scratch at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, probably a fusion of Middle English scratten and crachen, both meaning "to scratch," both of uncertain origin. Related: Scratched; scratching. Billiards sense of "to hit the cue ball into a pocket" is first recorded 1909 (also, originally, itch), though earlier it meant "a lucky shot" (1850). Meaning "to withdraw (a horse) from a race" is 1865, from notion of scratching name off list of competitors; used in a non-sporting sense of "cancel a plan, etc." from 1680s. To scratch the surface "make only slight progress in penetrating or understanding" is from 1882. To scratch (one's) head as a gesture of perplexity is recorded from 1712.
Scratch (n.2) Look up Scratch at Dictionary.com
in Old Scratch "the Devil," 1740, from earlier Scrat, from Old Norse skratte "goblin, wizard," a word which was used in late Old English to gloss "hermaphrodite;" probably originally "monster" (compare Old High German scraz, scrato "satyr, wood demon," German Schratt, Old High German screz "a goblin, imp, dwarf;" borrowed from Germanic into Slavic, as in Polish skrzat "a goblin").
scratch (n.) Look up scratch at Dictionary.com
1580s, "slight skin tear produced by a sharp thing," from scratch (v.). Meaning "mark or slight furrow in metal, etc." is from 1660s. American English slang sense of "money" is from 1914, of uncertain signification. Many figurative senses (such as up to scratch, originally "ready to meet one's opponent") are from sporting use for "line or mark drawn as a starting place," attested from 1778 (but the earliest use is figurative); meaning "nothing" (as in from scratch) is 1918, generalized from specific 19c. sporting sense of "starting point of a competitor who receives no odds in a handicap match." Sense in billiards is from 1850. Scratch-pad is attested from 1883.
scratchy (adj.) Look up scratchy at Dictionary.com
1710, "affected with 'the scratch,'" a skin disease, from scratch (n.1) + -y (2). Meaning "composed of scratches" is from 1827; that of "grating" is from 1866. Of sounds (especially in reproduction) from 1889. Related: Scratchiness.
scrawl (v.) Look up scrawl at Dictionary.com
1610s, "write or draw untidily," of uncertain origin, perhaps from Middle English scrawlen "spread out the limbs, sprawl" (early 15c.), which possibly is an alteration of sprawlen (see sprawl (v.)) or crawl (v.). Related: Scrawled; scrawling. The noun is recorded from 1690s, from the verb. Meaning "bad handwriting" is from 1710.
scrawny (adj.) Look up scrawny at Dictionary.com
1824, apparently a dialectal variant of scranny "lean, thin" (1820), which is of uncertain origin but probably from a Scandinavian source, perhaps Old Norse skrælna "to shrivel." Compare scrannel.
scream (v.) Look up scream at Dictionary.com
late 12c., scræmen, of uncertain origin, similar to words in Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and Flemish (such as Old Norse skræma "to terrify, scare," Swedish scrana "to scream," Dutch schreijen "cry aloud, shriek," Old High German scrian, German schreien "to cry"). Related: Screamed; screaming. Screaming meemies is World War I army slang, originally a soldiers' name for a type of German artillery shell that made a loud noise in flight (from French woman's name Mimi), extended to the battle fatigue caused by long exposure to enemy fire.
scream (n.) Look up scream at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from scream (v.).
And (as they say) lamentings heard i' th' Ayre; Strange Schreemes of Death. ["Macbeth," II.iii.61]
Shakespeare's spelling probably reflects "sk-" as spelled in words from Latin (such as school); he also has schreene for screen. Slang meaning "something that evokes a cry of laughter" is 1888; screamer in this sense is from 1831.
scree (n.) Look up scree at Dictionary.com
"pile of debris at the base of a cliff," 1781, back-formation from screes (plural) "pebbles, small stones," from Old Norse skriða "landslide," from skriða "to creep, crawl;" of a ship, "to sail, glide," also "to slide" (on snow-shoes), from Proto-Germanic *skrithanan (source also of Old English scriþan "to go, glide," Old Saxon skridan, Dutch schrijden, Old High German scritan, German schreiten "to stride").
screech (v.) Look up screech at Dictionary.com
1570s, alteration of scritch (mid-13c., schrichen), possibly of imitative origin (compare shriek). Related: Screeched; screeching. Screech-owl is attested from 1590s (scritch-owl is from 1520s).
screech (n.) Look up screech at Dictionary.com
1550s, from screech (v.). Earlier scritch (1510s).
screed (n.) Look up screed at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "fragment," also "strip of cloth," from northern England dialectal variant of Old English screade (see shred (n.)). Meaning "lengthy speech" is first recorded 1789, from notion of reading from a long list.
screen (n.) Look up screen at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "upright piece of furniture providing protection from heat of a fire, drafts, etc.," probably from a shortened (Anglo-French? compare Anglo-Latin screna) variant of Old North French escren, Old French escran "fire-screen" (early 14c.), perhaps from Middle Dutch scherm "screen, cover, shield," or Frankish *skrank "barrier," from Proto-Germanic *skerm- (source also of Old High German skirm, skerm "protection," from PIE *(s)ker- (1) "to cut" (see shear (v.)).

Meaning "net-wire frame used in windows and doors" is recorded from 1859. Meaning "flat vertical surface for reception of projected images" is from 1810, originally in reference to magic lantern shows; later of movies. Transferred sense of "cinema world collectively" is attested from 1914; hence screen test (1918), etc. Screen saver first attested 1990. Screen printing recorded from 1918.
screen (v.) Look up screen at Dictionary.com
"to shield from punishment, to conceal," late 15c., from screen (n.). Meaning "examine systematically for suitability" is from 1943; sense of "to release a movie" is from 1915. Related: Screened; screening.
screenplay (n.) Look up screenplay at Dictionary.com
1916, from screen (n.) in the cinematic sense + play (n.).
screenshot (n.) Look up screenshot at Dictionary.com
by 1991, from (computer) screen (n.) + shot (n.) in the photograph sense.
screenwriter (n.) Look up screenwriter at Dictionary.com
1921, from screen (n.) in the film sense + writer.
screw (n.) Look up screw at Dictionary.com
"cylinder of wood or metal with a spiral ridge round it; hole in which a screw turns," c. 1400, from Middle French escroue "nut, cylindrical socket, screwhole," of uncertain etymology; not found in other Romanic languages. Perhaps via Gallo-Roman *scroba or West Germanic *scruva from Vulgar Latin scrobis "screw-head groove," in classical Latin "ditch, trench," also "vagina" (Diez, though OED finds this "phonologically impossible").

Kluge, Watkins and others trace it to Latin scrofa "breeding sow," perhaps based on the shape of a pig's penis (compare Portuguese porca, Spanish perca "a female screw," from Latin porca "sow"). Latin scrofa is literally "digger, rooter," from PIE root *(s)ker- (1) "to cut" (see shear (v.)). A group of apparently cognate Germanic words (Middle Low German, Middle Dutch schruve, Dutch schroef, German Schraube, Swedish skrufva "screw") are said to be French loan-words.

Sense of "means of pressure or coercion" is from 1640s, probably in reference to instruments of torture (such as thumbscrews). Meaning "prison guard, warden" is 1812 in underworld slang, originally in reference to the key they carried (screw as slang for "key" attested from 1795). Slang meaning "an act of copulation" is recorded from 1929 (meaning "a prostitute" is attested from 1725). To have a screw loose "have a dangerous (usually mental) weakness" is recorded from 1810.