ridgepole (n.) Look up ridgepole at Dictionary.com
also ridge-pole, 1670s, from ridge (n.) + pole (n.1).
ridicule (v.) Look up ridicule at Dictionary.com
1680s, "make ridiculous," from ridicule (n.) or else from French ridiculer, from ridicule. Meaning "make fun of" is from c.1700. Related: Ridiculed; ridiculing.
ridicule (n.) Look up ridicule at Dictionary.com
1670s, "absurd thing;" 1680s, "words or actions meant to invoke ridicule," from French ridicule, noun use of adjective (15c.), or from Latin ridiculum "laughing matter, joke," from noun use of neuter of ridiculus (see ridiculous).
"He who brings ridicule to bear against truth, finds in his hand a blade without a hilt." [Walter Savage Landor, "Imaginary Conversations"]
ridiculous (adj.) Look up ridiculous at Dictionary.com
1540s, ridyculouse, from Latin ridiculosus "laughable," from ridiculus "that which excites laughter," from ridere "to laugh." Shakespeare and other 17c. writers sometimes spelled it rediculous. Slang extensions to "outrageous" (1839); "excellent" (1959, jazz slang). Related: Ridiculously; ridiculousness.
riding (n.2) Look up riding at Dictionary.com
one of the three districts into which Yorkshire was divided, late 13c., from late Old English *þriðing, a relic of Viking rule, from Old Norse ðriðjungr "third part," from ðriði "third" (see third). The initial consonant merged with final consonant of preceding north, west, or east.
riding (n.1) Look up riding at Dictionary.com
c.1300, verbal noun from ride (v.). Meaning "teasing, annoying" is from 1927. Riding-hood, worn by women when riding or exposed to weather, is from mid-15c.
Riesling (n.) Look up Riesling at Dictionary.com
1833, from German Riesling (15c.), the name of the grape, of uncertain origin.
rife (adj.) Look up rife at Dictionary.com
Old English rife "abundant, common, prevalent," from Proto-Germanic *rif- (cognates: Old Norse rifr, Swedish river, Norwegian riv, Middle Dutch riif, Middle Low German rive "abundant, generous"), said to be from PIE root *rei- "to scratch, tear, cut" "The prevalence of the word in early southern texts is in favour of its being native in English, rather than an adoption from Scandinavian." [OED]
riff (n.) Look up riff at Dictionary.com
"melodic phrase in jazz," 1935 (but said to have been used by musicians since c.1917), of uncertain origin, perhaps a shortened form of riffle, or altered from refrain. The verb is attested from 1942, from the noun. Also in extended use. Related: Riffed; riffing.
riffle (v.) Look up riffle at Dictionary.com
1754, "to make choppy water," American English, perhaps a variant of ruffle "make rough." The word meaning "shuffle" (cards) is first recorded 1894, probably echoic; hence that of "skim, leaf through quickly" (of papers, etc.) is from 1922. Related: Riffled; riffling.
riffraff (n.) Look up riffraff at Dictionary.com
also riff-raff, late 15c., from earlier rif and raf "one and all, everybody, every scrap," also "sweepings, refuse" (mid-14c.), from Old French rif et raf, from rifler "to spoil, strip" (see rifle (v.)). Second element from raffler "carry off," related to rafle "plundering," or from raffer "to snatch, to sweep together" (see raffle (n.)).
rifle (n.) Look up rifle at Dictionary.com
1775, "portable firearm having a spirally grooved bore," used earlier of the grooves themselves (1751), noun use of rifled (pistol), 1680s, from verb meaning "to cut spiral grooves in" (a gun barrel); see rifle (v.2).
rifle (v.1) Look up rifle at Dictionary.com
"to plunder," early 14c. (implied in rifling), from Old French rifler "strip, filch, plunder, peel off (skin or bark), fleece," literally "to graze, scratch" (12c.), probably from a Germanic source (compare Old English geriflian "to wrinkle," Old High German riffilon "to tear by rubbing," Old Norse rifa "to tear, break"). Related: Rifled; rifling.
rifle (v.2) Look up rifle at Dictionary.com
"to cut spiral grooves in" (a gun barrel), 1630s, probably from French rifler, from Old French rifler "to scratch or groove" (see rifle (v.1)). Related: Rifled; rifling.
rifleman (n.) Look up rifleman at Dictionary.com
1775, from rifle (n.) + man (n.).
rift (n.) Look up rift at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "a split, act of splitting," from a Scandinavian source (compare Danish and Norwegian rift "a cleft," Old Icelandic ript (pronounced "rift") "breach;" related to Old Norse ripa "to break a contract" (see riven). Figurative use from 1620s. Geological sense from 1921. As a verb, c.1300.
rig (v.) Look up rig at Dictionary.com
late 15c., originally nautical, "to fit with sails," probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Danish, Norwegian rigge "to equip," Swedish rigga "to rig, harness"), though these may be from English; perhaps ultimately from PIE *reig- "to bind." Slang meaning "to pre-arrange or tamper with results" is attested from 1938, perhaps a different word, from rig (n.) "a trick, swindle, scheme" (1775), earlier "sport, banter, ridicule" (1725), of unknown origin. Also there is rig (v.) "ransack" from 1560s, likewise of unknown origin. Related: Rigged; rigging.
rig (n.) Look up rig at Dictionary.com
"distinctive arrangement of sails, masts, etc. on a ship," 1822, from rig (v.). Extended to costume, clothing outfit (1843); horse-drawn vehicle (1831), which led to sense of "truck, bus, etc." (1851); and apparatus for well-sinking (1875).
Rig veda Look up Rig veda at Dictionary.com
1776, from Sanskrit rigveda, from rg- "praise, hymn, spoken stanza," literally "brightness," from PIE *erkw- "to radiate, beam; praise" + veda "knowledge," from PIE *weid-o-, from root *weid- "to know, see" (see vision (n.)). A thousand hymns, orally transmitted, probably dating from before 1000 B.C.E. Related: Rig-vedic.
rigatoni (n.) Look up rigatoni at Dictionary.com
"short, hollow, fluted tubes of pasta," 1930, from Italian rigatooni, plural of rigato, past participle of rigare "to draw a line, to make fluting," from riga "line; something cut out," from a Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *rigon- (see row (n.1)), from PIE *rei- "to scratch, tear, cut" (see riparian).
Rigel Look up Rigel at Dictionary.com
bright star in Orion, 1590s, from Arabic Rijl Jauzah al Yusra "the Left Leg of the Central One," from rijl "foot."
rigging (n.) Look up rigging at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "action of fitting (a ship) with ropes, etc.; 1590s as "ropes that work the sails of a ship," verbal noun from rig (v.).
right (adj.1) Look up right at Dictionary.com
"morally correct," Old English riht "just, good, fair; proper, fitting; straight, not bent, direct, erect," from Proto-Germanic *rekhtaz (cognates: Old Frisian riucht "right," Old Saxon reht, Middle Dutch and Dutch recht, Old High German reht, German recht, Old Norse rettr, Gothic raihts), from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," also "to rule, to lead straight, to put right" (see regal; cognates: Greek orektos "stretched out, upright;" Latin rectus "straight, right;" Old Persian rasta- "straight, right," aršta- "rectitude;" Old Irish recht "law;" Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz "just, righteous, wise").

Compare slang straight (adj.1) "honest, morally upright," and Latin rectus "right," literally "straight," Lithuanian teisus "right, true," literally "straight." Greek dikaios "just" (in the moral and legal sense) is from dike "custom." As an emphatic, meaning "you are right," it is recorded from 1580s; use as a question meaning "am I not right?" is from 1961. The sense in right whale is "justly entitled to the name." Right stuff "best human ingredients" is from 1848, popularized by Tom Wolfe's 1979 book about the first astronauts. Right of way is attested from 1767. Right angle is from late 14c.
right (adj.2) Look up right at Dictionary.com
"opposite of left," early 12c., riht, from Old English riht, which did not have this sense but meant "good, proper, fitting, straight" (see right (adj.1)). The notion is of the right hand as the "correct" hand. The usual Old English word for this was swiþra, literally "stronger." "The history of words for 'right' and 'left' shows that they were used primarily with reference to the hands" [Buck]. Similar sense evolution in Dutch recht, German recht "right (not left)," from Old High German reht, which meant only "straight, just."

The usual PIE root (*dek-) is represented by Latin dexter (see dexterity). Other derivations on a similar pattern to English right are French droit, from Latin directus "straight;" Lithuanian labas, literally "good;" and Slavic words (Bohemian pravy, Polish prawy, Russian pravyj) from Old Church Slavonic pravu, literally "straight," from PIE *pro-, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per).

The political sense of "conservative" is first recorded 1794 (adj.), 1825 (n.), a translation of French Droit "the Right, Conservative Party" in the French National Assembly (1789; see left (adj.)).
right (v.) Look up right at Dictionary.com
Old English rihtan "to straighten, rule, set up, set right, amend; guide, govern; restore, replace," from riht (adj.); see right (adj.1). Compare Old Norse retta "to straighten," Old Saxon rihtian, Old Frisian riuchta, German richten, Gothic garaihtjan. Related: Righted; righting.
right (n.) Look up right at Dictionary.com
Old English riht (West Saxon, Kentish), reht (Anglian), "that which is morally right, duty, obligation," also "rule of conduct; law of a land;" also "what someone deserves; a just claim, what is due; correctness, truth; a legal entitlement, a privilege," from the root of right (adj.1). Meaning "the right" (as opposed to the left) is from mid-13c.; political use from 1825. From early 14c. as "a right action, a good deed." Meaning "a blow with the right fist" is from 1898. The phrase to rights "at once, straightway" is 1660s, from sense "in a proper manner" (Middle English).
right (adv.) Look up right at Dictionary.com
Old English rehte, rihte "in a straight or direct manner," from right (adj.1). Right on! as an exclamation of approval first recorded 1925 in black slang, popularized mid-1960s by Black Panther movement.
right hand (n.) Look up right hand at Dictionary.com
Old English rihthand; see right (adj.2) + hand (n.). Figurative for "indispensable person," 1520s; right-hand man first attested 1660s. Right-handed attested from late 14c.
right wing (n.) Look up right wing at Dictionary.com
1570s of armies; from 1882 in football; 1905 in the political sense (compare left wing). Right-winger attested by 1919 in U.S. politics, 1895 in sports.
right-minded (adj.) Look up right-minded at Dictionary.com
1580s, from right (adj.) + minded.
righteous (adj.) Look up righteous at Dictionary.com
early 16c. alteration of rightwise, from Old English rihtwis, from riht (see right) + wis "wise, way, manner" (see wise (adj.)). Suffix altered by influence of courteous, etc. Meaning "genuine, excellent" is 1942 in jazz slang. Related: Righteously.
righteousness (n.) Look up righteousness at Dictionary.com
Old English rehtwisnisse; see righteous + -ness.
rightful (adj.) Look up rightful at Dictionary.com
Old English rihtful; see right (adj.1) + -ful. Related: Rightfully; rightfulness.
rightly (adv.) Look up rightly at Dictionary.com
Old English rihtlice "justly, virtuously; properly, regularly, correctly;" see right (adj.1) + -ly (2).
righty (n.) Look up righty at Dictionary.com
"right-handed person," 1949, from right (adj.2) + -y (3).
rigid (adj.) Look up rigid at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin rigidus "hard, stiff, rough, severe," from rigere "be stiff," from PIE *reig- "stretch (tight), bind tightly, make fast" (cognates: Old Irish riag "torture," Middle High German ric "band, string"). Related: Rigidly.
rigidity (n.) Look up rigidity at Dictionary.com
1620s, from Latin rigiditas "stiffness," from rigidus (see rigid).
rigmarole (n.) Look up rigmarole at Dictionary.com
1736, "a long, rambling discourse," apparently from an altered, Kentish colloquial survival of ragman roll "long list or catalogue" (1520s), in Middle English a long roll of verses descriptive of personal characters, used in a medieval game of chance called Rageman, perhaps from Anglo-French Ragemon le bon "Ragemon the good," which was the heading on one set of the verses, referring to a character by that name. Sense transferred to "foolish activity or commotion" by 1939.
rigor (n.) Look up rigor at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French rigor "strength, hardness" (13c., Modern French rigueur), from Latin rigorem (nominative rigor) "numbness, stiffness, hardness, firmness; roughness, rudeness," from rigere "be stiff" (see rigid).
rigor mortis Look up rigor mortis at Dictionary.com
"stiffening of the body caused by contraction of muscles after death," 1837, from Latin rigor "stiffness" (see rigor) + mortis, genitive of mors "death" (see mortal).
rigorous (adj.) Look up rigorous at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French rigorous (13c., Modern French rigoureux), from Medieval Latin rigorosus, from Latin rigor (see rigor). Related: Rigorously.
rigour (n.) Look up rigour at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of rigor (q.v.); for spelling, see -or.
rile (v.) Look up rile at Dictionary.com
1825, American English spelling alteration to reflect a dialectal pronunciation of roil (q.v.); compare heist from hoist and in the same era spile for spoil (v.). Bartlett writes that in both England and America roil "is now commonly pronounced and written rile" ["Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]. Related: Riled; riling.
rill (n.) Look up rill at Dictionary.com
"small brook, rivulet," 1530s, from or related to Dutch and Frisian ril, Low German rille "groove, furrow, running stream," probably from Proto-Germanic *ril- (cognates: Old English rið, riþe "brook, stream," which survives only in dialects), a diminutive form from PIE root *reie- "to run, flow" (see Rhine).
rim (n.) Look up rim at Dictionary.com
Old English rima "edge, border, verge, coast," as in særima "seashore," literally "rim of the sea," and dægrima "dawn," literally "rim of the day." Related to Old Norse rime, rimi "a raised strip of land, ridge," Old Frisian rim "edge," but with no other known cognates. The snare drummer's rim shot (striking the rim and the head at once) is recorded from 1934.
rim (v.) Look up rim at Dictionary.com
1794, "to fit with a rim," from rim (n.). Sexual senses from 1920s, some perhaps influenced by ream (v.). Related: Rimmed; rimming.
rime (n.) Look up rime at Dictionary.com
"hoarfrost," Old English hrim, from Proto-Germanic *khrima- (cognates: Old Norse hrim, Dutch rijm, German Reif). Old French rime is of Germanic origin. Rare in Middle English, surviving mainly in Scottish and northern English, revived in literary use late 18c.
rind (n.) Look up rind at Dictionary.com
Old English rinde "bark, crust," later "peel of a fruit or vegetable" (c.1400), from Proto-Germanic *rind- (cognates: Old Saxon rinda, Middle Dutch and Dutch rinde "bark of a tree," Old High German rinda, German Rinde), probably related to Old English rendan (see rend (v.)).
ring (n.1) Look up ring at Dictionary.com
"circular band," Old English hring "small circlet, especially one of metal for wearing on the finger or as part of a mail coat; anything circular," from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "something curved, circle" (cognates: Old Norse hringr, Old Frisian hring, Danish, Swedish, Dutch ring, Old High German hring, German Ring), from PIE *(s)kregh- nasalized form of (s)kregh-, from root *(s)ker- (3) "to turn, bend," with wide-ranging derivative senses (cognates: Latin curvus "bent, curved," crispus "curly;" Old Church Slavonic kragu "circle," and perhaps Greek kirkos "ring," koronos "curved").

Other Old English senses were "circular group of persons," also "horizon." Meaning "place for prize fight and wrestling bouts" (early 14c.) is from the space in a circle of bystanders in the midst of which such contests once were held, "... a circle formed for boxers, wrestlers, and cudgel players, by a man styled Vinegar; who, with his hat before his eyes, goes round the circle, striking at random with his whip to prevent the populace from crowding in" [Grose, 1785]. Meaning "combination of interested persons" is from 1829. Of trees, from 1670s; fairy ring is from 1620s. Ring finger is Old English hringfingr, a compound found in other Germanic languages. To run rings round (someone) "be superior to" is from 1891.

Nursery rhyme ring a ring a rosie is attested in an American form (with a different ending) from c.1790. "The belief that the rhyme originated with the Great Plague is now almost universal, but has no evidence to support it and is almost certainly nonsense" ["Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore"]. This proposal of connection dates only to the late 1960s.
ring (v.1) Look up ring at Dictionary.com
"sound a bell," Old English hringan "sound, give a certain resonant sound when struck; announce by bells," from Proto-Germanic *khrengan (cognates: Old Norse hringja, Swedish ringa, Middle Dutch ringen), probably of imitative origin. Related: Rang; rung. Originally a weak verb, strong inflection began in early Middle English by influence of sing, etc. To ring down a theatrical curtain is from 1772, from the custom of signaling for it by ringing a bell. To ring up a purchase on a cash register is by 1937, from the bell that sounded. Specialized sense "give a resonant sound when struck as an indication of genuineness or purity," with transferred use (as in to ring hollow) is from 1610s.