retinal (adj.) Look up retinal at Dictionary.com
1838; see retina + -al (1).
retinitis (n.) Look up retinitis at Dictionary.com
1821, from retina + -itis.
retinue (n.) Look up retinue at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French retenue "group of followers, state of service," literally "that which is retained," noun use of fem. past participle of retenir "to employ, to retain, hold back" (see retain). Related: Retinular.
retiracy (n.) Look up retiracy at Dictionary.com
1824, American English, irregularly from retire on model of privacy.
retire (v.) Look up retire at Dictionary.com
1530s, of armies, "to retreat," from Middle French retirer "to withdraw (something)," from re- "back" (see re-) + Old French tirer "to draw" (see tirade). Related: Retired; retiring.

Meaning "to withdraw" to some place, especially for the sake of privacy, is recorded from 1530s; sense of "leave an occupation" first attested 1640s (implied in retirement). Meaning "to leave company and go to bed" is from 1660s. Transitive sense is from 1540s, originally "withdraw, lead back" (troops, etc.); meaning "to remove from active service" is from 1680s. Baseball sense of "to put out" is recorded from 1874.
retired (adj.) Look up retired at Dictionary.com
1580s, "separated from society or public notice," past participle adjective from retire (v.). Meaning "having given up business" is from 1824. Abbreviation ret'd. attested from 1942.
retiree (n.) Look up retiree at Dictionary.com
1945, from retire + -ee.
retirement (n.) Look up retirement at Dictionary.com
1590s, "act of retreating," also "act of withdrawing into seclusion," from Middle French retirement (1570s); see retire + -ment. Meaning "privacy" is from c.1600; that of "withdrawal from occupation or business" is from 1640s.
retiring (adj.) Look up retiring at Dictionary.com
1580s, "departing, retreating," present participle adjective from retire (v.). Also "fond of retiring, disposed to seclusion," hence "unobtrusive, modest, subdued" (1766).
retool (v.) Look up retool at Dictionary.com
1866, "to shape again with a tool," from re- "back, again" + tool (v.). Meaning "to furnish a factory with new equipment" is recorded from 1940. Related: Retooled; retooling.
retort (v.) Look up retort at Dictionary.com
1550s, "make return in kind" (especially of an injury), from Old French retort and directly from Latin retortus, past participle of retorquere "turn back, twist back, throw back," from re- "back" (see re-) + torquere "to twist" (see torque (n.)). Applied to exchanges of jest or sarcasm by c.1600, hence "say or utter sharply and aggressively in reply" (1620s). Related: Retorted; retorting.
retort (n.1) Look up retort at Dictionary.com
"act of retorting," c.1600, from retort (v.).
retort (n.2) Look up retort at Dictionary.com
"vessel used in chemistry for distilling or effecting decomposition by the aid of heat," c.1600, from Middle French retorte, from Medieval Latin *retorta "a retort, a vessel with a bent neck," literally "a thing bent or twisted," from past participle stem of Latin retorquere (see retort (v.)).
retortion (n.) Look up retortion at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Medieval Latin retortionem (nominative retortio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin retorquere (see retort (v.)).
retouch (v.) Look up retouch at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French retoucher (13c.) "to touch again" (with a view to improving), from re- "again" (see re-) + toucher (see touch (v.)).
retrace (v.) Look up retrace at Dictionary.com
1690s, from French retracer "to trace again," from Middle French retracier, from re- "again" (see re-) + tracier "to trace" (see trace (v.)). Related: Retraced; retracing.
retract (v.) Look up retract at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to draw (something) back," from Old French retracter (14c.) and directly from Latin retractus, past participle of retrahere "to draw back" (see retraction). Sense of "to revoke, recant, take back" is attested from 1540s, probably a back-formation from retraction. Related: Retracted; retracting.
retractable (adj.) Look up retractable at Dictionary.com
"capable of being drawn in," 1769; see retract + -able. Meaning "capable of being disowned" is recorded from 1610s. Also sometimes spelled retractible.
retraction (n.) Look up retraction at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "withdrawal of an opinion," from Latin retractionem (nominative retractio) "a drawing back, hesitation, refusal," noun of action from past participle stem of retractare "revoke, cancel," from re- "back" (see re-) + tractere "draw violently," frequentative of trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Originally the title of a book by St. Augustine correcting his former writings. Meaning "recantation of opinion with admission of error" is from 1540s.
retrain (v.) Look up retrain at Dictionary.com
1905, from re- "back, again" + train (v.). Related: Retrained; retraining.
retransmission (n.) Look up retransmission at Dictionary.com
1788, from re- + transmission.
retread (v.) Look up retread at Dictionary.com
"to put a new tread on (a tire)," 1908, from re- "back, again" (see re-) + tread (q.v.). The noun is attested from 1914; in World War I it was Australian slang for "a re-enlisted soldier."
retreat (n.) Look up retreat at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "a step backward;" late 14c., "act of retiring or withdrawing; military signal for retiring from action or exercise," from Old French retret, noun use of past participle of retrere "draw back," from Latin retrahere "draw back, withdraw, call back," from re- "back" (see re-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Meaning "place of seclusion" is from early 15c.; sense of "establishment for mentally ill persons" is from 1797. Meaning "period of retirement for religious self-examination" is from 1756.
retreat (v.) Look up retreat at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to draw in, draw back, leave the extremities," from retreat (n.) and in part from Old French retret, past participle of retrere. Meaning "to fall back from battle" is mid-15c. Related: Retreated; retreating.
retrench (v.1) Look up retrench at Dictionary.com
1590s, "dig a new trench as a second line of defense," 1590s, probably a back-formation from retrenchment in the military sense. Related: Retrenched; retrenching.
retrench (v.2) Look up retrench at Dictionary.com
"cut off, cut down, pare away" (expenses, etc.), 1620s, from obsolete French retrencher "to cut off, lessen, shorten" (Modern French retrancher, Old French retrenchier), from re- "back" (see re-) + Old French trenchier "to cut" (see trench). Related: Retrenched; retrenching.
retrenchment (n.) Look up retrenchment at Dictionary.com
"action of lopping off or pruning," c.1600, from obsolete French retrenchement "a cutting off or out," from retrencher (see retrench (v.2)). Military sense is recorded from 1580s; see retrench (v.1).
retrial (n.) Look up retrial at Dictionary.com
1813, from re- + trial (n.).
retribute (v.) Look up retribute at Dictionary.com
"give in return," 1570s, from Latin retributus, past participle of retribuere "give back, restore, repay" (see retribution). Related: Retributed; retributing.
retribution (n.) Look up retribution at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "repayment," from Old French retribution and directly from Latin retributionem (nominative retributio) "recompense, repayment," noun of action from past participle stem of retribuere "hand back, repay," from re- "back" (see re-) + tribuere "to assign, allot" (see tribute). Originally "that which is given in return for past good or evil;" restricted modern use of "evil given for evil done" (1560s) is from day of retribution (1520s), in Christian theology the time of divine reward or punishment.
retributive (adj.) Look up retributive at Dictionary.com
1670s, from retribute + -ive.
retrievable (adj.) Look up retrievable at Dictionary.com
1711, from retrieve + -able.
retrieval (n.) Look up retrieval at Dictionary.com
1640s, from retrieve + -al (2).
retrieve (v.) Look up retrieve at Dictionary.com
early 15c., retreve, originally in reference to dogs finding lost game, from Middle French retruev-, stem of Old French retreuver (Modern French retrouver) "find again, recover, meet again, recognize," from re- "again" (see re-) + trouver "to find," probably from Vulgar Latin *tropare "to compose" (see trove). Altered 16c. to retrive; modern form is from mid-17c.
retriever (n.) Look up retriever at Dictionary.com
"dog used for retrieving game," late 15c., agent noun from retrieve.
retro (adj.) Look up retro at Dictionary.com
1974, from French rétro (1973), supposedly first used of a revival c.1968 of Eva Peron-inspired fashions and short for rétrograde (see retrograde). There is an isolated use in English from 1768, and the word apparently was used in 19c. French as a term in billiards. As a noun, short for retro-rocket (1948) from 1961.
retro- Look up retro- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "backwards; behind," from Latin retro (prep.) "backward, back, behind," also of time, "formerly, in past times," probably originally the ablative form of *reteros, based on re- "back" (see re-).
L. retro stands to re- as intro, "in, within"; to in, "in," and as citro, "hither," stands to cis, "on this side." [Klein]
Common in combinations in post-classical Latin (the classical equivalent was post-). Active in English as a word-forming element from mid-20c.
retroactive (adj.) Look up retroactive at Dictionary.com
1610s, from French rétroactif (16c.) "casting or relating back," from Latin retroact-, past participle stem of retroagere "drive or turn back," from retro- "back" (see retro-) + agere "to drive, set in motion" (see act (v.)). Related: Retroactively.
retrocopulation (n.) Look up retrocopulation at Dictionary.com
"copulation from behind," 1640s, from retro- + copulation. Related: Retrocopulate (v.).
retrofit (v.) Look up retrofit at Dictionary.com
1954, from retro- + fit (v.). Related: Retrofitted; retrofitting. As a noun, 1956, from the verb.
retroflex (adj.) Look up retroflex at Dictionary.com
1776, from Modern Latin retroflexus, past participle of retroflectere "to bend back," from retro (see retro-) + flectere "to bend" (see flexible). The verb (1898) is a back-formation from retroflexed (1806), from the adjective.
retrograde (adj.) Look up retrograde at Dictionary.com
late 14c., originally of the apparent motions of planets, from Latin retrogradus "going back, going backward," from retrogradi "move backward," from retro- "backward" (see retro-) + gradi "to go, step" (see grade (n.)). General sense of "tending to revert" is recorded from 1530s.
retrogress (v.) Look up retrogress at Dictionary.com
"move backward; deteriorate," 1816, probably a back-formation from retrogression. Related: Retrogressed; retrogressing.
retrogression (n.) Look up retrogression at Dictionary.com
1640s, noun of action, formed on model of progression, from Latin retrogressus, past participle of retrogradi "move backward" (see retrograde).
retrogressive (adj.) Look up retrogressive at Dictionary.com
"tending to move backward," 1785, from Latin retrogress-, past participle stem of retrogradi "move backward, go backward" (see retrograde) + -ive. Related: Retrogressively.
retrospect (n.) Look up retrospect at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "a regard or reference" (to something), from Latin retrospectum, past participle of retrospicere "look back," from retro- "back" (see retro-) + specere "look at" (see scope (n.1)). Meaning "survey of past events" is from 1660s.
retrospection (n.) Look up retrospection at Dictionary.com
1630s, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin retrospicere (see retrospect).
retrospective (adj.) Look up retrospective at Dictionary.com
1660s, from retrospect + -ive. As a noun, from 1964, short for retrospective exhibition (1908), etc. Related: Retrospectively.
retrousse (adj.) Look up retrousse at Dictionary.com
"turned up" (of the nose), 1802, from French retroussé (16c.) past participle adjective from retrousser "to turn up."
retroversion (n.) Look up retroversion at Dictionary.com
1580s, "a tilting or turning backward," noun of action or state from Latin retroversus "turned or bent backwards," from retro (see retro-) + versus "turned" (see versus).