resume (n.) Look up resume at
also résumé, 1804, "a summary," from French résumé, noun use of past participle of Middle French resumer "to sum up," from Latin resumere (see resume (v.)). Meaning "biographical summary of a person's career" is 1940s.
resumption (n.) Look up resumption at
mid-15c., "repossessing by grant," from Middle French resumption and directly from Late Latin resumptionem (nominative resumptio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin resumere (see resume (v.)).
resupply (v.) Look up resupply at
also re-supply, 1630s, from re- + supply (v.). Related: Resupplied; resupplying. As a noun by 1875.
resurface (v.) Look up resurface at
1886, "to provide with a fresh surface," from re- "back, again" + surface (v.). Meaning "to come to the surface again" is recorded from 1953. Related: Resurfaced; resurfacing.
resurge (v.) Look up resurge at
1887 in modern use, back-formation from resurgent. The verb also was in use in 17c., from Latin resurgere, but it became obsolete. An older verb form was resourd (mid-15c.). Related: Resurged; resurging.
resurgence (n.) Look up resurgence at
1834; see resurgent + -ence.
resurgent (adj.) Look up resurgent at
1808, from obsolete verb resurge "to rise again" (1570s), from Latin resurgere "rise again, lift oneself, be restored," from re- "again" (see re-) + surgere "to rise" (see surge).
resurrect (v.) Look up resurrect at
1772, back-formation from resurrection. Related: Resurrected; resurrecting. "The correct form is resurge, which, however, is intransitive only, whereas the verb resurrect can be used both as transitive and intransitive ..." [Klein]. Related: Resurrected; resurrecting.
resurrection (n.) Look up resurrection at
c. 1300, originally the name of a Church festival commemorating Christ's rising from death, from Anglo-French resurrectiun, Old French resurrection "the Resurrection of Christ" (12c.) and directly from Church Latin resurrectionem (nominative resurrectio) "a rising again from the dead," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin resurgere "rise again, appear again" (see resurgent). Replaced Old English æriste; in Middle English sometimes translated as againrising.

Generalized sense of "revival" is from 1640s. Also used in Middle English of the rising again of the dead on the Last Day (c. 1300). Resurrectionist, euphemism for "grave-robber" is attested from 1776. Resurrection pie was mid-19c. English schoolboy slang for a pie made from leftovers of previous meals; first attested 1831 as a Sheffield dialect term.
There was a dreadful pie for dinner every Monday; a meat-pie with a stony crust that did not break; but split into scaly layers, with horrible lumps of gristle inside, and such strings of sinew (alternated by lumps of flabby fat) as a ghoule might use as a rosary. We called it kitten pie--resurrection pie--rag pie--dead man's pie. We cursed it by night we cursed it by day; we wouldn't stand it, we said; we would write to our friends; we would go to sea. ["How I Went to Sea," "Harper's Magazine," December 1852]
resurvey (v.) Look up resurvey at
1590s, from re- + survey (v.). Related: Resurveyed; resurveying. As a noun from 1660s.
resuscitate (v.) Look up resuscitate at
early 15c., "revive, restore," from Latin resuscitatus, past participle of resuscitare "rouse again, revive," from re- "again" (see re-) + suscitare "to raise, revive," from sub "(up from) under" (see sub-) + citare "to summon" (see cite). Intransitive use from 1650s. Related: Resuscitated; resuscitating. Earlier was resuscen "restore (someone) to life, resurrect" (c. 1400).
resuscitation (n.) Look up resuscitation at
early 15c., from Old French resuscitation or directly from Late Latin resuscitationem (nominative resuscitatio), noun of action from past participle stem of resuscitare (see resuscitate).
ret (v.) Look up ret at
"to soak stems of fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, etc.) to soften them," mid-15c., probably from Middle Dutch roten (or an unrecorded cognate Old Norse word that is related to Norwegian røyta, Swedish röta, Danish røde); considered to be related to Old English rotian "to rot" (see rot (v.)), but the vowel is difficult.
retail (v.) Look up retail at
mid-14c. "sell in small quantities or parcels," from Old French retaillier "cut back, cut off, pare, clip, reduce, circumcise," from re- "back" (see re-) + taillier "to cut, trim" (see tailor (n.)). Sometimes also "to deal out (information, etc.) in small quantities; hand down by report; recount, tell over again" (1590s). Related: Retailed; retailing.
retail (n.) Look up retail at
early 15c., "sale of commodities in small quantities or parcels or at second hand" (opposed to wholesale), from Old French retail "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring" (Modern French retaille), from retaillier (see retail (v.)). The notion of the English word is "a selling by the piece." This sense is not in French, however, and comes perhaps from cognate Italian ritaglio, which does have that sense. As an adjective, "of or pertaining to sale at retail," c. 1600.
retailer (n.) Look up retailer at
mid-15c., agent noun from retail (v.).
retailing (n.) Look up retailing at
mid-14c., verbal noun from retail (v.).
retain (v.) Look up retain at
late 14c., "hold back, restrain;" c. 1400, "continue keeping, keep possession of," from Old French retenir "keep, retain; take into feudal service; hold back; remember" (12c.), from Latin retinere "hold back, keep back, detain, restrain," from re- "back" (see re-) + tenere "to hold," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch." Meaning "keep (another) attached to one's person, keep in service" is from mid-15c.; specifically of lawyers from 1540s. Meaning "keep in the mind" is from c. 1500. Related: Retained; retaining.
retainer (n.1) Look up retainer at
"fee to secure services," mid-15c., originally "act of keeping for oneself" from retain, or perhaps from or influenced by Middle French retenir, infinitive used as a noun. Meaning "fee paid to an attorney to secure his services" is from 1818.
retainer (n.2) Look up retainer at
"servant," 1530s, agent noun from retain (v.). Also "one who retains or holds" (1540s). Meaning "dental structure used to hold a bridge in place" is recorded from 1887.
retake (v.) Look up retake at
mid-15c., "to take back," from re- "back, again" + take (v.). Meaning "to recapture" is recorded from 1640s; sense of "to record a second time" is attested from 1962. Related: Retook; retaking; retaken. As a noun from 1918; figurative use from 1937.
retaliate (v.) Look up retaliate at
1610s, from Latin retaliatus, past participle of retaliare "requite, retaliate" (see retaliation). Related: Retaliated; retaliating.
retaliation (n.) Look up retaliation at
1580s, noun of action from Late Latin retaliare "pay back in kind," from re- "back" (see re-) + Latin talio "exaction of payment in kind," from or influenced by talis "suchlike" (see that). Originally used both in good and evil senses.
retaliatory (adj.) Look up retaliatory at
1783; see retaliate + -ory. Alternative retaliative attested from 1819.
retard (v.) Look up retard at
late 15c., "make slow or slower," from French retarder "restrain, hold (someone) back, keep (someone from doing something); come to a stop" (13c.) or directly from Latin retardare "make slow, delay, keep back, hinder" (see retardation). Related: Retarded; retarding.

The noun is recorded from 1788 in the sense "retardation, delay;" from 1970 in offensive meaning "retarded person," originally American English, with accent on first syllable. Other words used for "one who is mentally retarded" include retardate (1956), retardee (1971).
retardance (n.) Look up retardance at
1550s, "retardation," from Middle French retardance, from retarder (see retard (v.)). In reference to resistance to fire, 1948.
retardant (adj.) Look up retardant at
1640s, from retard (v.) + -ant or from Latin retardantem (nominative retardans), present participle of retardare. From 1952 as a noun, "retardant substance."
retardation (n.) Look up retardation at
early 15c., "fact or action of making slower in movement or time," from Latin retardationem (nominative retardatio) "a delaying," noun of action from past participle stem of retardare "to make slow, delay, keep back, hinder," from re- (see re-), + tardare "to slow," related to tardus "slow, sluggish" (see tardy). Sense of "educational slowness" is from 1907.
retarded (adj.) Look up retarded at
1810, "delayed," past participle adjective from retard (v.). In childhood development sense, "mentally slow," attested from 1895 (perhaps inspired by Italian tardivi).
retarder (n.) Look up retarder at
1640s, agent noun from retard (v.). Of railway braking mechanisms from 1937.
retch (v.) Look up retch at
1540s, originally "to clear the throat, to cough up phlegm," from Old English hræcan "to cough up, spit" (related to hraca "phlegm"), from Proto-Germanic *khrækijan (source also of Old High German rahhison "to clear one's throat"), of imitative origin (compare Lithuanian kregeti "to grunt"). Meaning "to make efforts to vomit" is from 1850; sense of "to vomit" is first attested 1888. Related: Retched; retching.
rete (n.) Look up rete at
late 14c., in anatomy, from Latin rete "net" (see reticulate (adj.)). Plural is retia.
retell (v.) Look up retell at
1590s, from re- "back, again" + tell (v.). Related: Retold; retelling.
retention (n.) Look up retention at
late 14c., from Latin retentionem (nominative retentio) "a retaining, a holding back," noun of action from past participle stem of retinere (see retain). Originally medical; mental sense is from late 15c.
retentive (adj.) Look up retentive at
late 14c., "able to hold or keep" (mental or physical), from Old French retentif, from Medieval Latin retentivus, from past participle stem of Latin retinere (see retain). Related: Retentively; retentiveness.
rethink (v.) Look up rethink at
1700, from re- "back, again" + think (v.). Related: Rethinking.
reticence (n.) Look up reticence at
c. 1600, from Middle French réticence (16c.), from Latin reticentia "silence, a keeping silent," from present participle stem of reticere "keep silent," from re- (see re-), + tacere "be silent" (see tacit). "Not in common use until after 1830" [OED].
reticent (adj.) Look up reticent at
1834, from Latin reticentem (nominative reticens), present participle of reticere "be silent" (see reticence).
reticle (n.) Look up reticle at
1650s, from Latin reticulum "little net," diminutive of rete "net" (see reticulate (adj.)).
reticular (adj.) Look up reticular at
1590s, from Modern Latin reticularis, from Latin reticulum "little net" (see reticulate (adj.)).
reticulate (adj.) Look up reticulate at
1650s, from Latin reticulatus "having a net-like pattern," from reticulum "little net," diminutive of rete "net," from PIE *ere- (2) "to separate" (see hermit).
reticulate (v.) Look up reticulate at
1787, back-formation from reticulated (1728), from reticulate (adj.). Related: Reticulating.
reticulation (n.) Look up reticulation at
1670s, noun of action or state from reticulate (v.).
reticule (n.) Look up reticule at
"a ladies' small bag," 1801, from French réticule (18c.) "a net for the hair, a reticule," from Latin reticulum "a little net, network bag" (see reticulate (adj.)).
reticulum (n.) Look up reticulum at
1650s, "second stomach of a ruminant" (so called from the folds of the membrane), from Latin reticulum "a little net" (see reticulate (adj.)). The word was later given various uses in biology, cytology, histology, etc., and made a southern constellation by la Caille (1763).
retina (n.) Look up retina at
late 14c., from Medieval Latin retina "the retina," probably from Vulgar Latin (tunica) *retina, literally "net-like tunic," on resemblance to the network of blood vessels at the back of the eye, and ultimately from Latin rete "net" (see reticulate (adj.)). The Vulgar Latin phrase might be Gerard of Cremona's 12c. translation of Arabic (tabaqa) shabakiyyah "netlike (layer)," itself probably a translation of Greek amphiblestroeides (khiton).
retinal (adj.) Look up retinal at
1838; see retina + -al (1).
retinitis (n.) Look up retinitis at
1821, from retina + -itis "inflammation."
retinue (n.) Look up retinue at
late 14c., from Old French retenue "group of followers, state of service," literally "that which is retained," noun use of fem. past participle of retenir "to employ, to retain, hold back" (see retain). Related: Retinular.
retiracy (n.) Look up retiracy at
1824, American English, irregularly from retire on model of privacy.