result (n.)
1620s, "action of springing back;" 1640s, "outcome, effect," from result (v.). Related: Results. Mathematical sense from 1771.
resultant (n.)
early 15c., from French résultant and directly from Medieval Latin resultantem (nominative resultans), present participle of resultare (see result (v.)).
resultant (adj.)
1630s, from resultant (adj.) and from Medieval Latin resultantem (nominative resultans), present participle of resultare (see result (v.)).
resume (v.)
early 15c., "to regain, take back;" mid-15c., "recommence, continue, begin again after interruption," from Middle French resumer (14c.) and directly from Latin resumere "take again, take up again, assume again," from re- "again" (see re-) + sumere "take up" (compare assume). Meaning "begin again" is mid-15c. Intransitive sense "proceed after interruption" is from 1802. Related: Resumed; resuming.
resume (n.)
also résumé, 1804, "a summary," from French résumé, noun use of past participle of Middle French resumer "to sum up," from Latin resumere (see resume (v.)). Meaning "biographical summary of a person's career" is 1940s.
resumption (n.)
mid-15c., "repossessing by grant," from Middle French resumption and directly from Late Latin resumptionem (nominative resumptio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin resumere (see resume (v.)).
resupply (v.)
also re-supply, 1630s, from re- + supply (v.). Related: Resupplied; resupplying. As a noun by 1875.
resurface (v.)
1886, "to provide with a fresh surface," from re- "back, again" + surface (v.). Meaning "to come to the surface again" is recorded from 1953. Related: Resurfaced; resurfacing.
resurge (v.)
1887 in modern use, back-formation from resurgent. The verb also was in use in 17c., from Latin resurgere, but it became obsolete. An older verb form was resourd (mid-15c.). Related: Resurged; resurging.
resurgence (n.)
1834; see resurgent + -ence.
resurgent (adj.)
1808, from obsolete verb resurge "to rise again" (1570s), from Latin resurgere "rise again, lift oneself, be restored," from re- "again" (see re-) + surgere "to rise" (see surge).
resurrect (v.)
1772, back-formation from resurrection. Related: Resurrected; resurrecting. "The correct form is resurge, which, however, is intransitive only, whereas the verb resurrect can be used both as transitive and intransitive ..." [Klein]. Related: Resurrected; resurrecting.
resurrection (n.)
c.1300, originally the name of a Church festival commemorating Christ's rising from death, from Anglo-French resurrectiun, Old French resurrection "the Resurrection of Christ" (12c.) and directly from Church Latin resurrectionem (nominative resurrectio) "a rising again from the dead," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin resurgere "rise again, appear again" (see resurgent). Replaced Old English æriste.

Generalized sense of "revival" is from 1640s. Also used in Middle English of the rising again of the dead on the Last Day (c.1300). Resurrectionist, euphemism for "grave-robber" is attested from 1776. Resurrection pie was mid-19c. English schoolboy slang for a pie made from leftovers of previous meals; first attested 1831 as a Sheffield dialect term.
There was a dreadful pie for dinner every Monday; a meat-pie with a stony crust that did not break; but split into scaly layers, with horrible lumps of gristle inside, and such strings of sinew (alternated by lumps of flabby fat) as a ghoule might use as a rosary. We called it kitten pie--resurrection pie--rag pie--dead man's pie. We cursed it by night we cursed it by day; we wouldn't stand it, we said; we would write to our friends; we would go to sea. ["How I Went to Sea," "Harper's Magazine," December 1852]
resurvey (v.)
1590s, from re- + survey (v.). Related: Resurveyed; resurveying. As a noun from 1660s.
resuscitate (v.)
early 15c., "revive, restore," from Latin resuscitatus, past participle of resuscitare "rouse again, revive," from re- "again" (see re-) + suscitare "to raise, revive," from sub "(up from) under" (see sub-) + citare "to summon" (see cite). Intransitive use from 1650s. Related: Resuscitated; resuscitating. Earlier was resuscen "restore (someone) to life, resurrect" (c.1400).
resuscitation (n.)
early 15c., from Old French resuscitation or directly from Late Latin resuscitationem (nominative resuscitatio), noun of action from past participle stem of resuscitare (see resuscitate).
ret (v.)
"to soak stems of fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, etc.) to soften them," mid-15c., probably from Middle Dutch roten (or an unrecorded cognate Old Norse word that is related to Norwegian røyta, Swedish röta, Danish røde); considered to be related to Old English rotian "to rot" (see rot (v.)), but the vowel is difficult.
retail (v.)
mid-14c. "sell in small quantities or parcels," from Old French retaillier "cut back, cut off, pare, clip, reduce, circumcise," from re- "back" (see re-) + taillier "to cut, trim" (see tailor (n.)). Sometimes also "to deal out (information, etc.) in small quantities; hand down by report; recount, tell over again" (1590s). Related: Retailed; retailing.
retail (n.)
early 15c., "sale of commodities in small quantities or parcels or at second hand" (opposed to wholesale), from Old French retail "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring" (Modern French retaille), from retaillier (see retail (v.)). The notion of the English word is "a selling by the piece." This sense is not in French, however, and comes perhaps from cognate Italian ritaglio, which does have that sense. As an adjective, "of or pertaining to sale at retail," c.1600.
retailer (n.)
mid-15c., agent noun from retail (v.).
retailing (n.)
mid-14c., verbal noun from retail (v.).
retain (v.)
late 14c., "hold back, restrain;" c.1400, "continue keeping, keep possession of," from Old French retenir "keep, retain; take into feudal service; hold back; remember" (12c.), from Latin retinere "hold back, keep back, detain, restrain," from re- "back" (see re-) + tenere "to hold" (see tenet). Meaning "keep (another) attached to one's person, keep in service" is from mid-15c.; specifically of lawyers from 1540s. Meaning "keep in the mind" is from c.1500. Related: Retained; retaining.
retainer (n.1)
"fee to secure services," mid-15c., originally "act of keeping for oneself" from retain, or perhaps from or influenced by Middle French retenir, infinitive used as a noun. Meaning "fee paid to an attorney to secure his services" is from 1818.
retainer (n.2)
"servant," 1530s, agent noun from retain (v.). Also "one who retains or holds" (1540s). Meaning "dental structure used to hold a bridge in place" is recorded from 1887.
retake (v.)
mid-15c., "to take back," from re- "back, again" + take (v.). Meaning "to recapture" is recorded from 1640s; sense of "to record a second time" is attested from 1962. Related: Retook; retaking; retaken. As a noun from 1918; figurative use from 1937.
retaliate (v.)
1610s, from Latin retaliatus, past participle of retaliare "requite, retaliate" (see retaliation). Related: Retaliated; retaliating.
retaliation (n.)
1580s, noun of action from Late Latin retaliare "pay back in kind," from re- "back" (see re-) + Latin talio "exaction of payment in kind," from or influenced by talis "suchlike" (see that). Originally used both in good and evil senses.
retaliatory (adj.)
1783; see retaliate + -ory. Alternative retaliative attested from 1819.
retard (v.)
late 15c., "make slow or slower," from French retarder "restrain, hold (someone) back, keep (someone from doing something); come to a stop" (13c.) or directly from Latin retardare "make slow, delay, keep back, hinder" (see retardation). Related: Retarded; retarding.

The noun is recorded from 1788 in the sense "retardation, delay;" from 1970 in offensive meaning "retarded person," originally American English, with accent on first syllable. Other words used for "one who is mentally retarded" include retardate (1956), retardee (1971).
retardance (n.)
1550s, "retardation," from Middle French retardance, from retarder (see retard (v.)). In reference to resistance to fire, 1948.
retardant (adj.)
1640s, from retard (v.) + -ant or from Latin retardantem (nominative retardans), present participle of retardare. From 1952 as a noun, "retardant substance."
retardation (n.)
early 15c., "fact or action of making slower in movement or time," from Latin retardationem (nominative retardatio) "a delaying," noun of action from past participle stem of retardare "to make slow, delay, keep back, hinder," from re- (see re-), + tardare "to slow," related to tardus "slow, sluggish" (see tardy). Sense of "educational slowness" is from 1907.
retarded (adj.)
1810, "delayed," past participle adjective from retard (v.). In childhood development sense, "mentally slow," attested from 1895 (perhaps inspired by Italian tardivi).
retarder (n.)
1640s, agent noun from retard (v.). Of railway braking mechanisms from 1937.
retch (v.)
1540s, originally "to clear the throat, to cough up phlegm," from Old English hræcan "to cough up, spit" (related to hraca "phlegm"), from Proto-Germanic *khrækijan (cognates: Old High German rahhison "to clear one's throat"), of imitative origin (compare Lithuanian kregeti "to grunt"). Meaning "to make efforts to vomit" is from 1850; sense of "to vomit" is first attested 1888. Related: Retched; retching.
rete (n.)
late 14c., in anatomy, from Latin rete "net" (see reticulate (adj.)). Plural is retia.
retell (v.)
1590s, from re- "back, again" + tell (v.). Related: Retold; retelling.
retention (n.)
late 14c., from Latin retentionem (nominative retentio) "a retaining, a holding back," noun of action from past participle stem of retinere (see retain). Originally medical; mental sense is from late 15c.
retentive (adj.)
late 14c., "able to hold or keep" (mental or physical), from Old French retentif, from Medieval Latin retentivus, from past participle stem of Latin retinere (see retain). Related: Retentively; retentiveness.
rethink (v.)
1700, from re- "back, again" + think (v.). Related: Rethinking.
reticence (n.)
c.1600, from Middle French réticence (16c.), from Latin reticentia "silence, a keeping silent," from present participle stem of reticere "keep silent," from re- (see re-), + tacere "be silent" (see tacit). "Not in common use until after 1830" [OED].
reticent (adj.)
1834, from Latin reticentem (nominative reticens), present participle of reticere "be silent" (see reticence).
reticle (n.)
1650s, from Latin reticulum "little net," diminutive of rete "net" (see reticulate (adj.)).
reticular (adj.)
1590s, from Modern Latin reticularis, from Latin reticulum "little net" (see reticulate (adj.)).
reticulate (adj.)
1650s, from Latin reticulatus "having a net-like pattern," from reticulum "little net," diminutive of rete "net," from PIE *ere- (2) "to separate" (see hermit).
reticulate (v.)
1787, back-formation from reticulated (1728), from reticulate (adj.). Related: Reticulating.
reticulation (n.)
1670s, noun of action or state from reticulate (v.).
reticule (n.)
"a ladies' small bag," 1801, from French réticule (18c.) "a net for the hair, a reticule," from Latin reticulum "a little net, network bag" (see reticulate (adj.)).
reticulum (n.)
1650s, "second stomach of a ruminant" (so called from the folds of the membrane), from Latin reticulum "a little net" (see reticulate (adj.)). The word was later given various uses in biology, cytology, histology, etc., and made a southern constellation by La Caille (1763).
retina (n.)
late 14c., from Medieval Latin retina "the retina," probably from Vulgar Latin (tunica) *retina, literally "net-like tunic," on resemblance to the network of blood vessels at the back of the eye, and ultimately from Latin rete "net" (see reticulate (adj.)). The Vulgar Latin phrase might be Gerard of Cremona's 12c. translation of Arabic (tabaqa) shabakiyyah "netlike (layer)," itself probably a translation of Greek amphiblestroeides (khiton).