resident (adj.) Look up resident at
late 14c., "dwelling, residing," from Old French resident and directly from Latin residentem (nominative residens), present participle of residere "to sit down, settle" (see reside).
residential (adj.) Look up residential at
1650s, "serving as a residence," from resident (n.) + -ial. Meaning "having to do with housing" is from 1856.
residual (adj.) Look up residual at
1560s, from residue + -al (1), or from French résiduel, from Latin residuum.
residual (n.) Look up residual at
1550s, in mathematics, from residual (adj.) or from residue + -al (2). Residuals "royalties" attested by 1960.
residue (n.) Look up residue at
mid-14c., from Old French residu (14c.), from Latin residuum "a remainder, that which is left behind," noun use of neuter of adjective residuus "remaining, left over," from residere "remain behind" (see reside).
resign (v.) Look up resign at
late 14c., "give up, surrender, abandon, submit; relinquish," from Old French resigner "renounce, relinquish" (13c.), from Latin resignare "to check off, annul, cancel, give back, give up," from re- "opposite" (see re-) + signare "to make an entry in an account book," literally "to mark," from Latin signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)).

The sense is of making an entry (signum) "opposite" -- on the credit side -- balancing the former mark and thus canceling the claim it represents. The specific meaning of "give up a position" is first recorded late 14c. Sense of "to give (oneself) up to some emotion or situation" is from 1718. Related: Resigned; resigning.
resignation (n.) Look up resignation at
late 14c., "act of resigning" (an office, etc.), from Old French resignation (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin resignationem (nominative resignatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin resignare (see resign). Meaning "submission, acquiescence" is from 1640s.
resigned (adj.) Look up resigned at
"submissive, full of resignation," 1690s, past participle adjective from resign (v.). Related: Resignedly.
resile (v.) Look up resile at
1520s, "draw back," from obsolete French resiler "withdraw from an agreement," or directly from Latin resilire "to jump back" (see resilience). Meaning "spring back, start back, recoil" (of material things) from 1708. Related: Resiled; resiling.
resilience (n.) Look up resilience at
1620s, "act of rebounding," from Latin resiliens, present participle of resilire "to rebound, recoil," from re- "back" (see re-) + salire "to jump, leap" (see salient (adj.)). Compare result (v.). Meaning "elasticity" is from 1824.
resiliency (n.) Look up resiliency at
1660s, "tendency to rebound;" see resilience + -cy. Meaning "power of recovery" is from 1857.
resilient (adj.) Look up resilient at
1640s, "springing back," from Latin resilientem "inclined to leap or spring back," present participle of resilire (see resilience). Figuratively, of persons, from 1830. Related: Resiliently.
resin (n.) Look up resin at
late 14c., from Old French resine "gum, resin," and directly from Latin resina "resin," from Greek rhetine "resin of the pine," of unknown origin.
resinate (v.) Look up resinate at
"impregnate with resin," 1891, from resin + -ate (2). Related: Resinated; resinating.
resinous (adj.) Look up resinous at
1640s, from Latin resinosus, from resina (see resin).
resist (v.) Look up resist at
late 14c., from Old French resister "hold out against" (14c.), from Latin resistere "to make a stand against, oppose; to stand back; withstand," from re- "against" (see re-) + sistere "take a stand, stand firm," from PIE *si-st-, reduplicated form of root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Related: Resisted; resisting.
resistance (n.) Look up resistance at
mid-14c., from Old French resistance, earlier resistence, from Late Latin resistentia, from present participle stem of Latin resistere "make a stand against, oppose" (see resist). Meaning "organized covert opposition to an occupying or ruling power" [OED] is from 1939. Electromagnetic sense is from 1860. Path of least resistance is from 1825, originally a term in science and engineering.
resistant (adj.) Look up resistant at
c. 1600, from French résistant, present participle of résister (see resist). In reference to diseases or drugs from 1897.
resistible (adj.) Look up resistible at
1640s, from resist (v.) + -ible. Alternative resistable attested from c. 1600.
resistor (n.) Look up resistor at
late 14c., "one who resists;" 1580s, "that which resists;" agent noun in Latin form from resist. Specifically in electricity from 1905; resister was used in this sense from 1759.
resoluble (adj.) Look up resoluble at
c. 1600, from Late Latin resulubilis, from re-, (see re-) + solubilis (see soluble).
resolute (adj.) Look up resolute at
early 15c., "dissolved, of loose structure," also "morally lax," from Latin resolutus, past participle of resolvere "untie, unfasten, loose, loosen" (see resolve). Meaning "determined, decided, absolute, final" is from c. 1500, especially in resolute answer, a phrase "common in 16th c." [OED]. From 1530s of persons. The notion is of "breaking (something) into parts" as the way to arrive at the truth of it and thus make the final determination (compare resolution). Related: Resolutely; resoluteness.
resolution (n.) Look up resolution at
late 14c., "a breaking into parts," from Old French resolution (14c.) or directly from Latin resolutionem (nominative resolutio) "process of reducing things into simpler forms," from past participle stem of resolvere "loosen" (see resolve). Sense of "a solving" (as of mathematical problems) first recorded 1540s, as is that of "power of holding firmly" (compare resolute). Sense of "decision or expression of a meeting" is from c. 1600. Meaning "effect of an optical instrument" is from 1860. New Year's resolution in reference to a specific intention to better oneself is from at least the 1780s, and through 19c. they generally were of a pious nature.
resolvable (adj.) Look up resolvable at
1640s, from resolve (v.) + -able.
resolve (n.) Look up resolve at
"determination, firmness or fixedness of purpose; a determination," 1590s, from resolve (v.).
resolve (v.) Look up resolve at
late 14c., "melt, dissolve, reduce to liquid;" intransitive sense from c. 1400; from Old French resolver or directly from Latin resolvere "to loosen, loose, unyoke, undo; explain; relax; set free; make void, dispel," from re-, perhaps intensive, or "back" (see re-), + solvere "to loosen, untie, release, explain," from PIE *se-lu-, from reflexive pronoun *s(w)e- (see idiom) + root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart."

From early 15c. as "separate into components," hence the use in optics (1785). Meaning "determine, decide upon" is from 1520s, hence "pass a resolution" (1580s). For sense evolution, compare resolute (adj.). Related: Resolved; resolving.
resolved (adj.) Look up resolved at
"determined," 1520s, past participle adjective from resolve (v.). Related: Resolvedly.
resonance (n.) Look up resonance at
mid-15c., in acoustics, "prolongation of sound by reverberation;" 1660s, "act of resonating;" from Middle French resonance (15c.), from Latin resonantia "echo," from resonare "to sound again" (see resound). Earlier in same sense was resonation (early 15c.).
resonant (adj.) Look up resonant at
1590s, from Latin resonantem (nominative resonans), present participle of resonare (see resonance).
resonate (v.) Look up resonate at
1873, from Latin resonatus, past participle of resonare "to sound again" (see resonance). Literal at first; figurative sense, of feelings, emotions, etc., by 1978. Related: Resonated; resonating.
resonator (n.) Look up resonator at
instrument or chamber formed to respond to a single tone, 1869, agent noun in Latin form from resonate (v.).
resorb (v.) Look up resorb at
1630s, from French résorber or directly from Latin resorbere "to suck back," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + sorbere "to suck" (see absorb). Related: Resorbed; resorbing.
resorption (n.) Look up resorption at
1670s, noun of action from resorb.
resort (n.) Look up resort at
late 14c., "that to which one has recourse for aid or assistance," from Old French resort "resource, a help, an aid, a remedy," back-formation from resortir "to resort," literally "to go out again," from re- "again" (see re-) + sortir "go out" (see sortie). Meaning "place people go for recreation" is first recorded 1754. Phrase in the last resort (1670s) translates French en dernier ressort, originally of legal appeals.
resort (v.) Look up resort at
c. 1400, "issue; come out again;" mid-15c., "to go to (someone) for aid," from Old French resortir, from resort (see resort (n.)). Related: Resorted; resorting.
resound (v.) Look up resound at
late 14c., resownen, from Old French resoner "reverberate" (12c., Modern French résonner), from Latin resonare "sound again, resound, echo," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + sonare "to sound, make a noise," "to sound," from PIE *swene-, from root *swen- "to sound" (see sound (n.1)). Spelling influenced from mid-15c. by sound (v.). Related: Resounded; resounding.
resounding (adj.) Look up resounding at
late 14c., present participle adjective from resound (v.). Figurative use from 1630s. Related: Resoundingly.
resource (n.) Look up resource at
1610s, "means of supplying a want or deficiency," from French resourse "a source, spring," noun use of fem. past participle of Old French resourdre "to rally, raise again," from Latin resurgere "rise again" (see resurgent). Resources "a country's wealth" first recorded 1779.
resource (v.) Look up resource at
1975, from resource (n.). Related: Resourced; resourcing.
resourceful (adj.) Look up resourceful at
1807, from resource + -ful. Related: Resourcefully; resourcefulness.
respect (v.) Look up respect at
1540s, "to regard," from Middle French respecter "look back; respect; delay," from Latin respectere, frequentative of respicere "look back at, regard, consider," from re- "back" (see re-) + specere "look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe").

Meaning "treat with deferential regard or esteem" is from 1550s. Sense of "refrain from injuring" is from 1620s. Meaning "have reference to" is from 1560s. Related: Respected; respecting. To respect the person was "show undue bias toward (or against) based on regard for the outward circumstances of a person;" hence respecter of persons, usually with negative, from Acts x:34, in the 1611 translation.
respect (n.) Look up respect at
late 14c., "relationship, relation; regard, consideration," from Old French respect and directly from Latin respectus "regard, a looking at," literally "act of looking back (or often) at one," noun use of past participle of respicere "look back at, regard, consider," from re- "back" (see re-) + specere "look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). Meanings "feeling of esteem excited by actions or attributes of someone or something; courteous or considerate treatment due to personal worth or power" are from 1580s, as is sense of "point, particular feature."
respectability (n.) Look up respectability at
1785, from respectable + -ity.
respectable (adj.) Look up respectable at
"worthy of esteem," 1580s; see respect (v.) + -able. Sense of "having an honest reputation" is from 1755. That of "occupying a fairly good position in society" is c. 1800. Related: Respectably.
respectful (adj.) Look up respectful at
1580s, "characterized by respect" (implied in respectfully), from respect (n.) + -ful. Meaning "full of outward civility" attested from 1680s. Related: Respectfulness.
respective (adj.) Look up respective at
mid-15c., "regardful, observing or noting with attention," from Medieval Latin respectivus "having regard for," from Latin respect- past participle stem of respicere (see respect (n.)). Meaning "relating or pertaining severally each to each" is from 1640s.
respectively (adv.) Look up respectively at
mid-15c., "relatively;" 1620s, "relatively to each singly," from respective + -ly (2).
respects (n.) Look up respects at
"expressions or signs of esteem, deference, or compliment," 1610s; see respect (n.). Earlier (late 14c.) as "aspects, particular respects."
respiration (n.) Look up respiration at
late 14c., from Latin respirationem (nominative respiratio) "breathing, respiration," noun of action from past participle stem of respirare (see respire).
respirator (n.) Look up respirator at
1836, as an aid to breathing (originally a sort of gauze mask, agent noun from respire. As "machine to provide artificial respiration" from 1929.