reckless (adj.) Look up reckless at
Old English receleas "careless, thoughtless, heedless," earlier reccileas, from *rece, recce "care, heed," from reccan "to care" (see reck (v.)) + -less. The same affixed form is in German ruchlos, Dutch roekeloos "wicked." Root verb reck (Old English reccan) is passing into obscurity.
recklessly (adv.) Look up recklessly at
Old English recceleaslice; see reckless + -ly (2).
recklessness (n.) Look up recklessness at
Old English recceleasnes "recklessness, carelessness, negligence;" see reckless + -ness.
reckon (v.) Look up reckon at
c. 1200, recenen, from Old English gerecenian "to explain, relate, recount, arrange in order," from Proto-Germanic *(ga)rakinaz "ready, straightforward" (source also of Old Frisian rekenia, Middle Dutch and Dutch rekenen, Old High German rehhanon, German rechnen, Gothic rahnjan "to count, reckon"), from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule."

Intransitive sense "make a computation" is from c. 1300. In I reckon, the sense is "hold an impression or opinion," and the expression, used parenthetically, dates from c. 1600 and formerly was in literary use (Richardson, etc.), but came to be associated with U.S. Southern dialect and was regarded as provincial or vulgar. Related: Reckoned; reckoning.
reckoner (n.) Look up reckoner at
early 13c., agent noun from reckon. Especially "book of tables used in calculation," often known as a ready reckoner.
reckoning (n.) Look up reckoning at
early 14c., "narrative, account," verbal noun from reckon (v.). Meaning "a settling of accounts" is from mid-14c.; that of "calculation" is from late 14c. Compare Dutch rekening "a bill, account, reckoning," Old High German rechenunga, German rechnung, Danish regning "a reckoning, computation." Day of reckoning attested from c. 1600.
reclaim (v.) Look up reclaim at
early 14c., "call back a hawk to the glove," from Old French reclamer "to call upon, invoke; claim; seduce; to call back a hawk" (12c.) and directly from Latin reclamare "cry out against, contradict, protest, appeal," from re- "opposite, against" (see re-) + clamare "cry out" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout").

"Call back a hawk," hence "to make tame" (mid-15c.), "subdue, reduce to obedience, make amenable to control" (late 14c.). In many Middle English uses with no sense of return or reciprocation. Meaning "revoke" (a grant, gift, etc.) is from late 15c. That of "recall (someone) from an erring course to a proper state" is mid-15c. Sense of "get back by effort" might reflect influence of claim. Meaning "bring waste land into useful condition fit for cultivation" first attested 1764, probably on notion of "reduce to obedience." Related: Reclaimed; reclaiming.
reclamation (n.) Look up reclamation at
late 15c., "a revoking" (of a grant, etc.), from Old French réclamacion and directly from Latin reclamationem (nominative reclamatio) "a cry of 'no,' a shout of disapproval," noun of action from past participle stem of reclamare "cry out against, protest" (see reclaim). From 1630s as "action of calling (someone) back" (from iniquity, etc.); meaning "action of claiming something taken awat" is from 1787. Of land from 1848.
recline (v.) Look up recline at
early 15c., from Old French recliner "rest, lay; bend, lean over" (13c.) and directly from Latin reclinare "to bend back, to lean back; cause to lean," from re- "back, against" (see re-) + clinare "to bend," from PIE *klein-, suffixed form of root *klei- "to lean." Related: Reclined; reclining.
Recline is always as strong as lean, and generally stronger, indicating a more completely recumbent position, and approaching lie. [Century Dictionary]
recliner (n.) Look up recliner at
1660s, agent noun from recline. From 1880 as a type of chair.
recluse (n.) Look up recluse at
c. 1200, "person shut up from the world for purposes of religious meditation," from Old French reclus (fem. recluse) "hermit, recluse," also "confinement, prison; convent, monastery," noun use of reclus (adj.) "shut up," from Late Latin reclusus, past participle of recludere "to shut up, enclose" (but in classical Latin "to throw open"), from Latin re-, intensive prefix, + claudere "to shut" (see close (v.)).
reclusive (adj.) Look up reclusive at
1590s, from recluse + -ive. Recluse alone formerly served also as an adjective in English (early 13c.).
recognise (v.) Look up recognise at
chiefly British English spelling of recognize; for spelling, see -ize. Related: Recognised; recognising; recognisance.
recognition (n.) Look up recognition at
mid-15c., "knowledge of an event or incident; understanding," from Middle French recognition (15c.) and directly from Latin recognitionem (nominative recognitio) "a reviewing, investigation, examination," noun of action from past participle stem of recognoscere "to acknowledge, know again; examine" (see recognize).

Sense of "formal avowal of knowledge and approval" is from 1590s; especially acknowledgement of the independence of a country by a state formerly exercising sovereignty (1824). Meaning "a knowing again" is from 1798.
recognizance (n.) Look up recognizance at
early 14c., reconisaunce, "a bond acknowledging some obligation binding one over to do some particular act," from Old French reconissance "acknowledgment, recognition" (12c., Modern French reconnaissance), from reconoiss-, present participle stem of reconoistre (see recognize). Related: Recognizant.
recognization (n.) Look up recognization at
"act of recognizing," 1550s, from recognize + noun ending -ation.
recognize (v.) Look up recognize at
early 15c., "resume possession of land," back-formation from recognizance, or else from Old French reconoiss-, stem of reconoistre "to know again, identify, recognize," from Latin recognoscere "acknowledge, recall to mind, know again; examine; certify," from re- "again" (see re-) + cognoscere "to get to know, recognize" (see cognizance). Meaning "know again, recall or recover the knowledge of, perceive an identity with something formerly known or felt" first recorded 1530s. Related: Recognized; recognizing.
recoil (v.) Look up recoil at
early 13c. (transitive) "force back, drive back," from Old French reculer "to go back, give way, recede, retreat" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *reculare, from Latin re- "back" (see re-) + culus "backside, bottom, fundament." Meaning "shrink back, retreat" is first recorded c. 1300; and that of "spring back" (as a gun) in 1520s. Related: Recoiled; recoiling.
recoil (n.) Look up recoil at
c. 1300, "retreat," from Old French recul "recoil, backward movement, retreat," from reculer (see recoil (v.)). Meaning "back-kick of a firearm" is from 1570s.
recollect (v.) Look up recollect at
"remember, recover knowledge of," 1550s, from Latin recollectus, past participle of recolligere, literally "to collect again," from re- "again" (see re-) + colligere "gather" (see collect). Related: Recollected; recollecting. The pronunciation is based on recollection.
recollection (n.) Look up recollection at
1590s, "a gathering together again," from French récollection (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin recollectionem (nominative recollectio), noun of action from past participle stem of recolligere (see recollect). Meaning "act of recalling to memory" is from 1680s; a thing or scene so recalled, from 1781.
recombinant (adj.) Look up recombinant at
1942, from recombine + -ant.
recombination (n.) Look up recombination at
1791, from re- + combination.
recombine (v.) Look up recombine at
1630s, from re- + combine (v.). Related: Recombined; recombining.
recommence (v.) Look up recommence at
late 15c., from Old French recommencier "begin again, start afresh" (11c.), from re- "back, again" (see re-) + commencer (see commence). Related: Recommenced; recommencing.
recommend (v.) Look up recommend at
late 14c., "praise, present as worthy," from Medieval Latin recommendare, from Latin re-, here probably an intensive prefix, or else from a sense now obscure (see re-), + commendare "commit to one's care, commend" (see commend). Meaning "advise as to action, urge (that something be done)" is from 1746. Related: Recommended; recommending.
recommendation (n.) Look up recommendation at
early 15c., "action of commending oneself to another," from Old French recommendation (Modern French recommandation), from Medieval Latin recommendationem (nominative recommendatio), noun of action from past participle stem of recommendare (see recommend). Meaning "act of recommending (someone or something) as worthy" is from 1570s. Letter of recommendation is from late 15c.
recommission (v.) Look up recommission at
1781, in reference to British Navy ships, from re- "back, again" + commission (v.). Related: Recommissioned; recommissioning.
recommit (v.) Look up recommit at
1620s, from re- "again" + commit (v.). Related: Recommitted; recommitting.
recompense (n.) Look up recompense at
early 15c., from Middle French recompense (13c.), related to recompenser "make good, recompense" from Late Latin recompensare (see recompense (v.)).
recompense (v.) Look up recompense at
c. 1400, "to redress," from Middle French recompenser (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin recompensare "to reward, remunerate," from Latin re- "again" (see re-) + compensare "balance out," literally "weigh together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pensare, frequentative of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). From early 15c. as "to compensate." Related: Recompensed; recompensing.
recon Look up recon at
military slang shortening; 1918 for reconnaissance (n.); 1966 for reconnoitre (v.).
reconceptualize (v.) Look up reconceptualize at
1969, from re- + conceptualize. Related: Reconceptualized; reconceptualizing.
reconcilable (adj.) Look up reconcilable at
1610s, from reconcile + -able.
reconcile (v.) Look up reconcile at
mid-14c., of persons, from Old French reconcilier (12c.) and directly from Latin reconcilare "to bring together again; regain; win over again, conciliate," from re- "again" (see re-) + concilare "make friendly" (see conciliate). Reflexive sense is recorded from 1530s. Meaning "to make (discordant facts or statements) consistent" is from late 14c. Intransitive sense of "become reconciled" is from 1660s. Related: Reconciled; reconciling.
reconciliation (n.) Look up reconciliation at
mid-14c., from Old French reconciliacion (14c.) and directly from Latin reconciliationem (nominative reconciliatio) "a re-establishing, a reconciling," noun of action from past participle stem of reconciliare (see reconcile).
recondite (adj.) Look up recondite at
1640s, "removed or hidden from view," from Old French recondit, from Latin reconditus, past participle of recondere "store away, hide, conceal, put back again, put up again, lay up," from assimilated form of com- "together" (see com-) + -dere "put," from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put, place." Meaning "removed from ordinary understanding, profound" is from 1650s; of writers or sources, "obscure," it is recorded from 1817.
recondition (v.) Look up recondition at
also re-condition, 1850, from re- "back, again" + condition (v.). Related: Reconditioned; reconditioning.
reconfigure (v.) Look up reconfigure at
1964, from re- + configure. Related: Reconfigured; reconfiguring.
reconnaissance (n.) Look up reconnaissance at
1810, from French reconnaissance "act of surveying," literally "recognition," from Old French reconoissance "recognition, acknowledgement" (see recognizance).
reconnect (v.) Look up reconnect at
1752, from re- + connect (v.). Related: Reconnected; reconnecting.
reconnoiter (v.) Look up reconnoiter at
also reconnoitre, 1707, "make a survey," from older French reconnoitre (Modern French reconnaître), from Old French reconoistre "to identify" (see recognize).
reconquer (v.) Look up reconquer at
1580s, from Middle French reconquerre (12c.), from re- "again, back" (see re-) + conquerre (see conquer). Related: Reconquered; reconquering.
reconquest (n.) Look up reconquest at
1540s, from Middle French reconqueste (16c., Modern French reconquête), cognate with Spanish reconquista; see re- + conquest.
reconsider (v.) Look up reconsider at
1570s, from French reconsidérer and also from re- "back, again" + consider. Related: Reconsidered; reconsidering.
reconsideration (n.) Look up reconsideration at
1650s, noun of action from reconsider (q.v.).
reconstitute (v.) Look up reconstitute at
1790, from re- "back, again" + constitute (v.). Related: Reconstituted; reconstituting.
reconstruct (v.) Look up reconstruct at
1768, "to build anew," from re- "back, again" + construct (v.). Meaning "to restore (something) mentally" is attested from 1862. Related: Reconstructed; reconstructing.
reconstruction (n.) Look up reconstruction at
1791, "action or process of reconstructing," noun of action from reconstruct. In U.S. political history sense (usually with a capital R-), from 1865. It had been used during the American Civil War in reference to reconstitution of the union.
reconvene (v.) Look up reconvene at
1640s, from re- + convene and from Medieval Latin reconvenire. Related: Reconvened; reconvening; reconvention.