parry (v.) Look up parry at Dictionary.com
1630s, from French parez! (which commonly would have been heard in fencing lessons), imperative of parer "ward off," from Italian parare "to ward or defend a blow" (see para- (2)). Related: Parried; parrying. Non-fencing use is from 1718. The noun is 1705, from the verb.
parse (v.) Look up parse at Dictionary.com
1550s, "to state the parts of speech in a sentence," verb use of Middle English pars (n.) "part of speech" (c. 1300), from Old French pars, plural of part "part," from Latin pars (see part (n.)) in school question, Quae pars orationis? "What part of speech?" Transferred (non-grammatical) use is from 1788. Pars was a common plural of part (n.) in early Middle English. Related: Parsed; parsing.
parsec (n.) Look up parsec at Dictionary.com
interstellar distance measure, 1913, from first elements of parallax second. It is the distance at which an object has parallax (viewed from Earth) of one second of arc, or about 3.26 light-years.
Parsee (n.) Look up Parsee at Dictionary.com
1610s, descendant of Zoroastrians who fled to India 7c.-8c. after Muslim conquest of Persia, from Old Persian parsi "Persian" (see Persian). In Middle English, Parsees meant "Persians."
parsimonious (adj.) Look up parsimonious at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Latin parsimonia "frugality, thrift" (see parsimony) + -ous. Not originally with the suggestion of stinginess. Related: Parsimoniously; parsimoniousness.
parsimony (n.) Look up parsimony at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin parsimonia "sparingness, frugality, thrift," from pars-, past participle stem of parcere "to spare, save, refrain from, use moderately" (which is said to be unrelated to Latin parvus "small," parum "too little") + -monia, suffix signifying action, state, or condition.
parsley (n.) Look up parsley at Dictionary.com
14c. merger of Old English petersilie and Old French peresil (13c., Modern French persil), both from Medieval Latin petrosilium, from Latin petroselinum, from Greek petroselinon "rock-parsley," from petros "rock, stone" + selinon "celery" (see celery).
parsnip (n.) Look up parsnip at Dictionary.com
16c., parsnepe, corruption (by influence of Middle English nepe "turnip;" see neep) of Middle English passenep (late 14c.), from Old French pasnaise "parsnip," also "male member" (Modern French panais), from Latin pastinaca "parsnip, carrot," from pastinum "two-pronged fork" (related to pastinare "to dig up the ground"); so called from the shape of the root. The parsnip was considered a kind of turnip.
parson (n.) Look up parson at Dictionary.com
late 12c., from Anglo-French and Old French persone "curate, parson, holder of Church office" (12c.), from Medieval Latin persona "parson" (see person). Ecclesiastical use is obscure; it might refer to the "person" legally holding church property, or it may be an abbreviation of persona ecclesiae "person of the church."
parsonage (n.) Look up parsonage at Dictionary.com
"house for a parson," late 15c., from parson + -age. Earlier it meant "benefice of a parson" (late 14c.).
part (n.) Look up part at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., "division, portion of a whole," from Old French part "share, portion; character; power, dominion; side, way, path," from Latin partem (nominative pars) "a part, piece, a share, a division; a party or faction; a part of the body; a fraction; a function, office," related to portio "share, portion," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to assign, grant, allot" (reciprocally, "to get in return;" source also of Greek peprotai "it has been granted," Sanskrit purtam "reward," Hittite parshiya- "fraction, part").

It has replaced native deal (n.) in most senses. Theatrical sense (late 15c.) is from an actor's "share" in a performance (The Latin plural partis was used in the same sense). Meaning "the parting of the hair" is 1890, American English.

As an adjective from 1590s. Late Old English part "part of speech" did not survive and the modern word is considered a separate borrowing. Phrase for the most part is from late 14c. To take part "participate" is from late 14c.
part (v.) Look up part at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "to divide into parts; separate oneself," from Old French partir "to divide, separate" (10c.), from Latin partire, partere "to share, part, distribute, divide," from pars (see part (n.)).

Sense of "to separate (someone from someone else)" is from early 14c.; that of "to take leave" is from early 15c. Meaning "to separate the hair" is attested from 1610s. Related: Parted; parting. To part with "surrender" is from c. 1300.
part of speech (n.) Look up part of speech at Dictionary.com
c. 1500, translating Latin pars orationis (see parse). Noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Sometimes article and participle are counted among them.
part-time (adj.) Look up part-time at Dictionary.com
also parttime, 1891, from part (n.) + time (n.). Related: Part-timer.
partake (v.) Look up partake at Dictionary.com
1560s, back-formation from Middle English part-taking (late 14c.), or part-taker (c. 1400), both translations of Latin particeps "participant" (n.), also "sharing, partaking" (see participation). Related: Partook; partaking.
partaker (n.) Look up partaker at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, from part (n.) + agent noun from take (v.); see partake.
parterre (n.) Look up parterre at Dictionary.com
1630s, from French parterre (1540s), from adverbial phrase par terre "over the ground;" see par + terrain
parthenic (adj.) Look up parthenic at Dictionary.com
"of or of the nature of a virgin," 1866, from Greek parthenikos, from parthenos "virgin" (see Parthenon).
parthenogenesis (n.) Look up parthenogenesis at Dictionary.com
"reproduction without fertilization," 1849, from Greek parthenos "virgin," of unknown origin, + -genesis "birth, origin, creation." Related: Parthenogenetic.
Parthenon (n.) Look up Parthenon at Dictionary.com
name of the temple of Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greek, literally "temple of the virgin goddess" (Athene), from parthenos "virgin, maiden, girl," of unknown origin.
Parthian (n.) Look up Parthian at Dictionary.com
1520s, native or inhabitant of Parthia (ancient kingdom northeast of Persia in western Asia), from Old Persian Parthava- "Parthian," dialectal variant of the stem Parsa-, source of Persia.

As an adjective, 1580s. Phrase Parthian shot is in reference to their horsemen, who were expert at racing forward, turning, and shooting arrows backward at the moment of retreat. The exact phrase is attested by 1832; the image itself was in use long before (for example Parthian fight, 1630s).
Or, like the Parthian, I shall flying fight ["Cymbeline," Act I, Scene VII]
parti- Look up parti- at Dictionary.com
"in two ways," word-forming element extracted late 16c. from parti-colored.
parti-colored (adj.) Look up parti-colored at Dictionary.com
1530s, from party "divided," from French parti, past participle of partir "to divide" (see part (v.)). The noun parti itself occurs in the sense "parti-colored" from late 14c.
partial (adj.) Look up partial at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "one-sided, biased," from Old French parcial (14c., Modern French partial), from Medieval Latin partialis "divisible, solitary, partial," from Latin pars (genitive partis) "part" (see part (n.)). Sense of "not whole, incomplete" is attested from late 14c. Related: Partially (mid-15c. as "incompletely").
partiality (n.) Look up partiality at Dictionary.com
"one-sidedness," early 15c., from Middle French parcialité, from Medieval Latin partialitatem (nominative partialitas), from partialis (see partial).
partialness (n.) Look up partialness at Dictionary.com
"incompleteness," 1701, from partial + -ness.
participant (adj.) Look up participant at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Latin participantem (nominative participans), present participle of participare "to share in, partake of," from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation).
participant (n.) Look up participant at Dictionary.com
1560s, from Middle French participant, from Latin participantem (nominative participans), present participle of participare "to share in, partake of" from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation).
participate (v.) Look up participate at Dictionary.com
1530s, back-formation from participation, or else from Latin participatus, past participle of participare "to share, share in, participate in; to impart," from particeps "partaking, sharing," from parti, past participle of partir "to divide" (see part (n.)) + -cip-, weak form of stem of capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp" (see capable). Related: Participated; participating.
participation (n.) Look up participation at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French participacion (13c.) and directly from Late Latin participationem (nominative participatio) "partaking," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin participare "participate in, share in, partake of; to make partaker, to share, impart," from particeps (genitive participis) "partaker, comrade, fellow soldier," also, as an adjective, "sharing, partaking," from pars (genitive partis) "part" (see part (n.)) + -cip-, weak form of stem of capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp" (see capable).
participative (adj.) Look up participative at Dictionary.com
1650s, from participate + -ive.
participatory (adj.) Look up participatory at Dictionary.com
1833, from participate + -ory. Participatory democracy attested from 1965, a term from student protests.
participial (adj.) Look up participial at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Middle French participial and directly from Latin participialis, from participium (see participle). As a noun from 1560s.
participle (n.) Look up participle at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "a noun-adjective," from Old French participle (13c.), variant of participe, from Latin participium, literally "a sharing, partaking," from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation). In grammatical sense, the Latin translates Greek metokhe "sharer, partaker," and the notion is of a word "partaking" of the nature of both a noun and an adjective.
particle (n.) Look up particle at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "small part or division of a whole, minute portion of matter," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot," diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "part;" see part (n.). Particle physics attested from 1969. In construction, particle board (1957) is so called because it is made from chips and shavings of wood.
particular (adj.) Look up particular at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "pertaining to a single thing or person," from Old French particuler (14c., Modern French particulier) and directly from Late Latin particularis "of a part, concerning a small part," from Latin particula "particle" (see particle). Sense of "precise, exacting" first recorded 1814.
particular (n.) Look up particular at Dictionary.com
"a part or section of a whole," late 14c., from particular (adj.). Particulars "small details of statement" is from c. 1600.
particularity (n.) Look up particularity at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Middle French particularité, from Late Latin particularitatem (nominative particularitas), from Latin particularis (see particular).
particularize (v.) Look up particularize at Dictionary.com
1580s, from particular + -ize. Related: Particularized; particularizing.
particularly (adv.) Look up particularly at Dictionary.com
"in a special degree, more than others," 1670s, from particular (adj.) + -ly (2).
particulate (adj.) Look up particulate at Dictionary.com
1871, from Modern Latin particulatus, from particula (see particle). As a noun from 1960. Related: Particulates.
parting (n.) Look up parting at Dictionary.com
"action of going away," c. 1300, verbal noun from part (v.). As "separation of persons," early 14c.
partisan (n.) Look up partisan at Dictionary.com
also partizan, 1550s, "one who takes part with another, zealous supporter," from Middle French partisan (15c.), from dialectal upper Italian partezan (Tuscan partigiano) "member of a faction, partner," from parte "part, party," from Latin partem (nominative pars), see part (n.). Sense of "guerilla fighter" is first recorded 1690s.
partisan (adj.) Look up partisan at Dictionary.com
1708 for warfare, 1842 for politics, from partisan (n.).
partisanship (n.) Look up partisanship at Dictionary.com
1831, from partisan + -ship.
partition (n.) Look up partition at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "division into shares, distinction," from Old French particion (12c.), from Latin partitionem (nominative partitio) "a sharing, division, partition, distribution; method of dividing," from past participle stem of partire "to part" (see part (v.)). Sense of "that which separates" first recorded late 15c.
partition (v.) Look up partition at Dictionary.com
1741, from partition (n.). Related: Partitioned; partitioning.
partitive (adj.) Look up partitive at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "having the quality of dividing into parts," from Late Latin partitivus, from Latin partitus, past participle of partire "to divide" (see part (v.)).
partly (adv.) Look up partly at Dictionary.com
1520s, from part (n.) + -ly (2).
partner (n.) Look up partner at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, altered from parcener (late 13c.), from Old French parçonier "partner, associate; joint owner, joint heir," from parçon "partition, division. portion, share, lot," from Latin partitionem (nominative partitio) "a sharing, partition, division, distribution" (see partition (n.)). Form in English influenced by part (n.). The word also may represent Old French part tenour "part holder."