paregoric (n.)
"medicine that soothes pain," 1704, from adjective (1680s) "soothing," from Late Latin paregoricus, from Greek paregorikos "soothing, encouraging, consoling," from paregorein "speak soothingly to," from paregoros "consoling," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + root of agoreuein "speak in public," from agora "public assembly," from PIE root *ger- "to gather" (see gregarious).
parenchyma (n.)
1650s, Modern Latin, from Greek parenkhyma "something poured in beside," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" (see found (v.2)). In ancient physiology, the stuff that was supposed to make up the liver, lungs, etc., which was believed to be formed from blood strained through the capillaries and congealed.
parent (n.)
early 15c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French parent "father, parent, relative, kin" (11c.), from Latin parentem (nominative parens) "father or mother, ancestor," noun use of present participle of parere "bring forth, give birth to, produce," from PIE root *pere- (1) "to bring forth" (see pare). Began to replace native elder after c.1500.
parent (v.)
1660s, from parent (n.). Related: Parented; parenting.
parentage (n.)
late 15c., "parental conduct," from Middle French parentage (12c.), from parent (see parent). Meaning "lineage" is from 1560s; figurative use from 1580s.
parental (adj.)
1620s, from Latin parentalis "of parents," from parens (see parent (n.)). Related: Parentally.
parenteral (adj.)
1905, from para- (1) + Greek enteron "intestine" (see enteric).
parenthesis (n.)
1540s, "words, clauses, etc. inserted into a sentence," from Middle French parenthèse (15c.), from Late Latin parenthesis "addition of a letter to a syllable in a word," from Greek parenthesis, literally "a putting in beside," from parentithenai "put in beside," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + en- "in" + tithenai "put, place" (see theme). Sense extension by 1715 from the inserted words to the curved brackets that indicate the words inserted.
A wooden parenthesis; the pillory. An iron parenthesis; a prison. ["Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit and Pickpocket Eloquence," London, 1811]
parenthesize (v.)
1825, from parenthesis + -ize. Related: Parenthesized; parenthesizing.
parenthetical (adj.)
1620s, from Medieval Latin parentheticus from Greek parenthetos "put in beside," verbal adjective from parentithenai; see parenthesis) + -al (1). Related: Parenthetically.
parenthood (n.)
1856, from parent (n.) + -hood.
parenting (n.)
1959, verbal noun from parent (v.). An earlier term was parentcraft (1930); also see parentage.
parer (n.)
1570s, agent noun from pare (v.).
paresis (n.)
"partial paralysis," 1690s, Modern Latin, from Greek paresis "letting go, slackening of strength, paralysis," from stem of parienai "to let go," from para- (see para- (1)) + hienai "to send, throw" (see jet (v.)).
Pareto
1920, in reference to the work of Italian economist Vilfredo Federico Pareto (1848-1923). Related: Paretan.
parfait (n.)
kind of frozen dessert, 1894, French, literally "perfect" (see perfect (adj.)).
parhelion (n.)
1640s, from Greek parelion "a mock sun," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + helios "sun" (see sol).
pari passu
Latin, literally "with equal step," from ablative of par "equal" (see par) + passus "pace" (see pace (n.)).
pari-mutuel
1881, from French pari-mutuel "mutual wager," from pari "wager" (from parier "to bet," from Latin pariare "to settle a debt," literally "to make equal," from par, genitive paris, "equal;" see par) + mutuel "mutual," from Latin mutuus (see mutual).
pariah (n.)
1610s, from Portuguese paria or directly from Tamil paraiyar, plural of paraiyan "drummer" (at festivals, the hereditary duty of members of the largest of the lower castes of southern India), from parai "large festival drum." "Especially numerous at Madras, where its members supplied most of the domestics in European service" [OED]. Applied by Hindus and Europeans to any members of low Hindu castes and even to outcastes. Extended meaning "social outcast" is first attested 1819.
parietal (adj.)
early 15c., "pertaining to the walls of a cavity in the body," from Late Latin parietalis "of walls," from Latin paries (genitive parietis) "wall" (of a building), of unknown origin. In U.S. also "pertaining to the residents and rules of a college or university" (1837).
Paris
capital of France, from Gallo-Latin Lutetia Parisorum (in Late Latin also Parisii), name of a fortified town of the Gaulish tribe of the Parisii, who had a capital there; literally "Parisian swamps" (compare Old Irish loth "dirt," Welsh lludedic "muddy, slimy").

The tribal name is of unknown origin, but traditionally derived from a Celtic par "boat" (perhaps related to Greek baris; see barge (n.)), hence the ship on the city's coat of arms.
parish (n.)
c.1300, "district with its own church; members of such a church," from Anglo-French paroche, parosse (late 11c.), Old French paroisse, from Late Latin parochia "a diocese," alteration of Late Greek paroikia "a diocese or parish," from paroikos "a sojourner" (in Christian writers), in classical Greek, "neighbor," from para- "near" (see para- (1)) + oikos "house" (see villa).

Sense development unclear, perhaps from "sojourner" as epithet of early Christians as spiritual sojourners in the material world. In early Church writing the word was used in a more general sense than Greek diokesis, though by 13c. they were synonymous. Replaced Old English preostscyr, literally "priest-shire."
parishioner (n.)
mid-15c., with -er (1), from earlier parishen "parishioner" (c.1200), from Old French paroissien, parochien, from paroisse (see parish). Doublet form parochian was obsolete by 1700.
Parisian
1520s (n.), 1610s (adj.), from French parisien, from Medieval Latin parisianus (see Paris). Fem. form Parisienne (n.) is attested from 1886.
parity (n.)
1570s, "equality of rank or status," from Middle French parité (14c.) or directly from Late Latin paritas "equality," from Latin adjective par (genitive paris) "equal" (see pair (n.)). Meaning "condition in which adversaries have equal resources" is from 1955, originally in reference to the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
park (n.)
mid-13c., "enclosed preserve for beasts of the chase," from Old French parc "enclosed wood or heath land used as a game preserve" (12c.), probably ultimately from West Germanic *parruk "enclosed tract of land" (cognates: Old English pearruc, root of paddock (n.2), Old High German pfarrih "fencing about, enclosure," German pferch "fold for sheep," Dutch park).

Internal evidence suggests the West Germanic word is pre-4c. and originally meant the fencing, not the place enclosed. Found also in Medieval Latin as parricus "enclosure, park" (8c.), which likely is the direct source of the Old French word, as well as Italian parco, Spanish parque, etc. Some claim the Medieval Latin word as the source of the West Germanic, but the reverse seems more likely. Some later senses in English represent later borrowings from French. OED discounts notion of a Celtic origin. Welsh parc, Gaelic pairc are from English.

Meaning "enclosed lot in or near a town, for public recreation" is first attested 1660s, originally in reference to London; the sense evolution is via royal parks in the original, hunting sense being overrun by the growth of London and being opened to the public. Applied to sporting fields in American English from 1867.

New York's Park Avenue as an adjective meaning "luxurious and fashionable" (1956) was preceded in the same sense by London's Park Lane (1880). As a surname, Parker "keeper of a park" is attested in English from mid-12c. As a vehicle transmission gear, park (n.) is attested from 1949.
park (v.)
1812, "to arrange military vehicles in a park," from park (n.) in a limited sense of "enclosure for military vehicles" (attested from 1680s). General non-military meaning "to put (a vehicle) in a certain place" is first recorded 1844. Related: Parked; parking. Park-and-ride is from 1966.
parka (n.)
1780, from Aleut parka, from Russian parka "a pelt or jacket made from pelt," from Samoyed.
parking (n.)
"act of putting (a vehicle) in a certain place," 1915, verbal noun from park (v.). Parking lot is from 1920; parking ticket attested by 1925. Parking brake recorded from 1929.
Parkinson's disease
1877, from French maladie de Parkinson (1876), named for English physician James Parkinson (1755-1824), who described it (1817) under the names shaking palsy and paralysis agitans.
Parkinson's Law
1955 (in the "Economist" of Nov. 19), named for its deviser, British historian and journalist Cyril Northcote Parkinson (1909-1993): "work expands to fill the time available for its completion."
parlance (n.)
1570s, "speaking, speech," especially in debate; 1787 as "way of speaking," from Anglo-French (c.1300) and Old French parlance, from Old French parlaunce, from parler "to speak" (see parley).
parlay (n.)
1701, parloi, term in the card game faro, from French paroli, from Italian parole (Neapolitan paroli) "words, promises," plural of parolo (see parole). Meaning "exploit to advantage" is from 1942.
parley (n.)
"conference, speech," especially with an enemy, mid-15c., from Middle French parlée, from fem. past participle of Old French parler "to speak" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *paraulare, from Late Latin parabolare "to speak (in parables)," from parabola "speech, discourse," from Latin parabola "comparison" (see parable).
parley (v.)
late 14c., "to speak, talk, confer," probably a separate borrowing of Old French parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)). Related: Parleyed; parleying. Meaning "to discuss terms" is 1560s, from the noun.
parleyvoo
colloquial for "the French language," 1754, from French parlez-vous (français?) "do you speak (French?)" For parlez, see parley (n.).
parliament (n.)
c.1300, "consultation; formal conference, assembly," from Old French parlement (11c.), originally "a speaking, talk," from parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)); spelling altered c.1400 to conform with Medieval Latin parliamentum.

Anglo-Latin parliamentum is attested from early 13c. Specific sense "representative assembly of England or Ireland" emerged by mid-14c. from general meaning "a conference of the secular and/or ecclesiastical aristocracy summoned by a monarch."
parliamentarian (n.)
1640s as a designation of one of the sides in the English Civil War; meaning "one versed in parliamentary procedure" dates from 1834. See parliamentary + -ian.
parliamentary (adj.)
1610s, from parliament + -ary.
parlor (n.)
c.1200, parlur, "window through which confessions were made," also "apartment in a monastery for conversations with outside persons;" from Old French parleor "courtroom, judgment hall, auditorium" (12c., Modern French parloir), from parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)).

Sense of "sitting room for private conversation" is late 14c.; that of "show room for a business" (as in ice cream parlor) first recorded 1884. As an adjective, "advocating radical views from a position of comfort," 1910.
parlour
chiefly British English spelling of parlor (q.v.).
parlous (adj.)
late 14c., late Middle English contraction of perilous.
parmaceutics (n.)
1660s, from pharmaceutic (see pharmaceutical); also see -ics.
parmaco-
word-forming element meaning "drug, medicine," also "poison," from Latinized form of Greek pharmako-, comb. form of pharmakon "drug, poison" (see pharmacy).
Parmesan (n.)
type of dry, hard cheese, 1550s, from Italian Parmegiano "of Parma," from Parma, city in northern Italy, one of the places where the cheese is made. Full form parmeson chese is recorded from 1510s. The place name ultimately is Etruscan.
Parnassus (n.)
late 14c., from Latin, from Greek Parnassos, mountain in central Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, thus symbolic of poetry. Room writes that the name is from Hittite parna "abode." Related: Parnassian.
Various kinds of literary fame seem destined to various measures of duration. Some spread into exuberance with a very speedy growth, but soon wither and decay; some rise more slowly, but last long. Parnassus has its flowers of transient fragrance, as well as its oaks of towering height, and its laurels of eternal verdure. [Samuel Johnson, "The Rambler," March 23, 1751]
Parnellite (n.)
in Irish history, 1881, adherent of the Irish Home Rule policy of Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891) + -ite (1).
parochial (adj.)
late 14c., "pertaining to a parish," from Anglo-French parochiel (late 13c.), from Old French parochial, from Late Latin parochialis "of a parish" (c.600), from parochia (see parish).

Figurative sense, "limited, narrow," as if confined to a small region, is from 1856 (also see parochialism). Parochial school is attested from 1755.
parochialism (n.)
"limited and narrow character or tendency," 1847, from parochial + -ism.