Protestantism (n.) Look up Protestantism at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French protestantisme or else formed from Protestant + -ism.
protestation (n.) Look up protestation at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "affirmation;" late 14c., "avowal, declaration, assertion," from Old French protestacion "protest, protestation" (13c.) and directly from Latin protestationem (nominative protestatio) "a declaration, protestation," noun of action from past participle stem of protestari (see protest (n.)).
protester (n.) Look up protester at Dictionary.com
also protestor, 1540s, "one who makes solemn affirmation;" agent noun from protest (v.). From 1960 as "demonstrator, public opponent of the established order."
Proteus Look up Proteus at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Greek Proteus (see Protean).
prothalamion (n.) Look up prothalamion at Dictionary.com
"song sung before a wedding," 1590s, coined as a poem title by Edmund Spenser (based on epithalamion) from Greek pro- "before" (see pro-) + thalamos "bridal chamber" (see thalamus). Sometimes Latinized as prothalamium.
prothesis (n.) Look up prothesis at Dictionary.com
from Greek prothesis "a placing before, a placing in public," from pro (see pro-) + thesis (see thesis). In ecclesiastical sense from 1670s; grammatical from 1870. Related: Prothetic (1835 in grammar); prothetical; prothetically.
prothonotary (n.) Look up prothonotary at Dictionary.com
also protonotary, mid-15c., "principal clerk of a court," from Late Latin prothonotarius, from Greek protonotarios "first scribe," originally the recorder of the court of the Byzantine empire, from protos "first" (see proto-) + Latin notarius (see notary). The -h- appeared in Medieval Latin
protist (n.) Look up protist at Dictionary.com
1869, from Modern Latin Protista (German Protisten, Haeckel, 1868), from Greek neuter plural of protistos "the very first," superlative of protos "first" (see proto-).
proto- Look up proto- at Dictionary.com
before vowels prot-, word-forming element meaning "first, source, parent, preceding, earliest form, original, basic," from Greek proto-, comb. form of protos "first," from PIE *pre-, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per).
proto-language (n.) Look up proto-language at Dictionary.com
1948, from proto- + language.
protocol (n.) Look up protocol at Dictionary.com
1540s, as prothogall "draft of a document," from Middle French prothocole (c.1200, Modern French protocole), from Medieval Latin protocollum "draft," literally "the first sheet of a volume" (on which contents and errata were written), from Greek protokollon "first sheet glued onto a manuscript," from protos "first" (see proto-) + kolla "glue."

Sense developed in Medieval Latin and French from "official account" to "official record of a transaction," to "diplomatic document," and finally, in French, to "formula of diplomatic etiquette." Meaning "diplomatic rules of etiquette" in English first recorded 1896, from French; general sense of "conventional proper conduct" is from 1952. "Protocols of the (Learned) Elders of Zion," Russian anti-Semitic forgery purporting to reveal Jewish plan for world domination, first published in English 1920 under title "The Jewish Peril."
proton (n.) Look up proton at Dictionary.com
1920 in physics, coined by English physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) from noun use of Greek proton, neuter of protos "first" (see proto-), on analogy of electron; supposedly because hydrogen was hypothesized as a constituent of all the elements. The word was used earlier in embryology (1893) as a translation of German anlage ("fundamental thing") based on Aristotle's phrase he prote ousia to proton.
protoplanet (n.) Look up protoplanet at Dictionary.com
1949, from proto- + planet.
protoplasm (n.) Look up protoplasm at Dictionary.com
1848, from German Protoplasma (1846), used by German botanist Hugo von Mohl (1805-1872), on notion of "first-formed," from Greek proto- "first" (see proto-) + plasma "something molded" (see -plasm).

The word was in Late Latin with a sense of "first created thing," and it might have existed in ecclesiastical Greek in a different sense. It was used 1839 by Czech physiologist Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869) to denote the gelatinous fluid found in living tissue. The modern meaning is a refinement of this. This word prevailed, though German language purists preferred Urschleim.
protostar (n.) Look up protostar at Dictionary.com
1954, from proto- + star (n.).
prototype (n.) Look up prototype at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from French prototype (16c.) and directly from Medieval Latin prototypus "original, primitive," from Greek prototypon "a first or primitive form," noun use of neuter singular of prototypos "original, primitive," from protos "first" (see proto-) + typos "impression, mold, pattern" (see type (n.)). In English from 1590s as prototypon.
prototypical (adj.) Look up prototypical at Dictionary.com
1640s, from prototype + -ical.
Protozoa (n.) Look up Protozoa at Dictionary.com
1828, from Modern Latin Protozoa, coined 1818 by German zoologist Georg August Goldfuss (1782-1848) from Greek protos "first" (see proto-) + zoia, plural of zoion "animal" (see zoo). Originally including sponges and corals; current sense is from 1845. Related: Protozoon (aingular); Protozoan.
protozoic (adj.) Look up protozoic at Dictionary.com
1838, from proto- + Greek zoe "life" (see zoo) + -ic.
protract (v.) Look up protract at Dictionary.com
1530s, a back-formation from protraction and in part from Latin protractus, past participle of protrahere "to draw forth, prolong." Etymologically identical with portray, which was altered in French. Related: Protracted; protracting.
protraction (n.) Look up protraction at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "drawing or writing of numbers," from Middle French protraction (15c.) and directly from Late Latin protractionem (nominative protractio) "a drawing out or lengthening," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin protrahere "to draw forward, draw out, bring forth;" figuratively "bring to light, reveal, expose," from pro- "forward" (see pro-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Meaning "act of drawing out or prolonging" is from 1530s.
protractor (n.) Look up protractor at Dictionary.com
1610s, "one who lengthens (an action)," from Medieval Latin protractor, agent noun from Latin protrahere "to draw forward" (see protraction); sense of "instrument for drawing angles" first recorded 1650s.
protrude (v.) Look up protrude at Dictionary.com
1610s, "to thrust forward or onward, to drive along;" 1640s, "to cause to stick out," from Latin protrudere "thrust forward; push out," from pro- "forward" (see pro-) + trudere "to thrust" (see extrusion). Intransitive meaning "jut out, bulge forth" recorded from 1620s. Related: Protruded; protruding.
protrusion (n.) Look up protrusion at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French protrusion, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin protrudere "to push out" (see protrude), or from a similar formation in English.
protuberance (n.) Look up protuberance at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Late Latin protuberantem (nominative protuberans), present participle of protuberare "to swell, bulge, grow forth," from Latin pro- "forward" (see pro-) + tuber "lump, swelling" (see tuber).
protuberant (adj.) Look up protuberant at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French protubérant (16c.) and directly from Late Latin protuberantem (moninative protuberans), present participle of protuberare "to swell, bulge out" (see protuberance). Related: Protuberantly.
proud (adj.) Look up proud at Dictionary.com
late Old English prud, prute "excellent, splendid; arrogant, haughty," probably from Old French prud, oblique case of adjective prouz "brave, valiant" (11c., Modern French preux; compare prud'homme "brave man"), from Late Latin prode "advantageous, profitable" (source also of Italian prode "valiant"), a back-formation from Latin prodesse "be useful," from pro- "before, for, instead of" (see pro-) + esse "to be" (see essence). Also see pride (n.), prowess.

Meaning "elated by some act, fact, or thing" is from mid-13c. To do (someone) proud attested by 1819. Related: Proudness. "The -d- in prodesse is probably due to the influence of forms like red-eo-, 'I go back,' red-imo- 'I buy back,' etc." [OED]. The Old English form with -te probably is from or influenced by pride.

The sense of "have a high opinion of oneself," not found in Old French, might reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud." Old Norse pruðr, probably from the same French source, had only the sense "brave, gallant, magnificent, stately" (compare Icelandic pruður, Middle Swedish prudh, Middle Danish prud). Likewise a group of "pride" words in the Romance languages -- such as French orgueil, Italian orgoglio, Spanish orgullo -- are borrowings from Germanic, where they had positive senses (Old High German urgol "distinguished").

Most Indo-European languages use the same word for "proud" in its good and bad senses, but in many the bad sense seems to be the earlier one. The usual way to form the word is by some compound of terms for "over" or "high" and words for "heart," "mood," "thought," or "appearance;" such as Greek hyperephanos, literally "over-appearing;" Gothic hauhþuhts, literally "high-conscience." Old English had ofermodig "over-moody" ("mood" in Anglo-Saxon was a much more potent word than presently) and heahheort "high-heart." Words for "proud" in other Indo-European languages sometimes reflect a physical sense of being swollen or puffed up; such as Welsh balch, probably from a root meaning "to swell," and Modern Greek kamari, from ancient Greek kamarou "furnish with a vault or arched cover," with a sense evolution via "make an arch," to "puff out the chest," to "be puffed up" (compare English slang chesty).
proudly (adv.) Look up proudly at Dictionary.com
late Old English prutlice "arrogantly;" from proud + -ly (2). Meaning "with conscious honor" attested by 1753.
provable (adj.) Look up provable at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "approvable;" c.1400, "that can be proved," from Old French provable, from prover (see prove (v.)).
prove (v.) Look up prove at Dictionary.com
late 12c., pruven, proven "to try, test; evaluate; demonstrate," from Old French prover, pruver "show; convince; put to the test" (11c., Modern French prouver), from Latin probare "to make good; esteem, represent as good; make credible, show, demonstrate; test, inspect; judge by trial" (source also of Spanish probar, Italian probare), from probus "worthy, good, upright, virtuous," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from *pro-, extended form of root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per), + root *bhu- "to be" (cognates: Latin fui "I have been," futurus "about to be;" Old English beon "to be;" see be). Related: Proved; proven; proving.
provection (n.) Look up provection at Dictionary.com
1650s, "advancement" (obs.); 1868 in the sense "carrying of the final letter of a word into the next one" (as in newt), from Late Latin provectionem (nominative provectio) "advancement," noun of action from past participle stem provehere "to carry forward," from pro- "toward, ahead" (see pro-) + vehere "to carry" (see vehicle).
provedore Look up provedore at Dictionary.com
also providore, 1570s, from Portuguese provedor, Spanish proveedor, perhaps via Venetian dialect, from an agent noun from verbs rooted in Latin providere (see provide).
proven (adj.) Look up proven at Dictionary.com
1650s, past participle adjective from alternative past participle (originally in Scottish legal use) of prove (v).
provenance (n.) Look up provenance at Dictionary.com
1785, from French provenance "origin, production," from provenant, present participle of Middle French provenir "come forth, arise, originate," from Latin provenire "come forth, originate, appear, arise," from pro- "forth" (see pro-) + venire "come" (see venue).
Provencal (adj.) Look up Provencal at Dictionary.com
1580s, from French Provençal, from Provence (see Provence). As a name of a language from 1640s. In reference to a style of cooking, attested from 1841.
Provence Look up Provence at Dictionary.com
from French Provence, from Latin provincia "province" (see province); the southern part of ancient Gaul technically was the province of Gallia Narbonensis, but it came under Roman rule long before the rest of Gaul and as the Romans considered it the province par excellence they familiarly called it (nostra) provincia "our province."
provender (n.) Look up provender at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "allowance paid each chapter member of a cathedral," from Anglo-French provendir, Old French provendier "provider; recipient, beneficiary," from Gallo-Roman *provenda, altered (by influence of Latin providere "supply") from Late Latin praebenda "allowance, subsistence," from Latin praebenda "(things) to be furnished," neuter plural gerundive of praebere "to furnish, offer," from prae "before" (see pre-) + habere "to hold" (see habit). Meaning "food, provisions, etc." (especially dry food for horses) is recorded from mid-14c.
provenience (n.) Look up provenience at Dictionary.com
1881, a Latinization of provenance, or else from Latin provenientem (nominative proveniens), present participle of provenire "come forth" (see provenance). "Preferred to PROVENANCE by those who object to the French form of the latter" [OED].
proverb (n.) Look up proverb at Dictionary.com
c.1300, in boke of Prouerbyys, the Old Testament work, from Old French proverbe (12c.) and directly from Latin proverbium "a common saying, old adage, maxim," literally "words put forward," from pro- "forth" (see pro-) + verbum "word" (see verb). Used generally from late 14c. The Book of Proverbs in Old English was cwidboc, from cwide "speech, saying, proverb, homily," related to cwiddian "to talk, speak, say, discuss;" cwiddung "speech, saying, report."
proverbial (adj.) Look up proverbial at Dictionary.com
early 15c. (implied in proverbially.), from Late Latin proverbialis "pertaining to a proverb," from proverbium (see proverb).
provide (v.) Look up provide at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin providere "look ahead, prepare, supply, act with foresight," from pro- "ahead" (see pro-) + videre "to see" (see vision). Related: Provided; providing. Earlier in same sense was purvey, which is the same word as deformed in Old French.
provided Look up provided at Dictionary.com
"with condition that," early 15c., conjunction use of past participle of provide. As an adjective, "prepared, ready," 1570s; "furnished" 1878.
providence (n.) Look up providence at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "foresight, prudent anticipation," from Old French providence "divine providence, foresight" (12c.) and directly from Latin providentia "foresight, precaution, foreknowledge," from providentem (nominative providens), present participle of providere (see provide).

Providence (usually capitalized) "God as beneficent caretaker," first recorded c.1600, from earlier use of the word for "God's beneficient care or guidance" (14c.), short for divine providence, etc. The noun in Latin occasionally had a similar sense.
provident (adj.) Look up provident at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Latin providentem (nominative providens) "foreseeing, prudent," present participle of providere "to foresee" (see provide).
providential (adj.) Look up providential at Dictionary.com
1610s, "pertaining to foresifght" (implied in providentially); 1640s as "pertaining to divine providence," from Latin providentia (see providence) + -al (1). Meaning "by divine interposition" is recorded from 1719.
provider (n.) Look up provider at Dictionary.com
1520s, agent noun from provide.
province (n.) Look up province at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "country, territory, region," from Old French province "province, part of a country; administrative region for friars" (13c.) and directly from Latin provincia "territory outside Italy under Roman domination," also "a public office; public duty," of uncertain origin, usually explained as pro- "before" + vincere "to conquer" (see victor); but this does not suit the earliest Latin usages. Meaning "one's particular business or expertise" is from 1620s.
provincial (adj.) Look up provincial at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "pertaining to a province," from Old French provincial "belonging to a particular province (of friars)" (13c.), from Latin provincialis "of a province," from provincia (see province).

Meaning "of the small towns and countryside" (as opposed to the capital and urban center) is from 1630s, a borrowed idiom from French, transferred from sense of "particular to the province," hence "local." Suggestive of rude, petty, or narrow society by 1755. Classical Latin provincialis seems not to have had this tinge. In British use, with reference to the American colonies, from 1680s.
provincial (n.) Look up provincial at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "ecclesiastical head of a province," from provincial (adj.). From c.1600 as "native or inhabitant of a province;" from 1711 as "country person."
provincialism (n.) Look up provincialism at Dictionary.com
1820 in the political sense, "local attachment as opposed to national unity," from provincial + -ism. Meaning "manners or modes of a certain province or of provinces generally" (as opposed to the big city or capital) is from 1836. Sense of "a local word or usage or expression" is from 1770.
PROVINCIALISM consists in:
(a) An ignorance of the manners, customs and nature of people living outside one's own village, parish, or nation.
(b) A desire to coerce others into uniformity.
[Ezra Pound, "Provincialism the Enemy," 1917]