papilla (n.)
plural papillae, 1690s, "nipple," from Latin papilla "nipple," diminutive of papula "swelling" (see pap (n.2)). Meaning "nipple-like protuberance" attested from 1713.
papillary (adj.)
1660s, from Latin papilla (see papilla) + -ary.
papilledema (n.)
also papilloedema, 1908, from papilla + edema.
papilloma (n.)
1866, a modern Latin hybrid from papilla + -oma.
papillon (n.)
1907, as a breed of dog, from French papillon, literally "butterfly," from Latin papilionem (nominative papilio) "butterfly," perhaps from a reduplicated form of PIE root *pal- "to touch, feel, shake."

The Latin word is cognate with Old English fifealde "butterfly," Old Saxon fifoldara, Old Norse fifrildi, Old High German vivaltra, German Falter. The dog so called for the shape of the ears.
papish (adj.)
1540s; see papal + -ish.
papist (n.)
1530s, "adherent of the pope," from Middle French papiste, from papa "pope," from Church Latin papa (see pope).
papoose (n.)
1630s, from Narragansett papoos "child," or a similar New England Algonquian word; said to mean literally "very young."
paprika (n.)
1896, from German Paprika, from Hungarian paprika, a diminutive from Serbo-Croatian papar "pepper," from Latin piper or Modern Greek piperi (see pepper (n.)). A condiment made from a New World plant, grown by the Turks at Buda from 1529.
Papua
race that inhabits New Guinea, 1610s, from Malay papuah "frizzled." Related: Papuan.
papule (n.)
1864, from Latin papula "pustule, pimple, swelling" (see pap (n.2)). Related: Papular.
papyrus (n.)
late 14c., from Latin papyrus "the paper plant, paper made from it," from Greek papyros "any plant of the paper plant genus," said to be of Egyptian origin. Proper plural is papyri.
par (n.)
1620s, "equality," also "value of one currency in terms of another," from Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched," also as a noun, "that which is equal, equality," of unknown origin. Watkins suggests perhaps from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot," with suggestion of reciprocality (see part (n.)).

Another guess connects it with PIE root *per- "to traffic in, sell" (on notion of "give equal value for"); see pornography. Meaning "average or usual amount" is first attested 1767. Golf usage is first attested 1898. Figurative use of par for the course is from 1928.
par (prep.)
"by, for," mid-13c., from Old French par, per, from Latin per (see per).
par excellence
French, from Latin per excellentiam "by the way of excellence." From French par "by way of, by means of," from Latin per (see per). For second element see excellence.
para- (1)
before vowels, par-, word-forming element meaning "alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal," from Greek para- from para (prep.) "beside, near, issuing from, against, contrary to," from PIE *prea, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per). Cognate with Old English for- "off, away."
para- (2)
word-forming element meaning "defense, protection against; that which protects from," from Italian para, imperative of parare "to ward off," from Latin parare "make ready" (see pare).
Parabellum (n.)
proprietary name for a type of automatic firearm, 1904 (Mauser & Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken), from Latin phrase si vis pacem, para bellum, from para, imperative of parare "to prepare" (see para- (2)) + bellum "war" (see bellicose).
parable (n.)
mid-13c., parabol, modern form from early 14c., "saying or story in which something is expressed in terms of something else," from Old French parable "parable, parabolic style in writing" (13c.), from Latin parabola "comparison," from Greek parabole "a comparison, parable," literally "a throwing beside," hence "a juxtaposition," from para- "alongside" (see para- (1)) + bole "a throwing, casting, beam, ray," related to ballein "to throw" (see ballistics).

Replaced Old English bispell. In Vulgar Latin, parabola took on the meaning "word," hence Italian parlare, French parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)).
parabola (n.)
1570s, from Modern Latin parabola, from Greek parabole "parabola, comparison, analogy; application" (see parable), so called by Apollonius of Perga c.210 B.C.E. because it is produced by "application" of a given area to a given straight line. It had a different sense in Pythagorean geometry. Related: Parabolic.
parabole (n.)
"comparison, metaphor," 1580s, from Greek parabole "comparison" (see parable).
parabolic (adj.)
mid-15c., from Late Latin parabolicus, from late Greek parabolikos "figurative," from parabole (see parable). Related: Parabolical.
paracentesis (n.)
1590s, from medical Latin form of Greek parakentesis "perforation," from parakentein "to pierce at the side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + kentein "to prick, stab" (see center (n.)).
parachute (n.)
1784 (the year the use of one first was attempted, in Paris), from French parachute, literally "that which protects against a fall," hybrid coined by French aeronaut François Blanchard (1753-1809) from para- "defense against" (see para- (2)) + chute "a fall" (see chute).
PARACHUTE, a kind of large and strong umbrella, contrived to break a person's fall from an airballoon, should any accident happen to the balloon at a high elevation. ["Supplement to the Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Arts and Sciences," Philadelphia, 1803]
parachute (v.)
1807, from parachute (n.). Related: Parachuted; parachuting.
paraclete (n.)
mid-15c., Paraclit, a title of the Holy Spirit, from Old French paraclet (13c.), from Medieval Latin paracletus, from Greek parakletos "advocate, intercessor, legal assistant," noun use of adjective meaning "called to one's aid," from parakalein "to call to one's aid," in later use "to comfort, to console," from para (see para- (1)) + kalein "to call" (see claim (v.)).
parade (n.)
1650s, "a show of bravado," also "an assembly of troops for inspections," from French parade "display, show, military parade," from Middle French parade (15c.), or from Italian parate "a warding or defending, a garish setting forth," or Spanish parada "a staying or stopping," all from Vulgar Latin *parata, from Latin parere "arrange, prepare, adorn" (see pare), which developed widespread senses in Romanic derivatives. Non-military sense of "march, procession" is first recorded 1670s.
parade (v.)
1680s (transitive), from parade (n.). Intransitive sense from 1748. Related: Paraded; parading.
paradigm (n.)
late 15c., from Late Latin paradigma "pattern, example," especially in grammar, from Greek paradeigma "pattern, model; precedent, example," from paradeiknynai "exhibit, represent," literally "show side by side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + deiknynai "to show" (cognate with Latin dicere "to show;" see diction). Related: Paradigmatic; paradigmatical.
paradise (n.)
late 12c., "Garden of Eden," from Old French paradis "paradise, Garden of Eden" (11c.), from Late Latin paradisus, from Greek paradeisos "park, paradise, Garden of Eden," from an Iranian source similar to Avestan pairidaeza "enclosure, park" (Modern Persian and Arabic firdaus "garden, paradise"), compound of pairi- "around" + diz "to make, form (a wall)."

The first element is cognate with Greek peri- "around, about" (see per), the second is from PIE root *dheigh- "to form, build" (see dough).

The Greek word, originally used for an orchard or hunting park in Persia, was used in Septuagint to mean "Garden of Eden," and in New Testament translations of Luke xxiii:43 to mean "heaven" (a sense attested in English from c.1200). Meaning "place like or compared to Paradise" is from c.1300.
paradisiacal (adj.)
1630s, from Latin paradisiacus (from Greek paradeisiakos, from paradeisos; see paradise) + -al (1). Other adjective forms include paradisaic, paradisaical, paradisal, paradisean, paradisiac, paradisial, paradisian, paradisic, paradisical.
parados (n.)
"rear wall of a trench," 1917, earlier "elevation behind a fortified place" (1853), literally "defense from the back," from French parados, from para- "defense" (see para- (2)) + dos "back" (see dossier).
paradox (n.)
1530s, "statement contrary to common belief or expectation," from Middle French paradoxe (14c.) and directly from Latin paradoxum "paradox, statement seemingly absurd yet really true," from Greek paradoxon, noun use of neuter of adjective paradoxos "contrary to expectation, incredible," from para- "contrary to" (see para- (1)) + doxa "opinion," from dokein "to appear, seem, think" (see decent). Meaning "statement that is seemingly self-contradictory yet not illogical or obviously untrue" is from 1560s.
paradoxical (adj.)
1580s, from paradox + -ical. Competing forms were paradoxal (1560s), paradoxial (1620s), but they survive in niches, if at all. Related: Paradoxically.
paraesthesia (n.)
also paresthesia, 1835, from para- (here "disordered") + Greek aisthesis "perception" (see anaesthesia).
paraffin (n.)
1838, from German Paraffin, coined c.1830 by German chemist Karl von Reichenbach (1788-1869), who first obtained it as a waxy substance from wood tar, irregularly from Latin parum "not very, too little," probably related to parvus "little, small" (see parvi-) + affinis "associated with" (see affinity).

So called because paraffin is chemically not closely related to other substances. The liquid form (originally parafin oil) Reichenbach called eupion, but this was the standard meaning of paraffin in English by 1860.
paragon (n.)
1540s, from Middle French paragon "a model, pattern of excellence" (15c., Modern French parangon), from Italian paragone, originally "touchstone to test gold" (early 14c.), from paragonare "to test on a touchstone, compare," from Greek parakonan "to sharpen, whet," from para- "on the side" (see para- (1)) + akone "whetstone," from PIE root *ak- "sharp, pointed" (see acrid).
paragraph (n.)
late 15c., from Middle French paragraphe "division of text" (13c., Old French paragrafe), from Medieval Latin paragraphus "sign for start of a new section of discourse" (the sign looked something like a stylized letter -P-), from Greek paragraphos "short stroke in the margin marking a break in sense," also "a passage so marked," literally "anything written beside," from paragraphein "write by the side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + graphein "to write" (see -graphy).
Paraguay
country is named for the river, which is said to be from Guarani para "water" + guay "born." Said to have been the name of a local chieftain who treated with the first Spanish explorers.
parakeet (n.)
1620s, from Spanish perquito; earlier English form parroket (1580s) is from Middle French paroquet, from Old French paroquet (14c.), which is said by etymologists of French to be from Italian parrocchetto, literally "little priest," from parroco "parish priest," from Church Latin parochus (see parish), or parrucchetto, diminutive of parrucca "peruke, periwig," in reference to the head plumage.

The Spanish form, meanwhile, is sometimes said to be a diminutive of Perico, familiar form of Pedro "Peter," and the Old French word is likewise perhaps from or influenced by a diminutive of Pierre "Peter." The relations of the Spanish and Italian forms, and the influence of folk etymology on either or both, are uncertain.
paralanguage (n.)
1958, from para- (1) + language.
paralegal (n.)
1972, from para- (1) + legal assistant.
paralipsis (n.)
1580s, from Greek paraleipsis "passing by omission," from paraleipein "to leave on one side, pass over, leave untold," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + leipein "to leave" (see relinquish).
parallax (n.)
1570s, from Middle French parallaxe (mid-16c.), from Greek parallaxis "change, alteration, inclination of two lines meeting at an angle," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from para- (see para- (1)) + allassein "to change," from allos "other" (see alias (adv.)). Related: Parallactic.
parallel (adj.)
1540s, from Middle French parallèle (16c.) and directly from Latin parallelus, from Greek parallelos "parallel," from para allelois "beside one another," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + allelois "each other," from allos "other" (see alias (adv.)). As a noun from 1550s. Parallel bars as gymnastics apparatus are recorded from 1868.
parallel (v.)
1590s, from parallel (n.).
parallelism (n.)
c.1600, from Greek parallelismos, from parallelizein (see parallel).
parallelogram (n.)
1560s, from Middle French parallélogramme (1550s) and directly from Late Latin parallelogrammum, from Greek parallelogrammon noun use of neuter adjective meaning "bounded by parallel lines," from parallelos (see parallel) + stem of graphein "to write" (see -graphy).
paralyse (v.)
alternative (chiefly British) spelling of paralyze. For ending, see -ize. Related: Paralysed; paralysing.
paralysis (n.)
1520s, from Latin paralysis, from Greek paralysis "paralysis, palsy," literally "loosening," from paralyein "disable, enfeeble," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + lyein "loosen, untie" (see lose).

Figurative use from 1813. Earlier form was paralysie (late 14c., see palsy). Old English equivalent was lyft adl (see left (adj.)) or crypelnes "crippleness."