papilla (n.) Look up papilla at Dictionary.com
plural papillae, 1690s, "nipple," from Latin papilla "nipple," diminutive of papula "swelling" (see pap (n.2)). Meaning "nipple-like protuberance" attested from 1713.
papillary (adj.) Look up papillary at Dictionary.com
1660s, from Latin papilla (see papilla) + -ary.
papilledema (n.) Look up papilledema at Dictionary.com
also papilloedema, 1908, from papilla + edema.
papilloma (n.) Look up papilloma at Dictionary.com
1866, a modern Latin hybrid from papilla + -oma.
papillon (n.) Look up papillon at Dictionary.com
1907, as a breed of dog, from French papillon, literally "butterfly," from Latin papilionem (nominative papilio) "butterfly," perhaps from a reduplicated form of PIE root *pal- "to touch, feel, shake."

The Latin word is cognate with Old English fifealde "butterfly," Old Saxon fifoldara, Old Norse fifrildi, Old High German vivaltra, German Falter. The dog so called for the shape of the ears.
papish (adj.) Look up papish at Dictionary.com
1540s; see papal + -ish.
papist (n.) Look up papist at Dictionary.com
1530s, "adherent of the pope," from Middle French papiste, from papa "pope," from Church Latin papa (see pope).
papoose (n.) Look up papoose at Dictionary.com
1630s, from Narragansett papoos "child," or a similar New England Algonquian word; said to mean literally "very young."
paprika (n.) Look up paprika at Dictionary.com
1896, from German Paprika, from Hungarian paprika, a diminutive from Serbo-Croatian papar "pepper," from Latin piper or Modern Greek piperi (see pepper (n.)). A condiment made from a New World plant, grown by the Turks at Buda from 1529.
Papua Look up Papua at Dictionary.com
race that inhabits New Guinea, 1610s, from Malay papuah "frizzled." Related: Papuan.
papule (n.) Look up papule at Dictionary.com
1864, from Latin papula "pustule, pimple, swelling" (see pap (n.2)). Related: Papular.
papyrus (n.) Look up papyrus at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Latin papyrus "the paper plant, paper made from it," from Greek papyros "any plant of the paper plant genus," said to be of Egyptian origin. Proper plural is papyri.
par (n.) Look up par at Dictionary.com
1620s, "equality," also "value of one currency in terms of another," from Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched," also as a noun, "that which is equal, equality," of unknown origin. Watkins suggests perhaps from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot," with suggestion of reciprocality (see part (n.)).

Another guess connects it with PIE root *per- "to traffic in, sell" (on notion of "give equal value for"); see pornography. Meaning "average or usual amount" is first attested 1767. Golf usage is first attested 1898. Figurative use of par for the course is from 1928.
par (prep.) Look up par at Dictionary.com
"by, for," mid-13c., from Old French par, per, from Latin per (see per).
par excellence Look up par excellence at Dictionary.com
French, from Latin per excellentiam "by the way of excellence." From French par "by way of, by means of," from Latin per (see per). For second element see excellence.
para- (1) Look up para- at Dictionary.com
before vowels, par-, word-forming element meaning "alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal," from Greek para- from para (prep.) "beside, near, issuing from, against, contrary to," from PIE *prea, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per). Cognate with Old English for- "off, away."
para- (2) Look up para- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "defense, protection against; that which protects from," from Italian para, imperative of parare "to ward off," from Latin parare "make ready" (see pare).
Parabellum (n.) Look up Parabellum at Dictionary.com
proprietary name for a type of automatic firearm, 1904 (Mauser & Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken), from Latin phrase si vis pacem, para bellum, from para, imperative of parare "to prepare" (see para- (2)) + bellum "war" (see bellicose).
parable (n.) Look up parable at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., parabol, modern form from early 14c., "saying or story in which something is expressed in terms of something else," from Old French parable "parable, parabolic style in writing" (13c.), from Latin parabola "comparison," from Greek parabole "a comparison, parable," literally "a throwing beside," hence "a juxtaposition," from para- "alongside" (see para- (1)) + bole "a throwing, casting, beam, ray," related to ballein "to throw" (see ballistics).

Replaced Old English bispell. In Vulgar Latin, parabola took on the meaning "word," hence Italian parlare, French parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)).
parabola (n.) Look up parabola at Dictionary.com
1570s, from Modern Latin parabola, from Greek parabole "parabola, comparison, analogy; application" (see parable), so called by Apollonius of Perga c.210 B.C.E. because it is produced by "application" of a given area to a given straight line. It had a different sense in Pythagorean geometry. Related: Parabolic.
parabole (n.) Look up parabole at Dictionary.com
"comparison, metaphor," 1580s, from Greek parabole "comparison" (see parable).
parabolic (adj.) Look up parabolic at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Late Latin parabolicus, from late Greek parabolikos "figurative," from parabole (see parable). Related: Parabolical.
paracentesis (n.) Look up paracentesis at Dictionary.com
1590s, from medical Latin form of Greek parakentesis "perforation," from parakentein "to pierce at the side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + kentein "to prick, stab" (see center (n.)).
parachute (n.) Look up parachute at Dictionary.com
1784 (the year the use of one first was attempted, in Paris), from French parachute, literally "that which protects against a fall," hybrid coined by French aeronaut François Blanchard (1753-1809) from para- "defense against" (see para- (2)) + chute "a fall" (see chute).
PARACHUTE, a kind of large and strong umbrella, contrived to break a person's fall from an airballoon, should any accident happen to the balloon at a high elevation. ["Supplement to the Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Arts and Sciences," Philadelphia, 1803]
parachute (v.) Look up parachute at Dictionary.com
1807, from parachute (n.). Related: Parachuted; parachuting.
paraclete (n.) Look up paraclete at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., Paraclit, a title of the Holy Spirit, from Old French paraclet (13c.), from Medieval Latin paracletus, from Greek parakletos "advocate, intercessor, legal assistant," noun use of adjective meaning "called to one's aid," from parakalein "to call to one's aid," in later use "to comfort, to console," from para (see para- (1)) + kalein "to call" (see claim (v.)).
parade (n.) Look up parade at Dictionary.com
1650s, "a show of bravado," also "an assembly of troops for inspections," from French parade "display, show, military parade," from Middle French parade (15c.), or from Italian parate "a warding or defending, a garish setting forth," or Spanish parada "a staying or stopping," all from Vulgar Latin *parata, from Latin parere "arrange, prepare, adorn" (see pare), which developed widespread senses in Romanic derivatives. Non-military sense of "march, procession" is first recorded 1670s.
parade (v.) Look up parade at Dictionary.com
1680s (transitive), from parade (n.). Intransitive sense from 1748. Related: Paraded; parading.
paradigm (n.) Look up paradigm at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from Late Latin paradigma "pattern, example," especially in grammar, from Greek paradeigma "pattern, model; precedent, example," from paradeiknynai "exhibit, represent," literally "show side by side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + deiknynai "to show" (cognate with Latin dicere "to show;" see diction). Related: Paradigmatic; paradigmatical.
paradise (n.) Look up paradise at Dictionary.com
late 12c., "Garden of Eden," from Old French paradis "paradise, Garden of Eden" (11c.), from Late Latin paradisus, from Greek paradeisos "park, paradise, Garden of Eden," from an Iranian source similar to Avestan pairidaeza "enclosure, park" (Modern Persian and Arabic firdaus "garden, paradise"), compound of pairi- "around" + diz "to make, form (a wall)."

The first element is cognate with Greek peri- "around, about" (see per), the second is from PIE root *dheigh- "to form, build" (see dough).

The Greek word, originally used for an orchard or hunting park in Persia, was used in Septuagint to mean "Garden of Eden," and in New Testament translations of Luke xxiii:43 to mean "heaven" (a sense attested in English from c.1200). Meaning "place like or compared to Paradise" is from c.1300.
paradisiacal (adj.) Look up paradisiacal at Dictionary.com
1630s, from Latin paradisiacus (from Greek paradeisiakos, from paradeisos; see paradise) + -al (1). Other adjective forms include paradisaic, paradisaical, paradisal, paradisean, paradisiac, paradisial, paradisian, paradisic, paradisical.
parados (n.) Look up parados at Dictionary.com
"rear wall of a trench," 1917, earlier "elevation behind a fortified place" (1853), literally "defense from the back," from French parados, from para- "defense" (see para- (2)) + dos "back" (see dossier).
paradox (n.) Look up paradox at Dictionary.com
1530s, "statement contrary to common belief or expectation," from Middle French paradoxe (14c.) and directly from Latin paradoxum "paradox, statement seemingly absurd yet really true," from Greek paradoxon, noun use of neuter of adjective paradoxos "contrary to expectation, incredible," from para- "contrary to" (see para- (1)) + doxa "opinion," from dokein "to appear, seem, think" (see decent). Meaning "statement that is seemingly self-contradictory yet not illogical or obviously untrue" is from 1560s.
paradoxical (adj.) Look up paradoxical at Dictionary.com
1580s, from paradox + -ical. Competing forms were paradoxal (1560s), paradoxial (1620s), but they survive in niches, if at all. Related: Paradoxically.
paraesthesia (n.) Look up paraesthesia at Dictionary.com
also paresthesia, 1835, from para- (here "disordered") + Greek aisthesis "perception" (see anaesthesia).
paraffin (n.) Look up paraffin at Dictionary.com
1838, from German Paraffin, coined c.1830 by German chemist Karl von Reichenbach (1788-1869), who first obtained it as a waxy substance from wood tar, irregularly from Latin parum "not very, too little," probably related to parvus "little, small" (see parvi-) + affinis "associated with" (see affinity).

So called because paraffin is chemically not closely related to other substances. The liquid form (originally parafin oil) Reichenbach called eupion, but this was the standard meaning of paraffin in English by 1860.
paragon (n.) Look up paragon at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle French paragon "a model, pattern of excellence" (15c., Modern French parangon), from Italian paragone, originally "touchstone to test gold" (early 14c.), from paragonare "to test on a touchstone, compare," from Greek parakonan "to sharpen, whet," from para- "on the side" (see para- (1)) + akone "whetstone," from PIE root *ak- "sharp, pointed" (see acrid).
paragraph (n.) Look up paragraph at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from Middle French paragraphe "division of text" (13c., Old French paragrafe), from Medieval Latin paragraphus "sign for start of a new section of discourse" (the sign looked something like a stylized letter -P-), from Greek paragraphos "short stroke in the margin marking a break in sense," also "a passage so marked," literally "anything written beside," from paragraphein "write by the side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + graphein "to write" (see -graphy).
Paraguay Look up Paraguay at Dictionary.com
country is named for the river, which is said to be from Guarani para "water" + guay "born." Said to have been the name of a local chieftain who treated with the first Spanish explorers.
parakeet (n.) Look up parakeet at Dictionary.com
1620s, from Spanish perquito; earlier English form parroket (1580s) is from Middle French paroquet, from Old French paroquet (14c.), which is said by etymologists of French to be from Italian parrocchetto, literally "little priest," from parroco "parish priest," from Church Latin parochus (see parish), or parrucchetto, diminutive of parrucca "peruke, periwig," in reference to the head plumage.

The Spanish form, meanwhile, is sometimes said to be a diminutive of Perico, familiar form of Pedro "Peter," and the Old French word is likewise perhaps from or influenced by a diminutive of Pierre "Peter." The relations of the Spanish and Italian forms, and the influence of folk etymology on either or both, are uncertain.
paralanguage (n.) Look up paralanguage at Dictionary.com
1958, from para- (1) + language.
paralegal (n.) Look up paralegal at Dictionary.com
1972, from para- (1) + legal assistant.
paralipsis (n.) Look up paralipsis at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Greek paraleipsis "passing by omission," from paraleipein "to leave on one side, pass over, leave untold," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + leipein "to leave" (see relinquish).
parallax (n.) Look up parallax at Dictionary.com
1570s, from Middle French parallaxe (mid-16c.), from Greek parallaxis "change, alteration, inclination of two lines meeting at an angle," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from para- (see para- (1)) + allassein "to change," from allos "other" (see alias (adv.)). Related: Parallactic.
parallel (adj.) Look up parallel at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle French parallèle (16c.) and directly from Latin parallelus, from Greek parallelos "parallel," from para allelois "beside one another," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + allelois "each other," from allos "other" (see alias (adv.)). As a noun from 1550s. Parallel bars as gymnastics apparatus are recorded from 1868.
parallel (v.) Look up parallel at Dictionary.com
1590s, from parallel (n.).
parallelism (n.) Look up parallelism at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Greek parallelismos, from parallelizein (see parallel).
parallelogram (n.) Look up parallelogram at Dictionary.com
1560s, from Middle French parallélogramme (1550s) and directly from Late Latin parallelogrammum, from Greek parallelogrammon noun use of neuter adjective meaning "bounded by parallel lines," from parallelos (see parallel) + stem of graphein "to write" (see -graphy).
paralyse (v.) Look up paralyse at Dictionary.com
alternative (chiefly British) spelling of paralyze. For ending, see -ize. Related: Paralysed; paralysing.
paralysis (n.) Look up paralysis at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin paralysis, from Greek paralysis "paralysis, palsy," literally "loosening," from paralyein "disable, enfeeble," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + lyein "loosen, untie" (see lose).

Figurative use from 1813. Earlier form was paralysie (late 14c., see palsy). Old English equivalent was lyft adl (see left (adj.)) or crypelnes "crippleness."