policlinic (n.) Look up policlinic at Dictionary.com
1827, originally, "clinic held in a private house" (instead of a hospital), from German Poliklinik, from Greek polis "city" (see polis) + Klinik, from French clinique (see clinic).
policy (n.1) Look up policy at Dictionary.com
"way of management," late 14c., policie, "study or practice of government; good government;" from Old French policie (14c.) "political organization, civil administration," from Late Latin politia "the state, civil administration," from Greek politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from polites "citizen," from polis "city, state" (see polis). Meaning "plan of action, way of management" first recorded c. 1400.
policy (n.2) Look up policy at Dictionary.com
"written insurance agreement," 1560s, from Middle French police "contract, bill of lading" (late 14c.), from Italian polizza "written evidence of a transaction," from Old Italian poliza, from Medieval Latin apodissa "receipt for money," from Greek apodexis "proof, declaration," from apo- "off" + deiknynia "to show," cognate with Latin dicere "to say, speak" (see diction).
polio (n.) Look up polio at Dictionary.com
1911, abbreviation of poliomyelitis.
poliomyelitis (n.) Look up poliomyelitis at Dictionary.com
1874, also polio-myelitis, coined by German physician Adolph Kussmaul (1822-1902) from Greek polios "grey" (see fallow (adj.)) + myelos "marrow" + -itis "inflammation." So called because the gray matter in the spinal cord is inflamed, which causes paralysis. The earlier name was infantile paralysis (1843).
In many respects, also, this affection resembles the acute spinal paralysis of infancy, which, from the researches of Charcot, Joffroy, and others, have been shown pathologically to be an acute myelitis of the anterior cornua. Hence, for these forms of paralysis, Professor Kussmaul suggests the name of 'poliomyelitis anterior.' ["London Medical Record," Dec. 9, 1874]
polis (n.) Look up polis at Dictionary.com
"ancient Greek city-state," 1894, from Greek polis, ptolis "citadel, fort, city, one's city; the state, community, citizens," from PIE *tpolh- "citadel; enclosed space, often on high ground, hilltop" (source also of Sanskrit pur, puram, genitive purah "city, citadel," Lithuanian pilis "fortress").
polish (v.) Look up polish at Dictionary.com
early 14c., polischen "make smooth," from Old French poliss-, present participle stem of polir (12c.) "to polish, decorate, see to one's appearance," from Latin polire "to polish, make smooth; decorate, embellish;" figuratively "refine, improve," said to be from Proto-Indo-European *pel- "to thrust, strike, drive" (via the notion of fulling cloth). The sense of "free from coarseness, to refine" first recorded in English mid-14c. Related: Polished; polishing. Slang polish off "finish" is 1837, from notion of applying a coat of polish being the final step in a piece of work.
polish (n.) Look up polish at Dictionary.com
1590s, "absence of coarseness," from polish (v.). From 1704 as "act of polishing;" 1819 as "substance used in polishing."
Polish (adj.) Look up Polish at Dictionary.com
1670s, from Pole + -ish. Related: Polishness. Polish-American attested from 1898.
polished (adj.) Look up polished at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "made smooth;" early 15c., "elegant;" past participle adjective from polish (v.).
Politburo (n.) Look up Politburo at Dictionary.com
"highest policy-making committee of the U.S.S.R.," 1927, from Russian politbyuro, contracted from politicheskoe byuro "political bureau."
polite (adj.) Look up polite at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "polished, burnished" (mid-13c. as a surname), from Latin politus "refined, elegant, accomplished," literally "polished," past participle of polire "to polish, to make smooth" (see polish (v.)). Used literally at first in English; sense of "elegant, cultured" is first recorded c. 1500, that of "behaving courteously" is 1748 (implied in politely). Related: Politeness.
politesse (n.) Look up politesse at Dictionary.com
"civility," 1717, from French politesse (17c.), from Italian politezza, properly "the quality of being polite," from polito "polite," from Latin politus (see polite).
politic (adj.) Look up politic at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "pertaining to public affairs," from Middle French politique "political" (14c.) and directly from Latin politicus "of citizens or the state, civil, civic," from Greek politikos "of citizens, pertaining to the state and its administration; pertaining to public life," from polites "citizen," from polis "city" (see polis). Replaced in most adjectival senses by political. From mid-15c. as "prudent, judicious."
politic (v.) Look up politic at Dictionary.com
also politick, "to engage in political activity," 1917, a back-formation from politics. Related: Politicked; politicking (for the -k- see picnic).
political (adj.) Look up political at Dictionary.com
1550s, "pertaining to a polity, civil affairs, or government;" from Latin politicus "of citizens or the state" (see politic (adj.)) + -al (1). Meaning "taking sides in party politics" (usually pejorative) is from 1749. Political prisoner first recorded 1860; political science is from 1779 (first attested in Hume). Political animal translates Greek politikon zoon (Aristotle, "Politics," I.ii.9) "an animal intended to live in a city; a social animal."
politically (adv.) Look up politically at Dictionary.com
1580s, "in a politic manner;" 1630s "in a political manner," from politic or political + -ly (2).
politically correct (adj.) Look up politically correct at Dictionary.com
first attested in prevailing current sense 1970; abbreviation P.C. is from 1986.
[T]here is no doubt that political correctness refers to the political movement and phenomenon, which began in the USA, with the aim to enforce a set of ideologies and views on gender, race and other minorities. Political correctness refers to language and ideas that may cause offence to some identity groups like women and aims at giving preferential treatment to members of those social groups in schools and universities. [Thuy Nguyen, "Political Correctness in the English Language,"2007]
politicaster (n.) Look up politicaster at Dictionary.com
"a petty, feeble, or contemptible politician" [OED], 1640s, from Italian or Spanish politicastro, noun use of adjective meaning "political," from Latin politicus (see political).
politician (n.) Look up politician at Dictionary.com
1580s, "person skilled in politics," from politics + -ian. It quickly took on overtones, not typically good ones. Johnson defines it as "A man of artifice; one of deep contrivance."
politicization (n.) Look up politicization at Dictionary.com
1918, noun of action from politicize.
politicize (v.) Look up politicize at Dictionary.com
1758, "take up politics," from politics + -ize. Meaning "to render political" is from 1846. Related: Politicized; politicizing. Earlier was politize (late 16c.), but this was rare.
politicking (n.) Look up politicking at Dictionary.com
1928, from present participle of politic (v.). For the -k-, see picnic.
politico (n.) Look up politico at Dictionary.com
"politician, political agent," usually in a derogatory sense, 1620s, from Italian or Spanish politico, noun use of adjective meaning "political," from Latin politicus (see politic (adj.)).
politico- Look up politico- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "political and," from Latinized comb. form of Greek politikos (see political).
politics (n.) Look up politics at Dictionary.com
1520s, "science of government," from politic (adj.), modeled on Aristotle's ta politika "affairs of state," the name of his book on governing and governments, which was in English mid-15c. as "Polettiques." Also see -ics.
Politicks is the science of good sense, applied to public affairs, and, as those are forever changing, what is wisdom to-day would be folly and perhaps, ruin to-morrow. Politicks is not a science so properly as a business. It cannot have fixed principles, from which a wise man would never swerve, unless the inconstancy of men's view of interest and the capriciousness of the tempers could be fixed. [Fisher Ames (1758-1808)]
Meaning "a person's political allegiances or opinions" is from 1769.
polity (n.) Look up polity at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Middle French politie (early 15c.) or directly from Late Latin polita "organized government" (see policy (n.1)).
polka (n.) Look up polka at Dictionary.com
1844, from French polka, German Polka, probably from Czech polka, the dance, literally "Polish woman" (Polish Polka), fem. of Polak "a Pole." The word might also be an alteration of Czech pulka "half," for the half-steps of Bohemian peasant dances. Or it could be a merger of the two. The dance was in vogue first in Prague, 1835; it reached London by the spring of 1842.
Vous n'en êtes encore qu'au galop, vieil arriéré, et nous en sommes à la polka! Oui, c'est la polka que nous avons dansée à ce fameux bal Valenlino. Vous demandez ce que c'est que la polka, homme de l année dernière! La contredanse a vécu; le galop, rococo; la valse à deux temps, dans le troisième dessous; il n'y a plus que la polka, la sublime, l'enivrante polka, dont les salons raffolent, que les femmes de la haute, les banquiéres les plus cossues et les comtesses les plus choenosophoses étudient jour et nuit. ["La France Dramatique," Paris, 1841]
As a verb by 1846 (polk also was tried).
polka dot (n.) Look up polka dot at Dictionary.com
1874, from polka (n.) + dot (n.). Named for the dance, for no reason except its popularity, which led to many contemporary products and fashions taking the name. Related: Polka-dotted (1873).
poll (n.) Look up poll at Dictionary.com
"head," early 14c., polle "hair of the head; piece of fur from the head of an animal," also "head," from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch pol "head, top." Sense extended early 14c. to "person, individual." Meaning "collection of votes" is first recorded 1620s, from notion of "counting heads;" meaning "survey of public opinion" is first recorded 1902. Poll tax, literally "head tax," is from 1690s. Literal use in English tends toward the part of the head where the hair grows.
poll (v.1) Look up poll at Dictionary.com
"to take the votes of," 1620s, from poll (n.). Related: Polled; polling. A deed poll "deed executed by one party only," is from earlier verbal meaning "cut the hair of," because the deed was cut straight rather than indented (see indenture (n.)).
poll (v.2) Look up poll at Dictionary.com
"to cut, trim," late 14c., "to cut short the hair" (of an animal or person), from poll (n.). Of trees or plants from 1570s. Related: Polled; polling.
Poll Look up Poll at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, short for Polly. Noted from 1620s as a parrot's name.
pollack (n.) Look up pollack at Dictionary.com
sea fish, c. 1600, pollock, alteration of Scottish podlok, of unknown origin, perhaps from poll (n.) "head." Possibly the alteration is by influence of Pollack "Polish person."
pollard (n.) Look up pollard at Dictionary.com
1540s, "de-horned animal," from poll (v.2) + -ard. In reference to polled trees, from 1610s.
pollen (n.) Look up pollen at Dictionary.com
1760 as a botanical term for the fertilizing element of flowers (from Linnæus, 1751), earlier "fine flour" (1520s), from Latin pollen "mill dust; fine flour," related to polenta "peeled barley," and pulvis (genitive pulveris) "dust," from PIE root *pel- (1) "dust; flour" (source also of Greek poltos "pap, porridge," Sanskrit pálalam "ground seeds," Lithuanian pelenai, Old Church Slavonic popelu, Russian pépelŭ "ashes").
pollinate (v.) Look up pollinate at Dictionary.com
1873, back formation from pollination, or else from pollin-, stem of Latin pollen (see pollen) + -ate (2). Related: Pollinated; pollinating.
pollination (n.) Look up pollination at Dictionary.com
1872, from older French pollination, noun of action formed 1812 from pollin-, stem of Latin pollen (see pollen). Replaced in Modern French by pollinisation .
polliwog (n.) Look up polliwog at Dictionary.com
"tadpole," mid-15c., polwygle, probably from pol "head" (see poll (n.)) + wiglen "to wiggle" (see wiggle (v.)). Modern spelling is 1830s, replacing earlier polwigge.
pollster (n.) Look up pollster at Dictionary.com
1939, from poll (n.) + -ster.
pollutant (n.) Look up pollutant at Dictionary.com
1888, from pollute + -ant. Related: Pollutants.
pollute (v.) Look up pollute at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to defile," a back formation from pollution, or else from Latin pollutus, past participle of polluere "to defile, pollute, contaminate." Related: Polluted; polluting. Meaning "make physically foul" is from 1540s; specific sense "contaminate the environment" emerged from late 19c.
polluted (adj.) Look up polluted at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "rendered impure or unclean," past participle adjective from pollute (v.). Meaning "drunk" is from 1912, American English slang; ecological sense is from 1888.
polluter (n.) Look up polluter at Dictionary.com
1540s, "one who renders unclean or impure," agent noun from pollute (v.). Ecological sense from 1958.
pollution (n.) Look up pollution at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "discharge of semen other than during sex," later, "desecration, defilement" (late 14c.), from Late Latin pollutionem (nominative pollutio) "defilement," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin polluere "to soil, defile, contaminate," from por- "before" + -luere "smear," from PIE root *leu- "dirt; make dirty" (see lutose). Sense of "contamination of the environment" first recorded c. 1860, but not common until c. 1955.
Pollux Look up Pollux at Dictionary.com
twin brother of Castor, name of the beta star of Gemini, 1520s, from Latin, from Greek Polydeukes, literally "very sweet," from polys "much" (see poly-) + deukes "sweet" (see glucose). The contraction of the name in Latin is perhaps via Etruscan [Klein].
Polly Look up Polly at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, a rhyming collateral form of Molly, pet form of Mary.
Pollyanna (n.) Look up Pollyanna at Dictionary.com
"one who finds cause for gladness in the most difficult situations," 1921, a reference to Pollyanna Whittier, child heroine of U.S. novelist Eleanor Hodgman Porter's "Pollyanna" (1913) and "Pollyanna Grows Up" (1915), who was noted for keeping her chin up during disasters.
polo (n.) Look up polo at Dictionary.com
1872, Anglo-Indian polo, from Balti (Tibetan language of the Indus valley) polo "ball," related to Tibetan pulu "ball." An ancient game in south Asia, first played in England at Aldershot, 1871. Water polo is from 1876 (in early versions players sometimes paddled about on barrels or in canoes). Polo shirt (1892) originally was a kind worn by polo players.
polonaise (n.) Look up polonaise at Dictionary.com
1773, "woman's overdress" (from fancied resemblance to Polish costume); 1797, "stately dance," from French (danse) polonaise "a Polish (dance)," fem. of polonais (adj.) "Polish," from Pologne "Poland," from Medieval Latin Polonia "Poland" (see Poland). In the culinary sense, applied to dishes supposed to be cooked in Polish style, attested from 1889.