Pamphylia
ancient region in modern Turkey, from Greek, literally "place of all races," from pan "all" (see pan-) + phylon "race" (see phylo-).
Pamplona
city in Spain, Roman Pompeiopolis, named for Pompey, Roman emperor who founded it 68 B.C.E.
pan (n.)
Old English panne, earlier ponne (Mercian) "pan," from Proto-Germanic *panna "pan" (cognates: Old Norse panna, Old Frisian panne, Middle Dutch panne, Dutch pan, Old Low German panna, Old High German phanna, German pfanne), probably an early borrowing (4c. or 5c.) from Vulgar Latin *patna, from Latin patina "shallow pan, dish, stewpan," from Greek patane "plate, dish," from PIE *pet-ano-, from root *pete- "to spread" (see pace (n.)). Irish panna probably is from English, and Lithuanian pana is from German.

Used of pan-shaped parts of mechanical apparatus from c.1590; hence flash in the pan, a figurative use from early firearms, where a pan held the priming (and the gunpowder might "flash," but no shot ensue). To go out of the (frying) pan into the fire is first found in Spenser (1596).
pan (v.2)
"follow with a camera," 1913 shortening of panoramic in panoramic camera (1878). Meaning "to swing from one object to another in a scene" is from 1931. Related: Panned; panning.
Pan
Arcadian shepherd god with upper body of a man and horns and lower part like a goat, late 14c., a god of the woods and fields, from Latin, from Greek Pan. Klein says perhaps cognate with Sanskrit pusan, a Vedic god, guardian and multiplier of cattle and other human possessions, literally "nourisher." Similarity to pan "all" (see pan-) led to his being regarded as a personification of nature. Pan-pipe, upon which he supposedly played, is attested from 1820.
pan (v.1)
"to wash gravel or sand in a pan in search of gold," 1839, from pan (n.); thus to pan out "turn out, succeed" (1868) is a figurative use of this (literal sense from 1849). The meaning "criticize severely" is from 1911, probably from the notion in contemporary slang expressions such as on the pan "under reprimand or criticism" (1923). Related: Panned; panning.
pan-
word-forming element meaning "all, every, whole, all-inclusive," from Greek pan-, combining form of pas (neuter pan, masculine and neuter genitive pantos) "all," from PIE *pant- "all" (with derivatives found only in Greek and Tocharian).

Commonly used as a prefix in Greek, in modern times often with nationality names, the first example of which seems to have been Panslavism (1846). Also panislamic (1881), pan-American (1889), pan-German (1892), pan-African (1900), pan-European (1901), pan-Arabism (1930).
pan-Africanism
1955, from pan-African (1900), from pan- + African.
panacea (n.)
"universal remedy," 1540s, from Latin panacea, a herb (variously identified) that would heal all illnesses, from Greek panakeia "cure-all," from panakes "all-healing," from pan- "all" (see pan-) + akos "cure," from iasthai "to heal" (see -iatric). Earlier in English as panace (1510s).
panache (n.)
1550s, "a tuft or plume of feathers," from Middle French pennache "tuft of feathers," from Italian pennaccio, from Late Latin pinnaculum "small wing, gable, peak" (see pinnacle). Figurative sense of "display, swagger" first recorded 1898 (in translation of "Cyrano de Bergerac"), from French.
Panama
probably from an unknown Guarani word, traditionally said to mean "place of many fish." Originally the name of the settlement founded 1519 (destroyed 1671 but subsequently rebuilt). Panama hat, made from the leaves of the screw pine, attested from 1833, a misnomer, because it originally was made in Ecuador, but perhaps so called in American English because it was distributed north from Panama City. Panama red as a variety of Central American marijuana is attested from 1967.
panatela (n.)
also panetela, panetella, type of thin cigar, 1901, from Spanish panatela, literally "sponge-cake" (in American Spanish, "a long, thin biscuit"), a diminutive, formed from Latin panis "bread" (see food).
Panavision (n.)
1955, proprietary name of a type of wide-screen lens, word formed from elements of panorama + vision.
pancake (n.)
early 15c. (late 13c. as a surname), from pan (n.) + cake (n.); as symbol of flatness c.1600.
pancake (v.)
"to squeeze flat," 1879, from pancake (n.). Later, of aircraft, "to fall flat" (1911), with figurative extension. Related: Pancaked; pancaking.
panchen
Tibetian Buddhist title of respect, 1763, abbreviation of pandi-tachen-po, literally "great learned one."
pancreas (n.)
1570s, from Latinized form of Greek pankreas "sweetbread (pancreas as food), pancreas," literally "entirely flesh," from pan- "all" (see pan-) + kreas "flesh" (see raw), probably on notion of homogeneous substance of the organ.
pancreatitis (n.)
1842, medical Latin, from comb. form of pancreas + -itis.
panda (n.)
1835, from French, apparently from the Nepalese name of a raccoon-like mammal (lesser panda) found there. First reference to the Giant Panda is from 1901; since its discovery in 1869 by French missionary Armand David (1826-1900) it had been known as parti-colored bear, but the name was changed after the zoological relationship to the red panda was established.
pandemic (adj.)
1660s, from Late Latin pandemus, from Greek pandemos "pertaining to all people; public, common," from pan- "all" (see pan-) + demos "people" (see demotic). Modeled on epidemic. The noun is first recorded 1853, from the adjective.
pandemonium (n.)
1667, Pandæmonium, in "Paradise Lost" the name of the palace built in the middle of Hell, "the high capital of Satan and all his peers," coined by John Milton (1608-1674) from Greek pan- "all" (see pan-) + Late Latin daemonium "evil spirit," from Greek daimonion "inferior divine power," from daimon "lesser god" (see demon).

Transferred sense "place of uproar" is from 1779; that of "wild, lawless confusion" is from 1865. Related: Pandemoniac; pandemoniacal; pandemonian; pandemonic.
pander (n.)
"arranger of sexual liaisons, one who supplies another with the means of gratifying lust," 1520s, "procurer, pimp," from Middle English Pandare (late 14c.), used by Chaucer ("Troylus and Cryseyde"), who borrowed it from Boccaccio (who had it in Italian form Pandaro in "Filostrato") as name of the prince (Greek Pandaros), who procured the love of Cressida (his niece in Chaucer, his cousin in Boccaccio) for Troilus. The story and the name are medieval inventions. Spelling influenced by agent suffix -er.
pander (v.)
"to indulge (another), to minister to base passions," c.1600, from pander (n.). Related: Pandered; pandering.
pandiculation (n.)
1610s, noun of action from Latin pandiculat-, past participle stem of pandiculari "to stretch oneself," from pandere "to stretch" (see pace (n.)).
Pandora
1570s, in Greek mythology, the first mortal woman, made by Hephaestus and given as a bride to Epimetheus, from Greek pandora "all-gifted" (or perhaps "giver of all"), from pan "all" (see pan-) + doron "gift," from PIE root *do- "to give" (see date (n.1)).

Pandora's box (1570s) refers to her gift from Zeus, which was foolishly opened by Epimetheus, upon which all the contents escaped. They were said to be the host of human ills (escaping to afflict mankind), or, in a later version, all the blessings of the god (escaping to be lost), except Hope, which alone remained.
pane (n.)
mid-13c., "garment, part of a garment," later "side of a building, section of a wall," from Old French pan "section, piece, panel" (11c.), from Latin pannum (nominative pannus) "piece of cloth, garment," possibly from PIE root *pan- "fabric" (cognates: Gothic fana "piece of cloth," Greek penos "web," Old English fanna "flag"). Sense of "window glass" first attested mid-15c.
panegyric (n.)
"eulogy, laudation," c.1600, from French panégyrique (1510s), from Latin panegyricus "public eulogy," originally an adjective, "for a public festival," from Greek panegyrikos (logos) "(a speech) given in a public assembly," from panegyris "public assembly (especially in honor of a god)," from pan- "all" (see pan-) + agyris "place of assembly," Aeolic form of agora (see agora).
panel (n.)
early 14c., from Old French panel "piece of cloth, piece, saddle cushion" (Modern French panneau), from Vulgar Latin *pannellus, diminutive of Latin pannus "piece of cloth" (see pane). Anglo-French legalese sense of "piece of parchment (cloth) listing jurors" led by late 14c. to meaning "jury." General sense of "persons called on to advise, judge, discuss," etc. is from 1570s. Sense of "distinct part of surface of a wall, door, etc." is first recorded c.1600.
panel (v.)
mid-15c., "to empanel," from panel (n.). From 1630s as "to furnish (a room) with panels." Related: Paneled; paneling; panelling.
panelist (n.)
1950, American English, from panel (n.) + -ist. Originally in quiz shows.
panelling (n.)
also paneling, 1800, verbal noun from panel (v.).
panem et circenses
Latin, literally "bread and circuses," supposedly coined by Juvenal and describing the cynical formula of the Roman emperors for keeping the masses content with ample food and entertainment.
Duas tantum res anxius optat, Panem et circenses [Juvenal, Sat. x.80].
panfish (n.)
1833, American English, from pan (n.1) + fish (n.).
pang (n.)
1520s, "sudden physical pain," of unknown origin, perhaps related to prong (prongys of deth is recorded from mid-15c.). Reference to mental or emotional pain is from 1560s. Related: Pangs.
Pangaea
"supercontinent of the late Paleozoic era," 1924, from Greek pan- "all" (see pan-) + gaia "earth" (see gaia). First attested in German, 1920, in Alfred Wegener's "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" (not found in 1914 first edition, according to OED).
Panglossian (adj.)
"optimistic" (usually ironic or disparaging), 1831, from French Panglosse, name of the philosopher and tutor in Voltaire's "Candide" (1758), from pan- (see pan-) + Greek glossa, literally "tongue" (see gloss (n.2)).
pangolin (n.)
1774, "scaly toothless mammal of Java," from Malay peng-goling "roller," from its habit of curling into a ball; from peng- (denominative prefix) + goling "to roll." Later extended to related species in Asia and Africa.
panhandle (n.)
"something resembling the handle of a pan," 1851, from pan (n.) + handle (n.). Especially in reference to geography, originally American English, from 1856, in reference to Virginia (now West Virginia; Florida, Texas, Idaho, Oklahoma, and Alaska also have them). Meaning "an act of begging" is attested from 1849, perhaps from notion of arm stuck out like a panhandle, or of one who handles a (beggar's) pan.
panhandle (v.)
"to beg," 1888, from panhandle (n.) in the begging sense. Related: Panhandled; panhandling.
panhandler (n.)
"one who begs," 1893, from panhandle (n.) in begging sense. Related: Panhandled; panhandler; panhandling.
Panhellenic (adj.)
also Related: pan-Hellenic, 1847, "pertaining to or involving all the Greeks," from Greek Panhellenes "all the Hellenes;" see pan- + Hellenic. Related: Panhellenism.
panic (v.)
1827, "to afflict with panic," from panic (n.). Intransitive sense of "to lose one's head, get into a panic" is from 1902. Related: Panicked; panicking.
panic (n.1)
"mass terror," 1708, from earlier adjective (c.1600, modifying fear, terror, etc.), from French panique (15c.), from Greek panikon, literally "pertaining to Pan," the god of woods and fields, who was the source of mysterious sounds that caused contagious, groundless fear in herds and crowds, or in people in lonely spots.

In the sense of "panic, fright" the Greek word is short for panikon deima "panic fright," from neuter of Panikos "of Pan." Meaning "widespread apprehension about financial matters" is first recorded 1757. Panic button in figurative sense is first recorded 1955, the literal sense apparently is from parachuting. Panic attack attested by 1970.
panic (n.2)
type of grass, early 15c., from Old French panic "Italian millet," from Latin panicum "panic grass, kind of millet," from panus "ear of millet, a swelling" (compare panocha).
panicky (adj.)
1869, from panic (n.1) + -y (2). Related: Panickiness.
panjandrum (n.)
mock name for a pompous personage, 1755, invented by Samuel Foote (1720-1777) in a long passage full of nonsense written to test the memory of actor Charles Macklin (1697-1797), who said he could repeat anything after hearing it once.
panne (n.)
1794, from French panne "soft material, plush" (15c.), earlier penne (13c.), of unknown origin; perhaps from Latin penna "feather" (see pen (n.1)).
pannel
see panel.
pannier (n.)
late 13c., "large basket for provisions," from Old French panier "basket," from Latin panarium "bread basket," from panis "bread" (see food).
pannikin (n.)
"small metal cup," 1823, described as a Suffolk dialect word, from pan (n.) + diminutive suffix -kin.