phonological (adj.)
1818, from phonology + -ical. Related: Phonologically.
phonology (n.)
1799, from phono- + -logy.
phonophobia (n.)
1877, from phono- + -phobia.
phony (adj.)
also phoney, "not genuine," 1899, perhaps an alteration of fawney "gilt brass ring used by swindlers."
His most successful swindle was selling "painted" or "phony" diamonds. He had a plan of taking cheap stones, and by "doctoring" them make them have a brilliant and high class appearance. His confederates would then take the diamonds to other pawnbrokers and dispose of them. ["The Jewelers Review," New York, April 5, 1899]
The noun meaning "phony person or thing" is attested from 1902.
expression of contempt, 1929, from Yiddish, from German pfui (attested in English from 1866); popularized by Walter Winchell. Phoo "vocalic gesture expressing contemptuous rejection" is recorded from 1640s.
phoresis (n.)
see phoresy.
phoresy (n.)
"association between organisms in which one is carried on the body of another but is not a parasite," 1914, from French phorésie (1896), from Greek phoresis "being carried," from pherein "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children."
phosphate (n.)
a salt of phosphoric acid, 1795, from French phosphate (1787), from phosphore (see phosphorus) + -ate (3).
phosphor (n.)
"morning star," 1630s, from Latin phosphorus "the morning star" (see phosphorus). Meaning "anything phosphorescent" is from 1705.
phosphorescence (n.)
1796, from verb phosphoresce (1794; see phosphorescent) + -ence.
phosphorescent (adj.)
1766, from Modern Latin phosphorus (see phosphorus) + -escent. Related: Phosphorescently.
phosphoric (adj.)
1784, from French phosphorique, from phosphore (see phosphorous). Related: Phosphorical (1753).
phosphorous (adj.)
1777, "phosphorescent," from phosphorus + -ous. The chemical sense (1794) is immediately from French phosphoreux.
phosphorus (n.)
"substance or organism that shines of itself," 1640s, from Latin phosphorus "light-bringing," also "the morning star" (a sense attested in English from 1620), from Greek Phosphoros "morning star," literally "torchbearer," from phos "light," contraction of phaos "light, daylight" (related to phainein "to show, to bring to light," from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine") + phoros "bearer," from pherein "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children."

As the name of a non-metallic chemical element, it is recorded from 1680, originally one among several substances so called; the word used exclusively of the element from c. 1750. It was discovered in 1669 by Henning Brand, merchant and alchemist of Hamburg, who derived it from urine. Lavoisier demonstrated it was an element in 1777. According to Flood, "It is the first element whose discoverer is known."
photic (adj.)
1843, "pertaining to light;" 1899, "pertaining to the parts of the ocean penetrated by sunlight," from Greek phot-, combining form of phos "light" (related to phainein "to show, to bring to light," from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine") + -ic.
photo (n.)
1860, shortening of photograph. The verb is first recorded 1865, from the noun. Photo finish is attested from 1936. Photo opportunity first recorded 1974.
word-forming element meaning "light" or "photographic" or "photoelectric," from Greek photo-, combining form of phos (genitive photos) "light," from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine."
photocopier (n.)
1934, agent noun from photocopy (v.).
photocopy (v.)
1924 in the sense of "make a photographic reproduction," from photo- "photographic" + copy (v.). The usual modern meaning arose 1942 with the advent of xerography. The noun is recorded from 1934. Related: Photocopied; photocopying.
photogenic (adj.)
1839, "produced or caused by light," from photo- "light" + -genic "produced by." Originally in photogenic drawing, the early term for "photography;" meaning "photographing well" is first attested 1928, from photo- as short for "photograph."
photograph (n.)
1839, "picture obtained by photography," coined by Sir John Herschel from photo- "light" + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." It won out over other suggestions, such as photogene and heliograph. Neo-Anglo-Saxonists prefer sunprint; and sun-picture (1846) was an early Englishing of the word. The verb, as well as photography, are first found in a paper read before the Royal Society on March 14, 1839. Related: Photographed; photographing.
photographer (n.)
1843, agent noun from photograph (v.). (Photographist also is attested from 1843).
photographic (adj.)
1839, from photograph + -ic. Photographic memory is from 1940. Related: Photographical; photographically.
photography (n.)
1839, from photo- + -graphy. See photograph.
photogravure (n.)
"process of engraving by photography," 1869, from photo- + gravure, from grave (v.) + -ure.
photoinduction (n.)
1947, from photo- + induction.
photojournalism (n.)
1944, from photo- + journalism. Related: Photojournalist.
photomontage (n.)
1931, from photo + montage.
photon (n.)
"unit of electromagnetic radiation," 1926 in modern sense, from photo- "light" + -on "unit."
photoperiodism (n.)
1920, from photoperiod (1920, from photo- + period) + -ism.
photophobia (n.)
1799, from photo- + -phobia. Related: Photophobic.
photoshop (v.)
"to edit an image using a computer program," 1992, originally, and properly still, only in reference to Photoshop, a bitmap graphics editor trademarked and published by Adobe, released in 1990. Like Taser and Dumpster, it has a tendency to become generic, but if you use it that way in print their lawyers will still send you The Letter. Related: Photoshopped; photoshopping.
photosphere (n.)
1660s, "orb of light," from photo- + -sphere. Astronomical sense is from 1848.
photostat (n.)
1909, a type of copying machine (trademark Commercial Camera Company, Providence, R.I.) whose name became a generic noun and verb (1914) for "photocopy;" from photo- + stat.
photosynthesis (n.)
1898, loan-translation of German Photosynthese, from photo- "light" (see photo-) + synthese "synthesis" (see synthesis). Another early word for it was photosyntax.
[T]he body of the work has been rendered into English with fidelity, the only change of moment being the substitution of the word "photosynthesis" for that of "assimilation." This change follows from a suggestion by Dr. Barnes, made a year ago before the American Association at Madison, who clearly pointed out the need of a distinctive term for the synthetical process in plants, brought about by protoplasm in the presence of chlorophyll and light. He proposed the word "photosyntax," which met with favor. In the discussion Professor MacMillan suggested the word "photosynthesis," as etymologically more satisfactory and accurate, a claim which Dr. Barnes showed could not be maintained. The suggestion of Dr. Barnes not only received tacit acceptance by the botanists of the association, but was practically approved by the Madison Congress in the course of a discussion upon this point. ["The Botanical Gazette," vol. xix, 1894]
photosynthesize (v.)
1910, from photosynthesis + -ize. Related: Photosynthesized; photosynthesizing.
phototropism (n.)
1899, from German phototropie (1892), from photo- + tropism.
photovoltaic (adj.)
1923, from photo- + voltaic. Related: Photovoltaics (see -ics).
phrasal (adj.)
1871, from phrase (v.) + -al (1). Related: Phrasally.
phrase (v.)
"to put into a phrase," 1560s; see phrase (n.). Related: Phrased; phrasing.
phrase (n.)
1520s, "manner or style of expression," also "group of words with some unity," from Late Latin phrasis "diction," from Greek phrasis "speech, way of speaking, enunciation, phraseology," from phrazein "to tell, declare, indicate, point out, show, inform," also passively (phrazomai), "indicate to oneself, think or muse upon, consider; think up, contrive; suppose, believe, imagine; perceive, observe." Of uncertain origin; perhaps connected with phrenes "wits, senses, sanity," phren "the mind, the heart," literally "midriff, diaphragm" (see phreno-). The musical sense of "short passage" is from 1789.
phraseology (n.)
1550s, coined erroneously in Greek as phraseologia (1550s), from Greek phrasis "way of speaking" (see phrase (n.)) + -logia (see -logy). The correct form would be *phrasiology. Originally "a phrase book," meaning "way of arranging words, characteristic style of expression" is from 1660s.
phrasing (n.)
1610s, verbal noun from phrase (v.).
phreak (n.)
1972, originally in phone phreak, one of a set of technically creative people who electronically hacked or defrauded telephone companies of the day.
The phreaks first appeared on the US scene in the early 1960s, when a group of MIT students were found to have conducted a late night dialling experiment on the Defense Department's secret network. They were rewarded with jobs when they explained their system to Bell investigators. ... The name "phone phreak" identified the enthisiasts with the common underground usage of freak as someone who was cool and used drugs. ["New Scientist," Dec. 13, 1973]
The ph- in phone may have suggested the alteration, and this seems to be the original of the 1990s slang fad for substituting ph- for f- (as in phat).
phrenetic (adj.)
early Modern English restored spelling of frenetic (late 14c.). A doublet of frantic.
phrenic (adj.)
"pertaining to the diaphragm," 1704, from Modern Latin phrenicus, from Greek phren "the diaphragm, muscle which parts the heart and lungs from the digestive organs" (see phreno-) + -ic.
before vowels phren-, word-forming element meaning "mind," also, in medical use, "diaphragm, muscle which parts the abdomen from the thorax;" from Greek phren, phrenos "the mind, spirit," also "the midriff, diaphragm," also "parts around the heart, the breast," and "mind, seat of thoughts." Compare Greek phrenes "wits, senses, sanity."

The word is of uncertain origin; perhaps from a PIE *bhren. Beekes finds the connection with phrassein "to fence or hedge in" "semantically attractive," but there are phonetic difficulties, and he finds "quite feasible" a relationship with phrazomai "to think, consider" (later phrazein; see phrase (n.)).
phrenology (n.)
1815, literally "mental science," from phreno- "mind" (q.v.) + -logy "study of." Applied to the theory of mental faculties originated by Gall and Spurzheim that led to the 1840s mania for reading personality clues in the shape of one's skull and the "bumps" of the head. Related: Phrenological; phrenologist.
late 15c., "native of Phrygia," region in ancient Asia Minor; Phrygian mode in ancient Greek music theory was held to be "of a warlike character." Phrygian cap (1796) was the type adopted by freed slaves in Roman times, and subsequently identified as the cap of Liberty.
phthisic (adj.)
late 14c., tysyk "of or pertaining to a wasting disease," from Old French tisike, phtisique "consumptive" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *phthisicus, from Greek phthisikos "consumptive," from phthisis "wasting, consumption" (see phthisis). Earlier in English as a noun meaning "wasting disease of the lungs" (mid-14c.). Related: Phthisical.
The old pronunciation dropped the ph-, but this will probably recover its sound now that everyone can read. [Fowler]