performative Look up performative at Dictionary.com
1955, adjective and noun, coined by British philosopher of language J.L. Austin (1911-1960), from perform + -ive.
performer (n.) Look up performer at Dictionary.com
1580s, agent noun from perform (v.). Theatrical sense is from 1711.
perfume (n.) Look up perfume at Dictionary.com
1530s, "fumes from a burning substance," from Middle French parfum (16c.), from parfumer "to scent," from Old Provençal perfumar or cognate words in dialectal Italian (perfumare) or Spanish (perfumar), from Latin per- "through" (see per) + fumare "to smoke" (see fume (n.)). Meaning "fluid containing agreeable essences of flowers, etc.," is attested from 1540s.
perfume (v.) Look up perfume at Dictionary.com
1530s, "to fill with smoke or vapor," from perfume (n.) or from Middle French parfumer. Meaning "to impart a sweet scent to" is from 1530s. Related: Perfumed; perfuming.
perfunctory (adj.) Look up perfunctory at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Late Latin perfunctorius "careless, negligent," literally "like one who wishes to get through a thing," from Latin perfungus, past participle of perfungi "discharge, busy oneself, get through," from per- "through" + fungi "perform" (see function (n.)). Related: Perfunctorily.
perfuse (v.) Look up perfuse at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin perfusus, past participle of perfundere "to pour over, besprinkle," from per- + fundere (see found (v.2)).
perfusion (n.) Look up perfusion at Dictionary.com
1570s, from Middle French perfusion and directly from Latin perfusionem (nominative perfusio) "a pouring over," noun of action from past participle stem of perfundere "pour out," from per- "throughout" (see per) + fundere "pour" (see found (v.2)).
pergola (n.) Look up pergola at Dictionary.com
latticework structure for climbing plants, 1670s, from Italian pergola, from Latin pergula "school, lecture room; projecting roof, vine arbor," of uncertain origin; perhaps from pergere "to come forward."
perhaps (adv.) Look up perhaps at Dictionary.com
1520s, formed from Middle English per, par "by, through" (see per-) + plural of hap "chance" (see happen), on model of peradventure, perchance, etc. which now have been superseded by this word. Perhappons "possibly, by chance" is recorded from late 15c.
peri (n.) Look up peri at Dictionary.com
1777, from Persian pari, from Avestan pairika. Race of superhuman female beings originally represented as malevolent, later as angelic genii (compare sense evolution of English fairy, to which it is not related).
peri- Look up peri- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "around, about, enclosing," from Greek peri (prep.) "around, about, beyond," cognate with Sanskrit pari "around, about, through," Latin per, from PIE *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per).
perianth (n.) Look up perianth at Dictionary.com
"envelope of a flower," 1706, from French périanthe, from Modern Latin perianthium (17c.), literally "that which is round the flower," from peri- (see peri-) + Greek anthos "flower" (see anther).
pericarditis (n.) Look up pericarditis at Dictionary.com
1799, from pericardium + -itis.
pericardium (n.) Look up pericardium at Dictionary.com
early 15c., Latinized form of Greek perikardion "(membrane) around the heart" (Galen), from peri (prep.) "around, about" (see peri-) + kardia "heart" (see heart). Related: Pericardiac.
Pericles Look up Pericles at Dictionary.com
Athenian statesman (c.495-429 B.C.E.), from Greek Perikles, literally "far-famed," from peri "all around" (see peri-) + -kles "fame" (see Damocles). His leadership of Athens marks its intellectual and material zenith. Related: Periclean.
pericope (n.) Look up pericope at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Late Latin pericope "section of a book," from Greek perikope "a section" of a book, literally "a cutting all round," from peri- "around" (see peri-) + kope "a cutting" (see hatchet).
peridot (n.) Look up peridot at Dictionary.com
type of gemstone, mid-14c. (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin), from Old French peritot (early 13c., Modern French péridot), of unknown origin.
perigee (n.) Look up perigee at Dictionary.com
"point at which a celestial body is nearest the Earth," 1590s, from Modern Latin perigeum (15c.), from Late Greek peregeion, used by Ptolemy as a noun, properly neuter of adjective perigeios "near the earth," from peri ges, from peri "near" (see peri-) + ges, genitive of ge "earth" (see Gaia).
perihelion (n.) Look up perihelion at Dictionary.com
"point at which a celestial body is nearest the Sun," 1680s, coined in Modern Latin (perihelium) by Kepler (1596) from Latinizations of Greek peri "near" (see peri-) + helios "sun" (see sol). Subsequently re-Greeked.
peril (n.) Look up peril at Dictionary.com
c.1200, from Old French peril "danger, risk" (10c.), from Latin periculum "an attempt, trial, experiment; risk, danger," with instrumentive suffix -culum and first element from PIE *peri-tlo-, suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to lead, pass over" (cognates: Latin experiri "to try;" Greek peria "trial, attempt, experience," empeiros "experienced;" Old Irish aire "vigilance;" Gothic ferja "watcher;" Old English fær "danger, calamity"); related to *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per).
perilous (adj.) Look up perilous at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from Old French perillos "perilous, dangerous" (Modern French périlleux) "dangerous, hazardous," from Latin periculosus "dangerous, hazardous," from periculum "a danger, attempt, risk" (see peril). Related: Perilously; perilousness.
perimeter (n.) Look up perimeter at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "line around a figure or surface," from Latin perimetros, from Greek perimetron "circumference," from peri- "around" (see peri-) + metron "measure" (see meter (n.2)). Military sense of "boundary of a defended position" is attested from 1943.
perinatal (adj.) Look up perinatal at Dictionary.com
1952, from peri- + natal.
perineum (n.) Look up perineum at Dictionary.com
"region of the body between the anus and the genital organs" (jocularly called a taint), early 15c., from Medieval Latin perinaeon, Late Latin perineum, from Greek perinaion, perinaios, from peri- "near" (see peri-) + inan "to carry off by evacuation," of unknown origin.
period (n.) Look up period at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "course or extent of time," from Middle French periode (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin periodus "recurring portion, cycle," from Latin periodus "a complete sentence," also "cycle of the Greek games," from Greek periodos "cycle, circuit, period of time," literally "a going around," from peri- "around" (see peri-) + hodos "a going, way, journey" (see cede).

Sense of "repeated cycle of events" led to that of "interval of time." Meaning "dot marking end of a sentence" first recorded c.1600, from similar use in Medieval Latin (in late 16c. English it meant "full pause at the end of a sentence"). Sense of "menstruation" dates from 1822. Educational sense of "portion of time set apart for a lesson" is from 1876. Sporting sense attested from 1898. As an adjective from 1905; period piece attested from 1911.
periodic (adj.) Look up periodic at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French périodique (14c.), from Latin periodicus, from periodus (see period).

Periodic table in chemistry (1889) is from notion of the arrangement, in which similar properties recur at intervals in elements in the same area as you read down the rows of the table. This sense of the word is attested from 1872 (periodic law).
periodical (adj.) Look up periodical at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from periodic + -al (1). As a noun meaning "magazine published at regular intervals," attested from 1798. Related: Periodically.
periodicity (n.) Look up periodicity at Dictionary.com
1805, from French périodicité (1796), from périodique, from Latin periodicus (see periodic).
periodontal (adj.) Look up periodontal at Dictionary.com
1848, literally "around the tooth," from peri- + Greek odon (genitive odontos) "tooth" (see tooth).
periodontics (n.) Look up periodontics at Dictionary.com
1948, from periodontia (1914; see periodontal) + -ics. Periodontic (adj.) is attested by 1889.
periodontist (n.) Look up periodontist at Dictionary.com
1913; see periodontal + -ist.
periodontitis (n.) Look up periodontitis at Dictionary.com
1842; see periodontal + -itis.
periodontium (n.) Look up periodontium at Dictionary.com
1828; see periodontal.
periorbital (adj.) Look up periorbital at Dictionary.com
1838, from medical Latin periorbita, a hybrid from Greek peri (see peri-) + Latin orbita (see orbit).
periosteum (n.) Look up periosteum at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Modern Latin periosteum, Late Latin periosteon, from Greek periosteon, neuter of periosteos "round the bones," from peri- (see peri-) + osteon (see osseous).
peripatetic (n.) Look up peripatetic at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "disciple of Aristotle," from Old French perypatetique (14c.), from Latin peripateticus "pertaining to the disciples or philosophy of Aristotle," from Greek peripatetikos "given to walking about" (especially while teaching), from peripatein "walk up and down, walk about," from peri- "around" (see peri-) + patein "to walk, tread" (see find (v.)). Aristotle's custom was to teach while strolling through the Lyceum in Athens. In English, the philosophical meaning is older than that of "person who wanders about" (1610s).
peripatetic (adj.) Look up peripatetic at Dictionary.com
1560s in the philosophical sense, 1640s in the literal sense; see peripatetic (n.).
peripeteia (n.) Look up peripeteia at Dictionary.com
also peripetia, 1590s, from Greek peripeteia "a turn right about; a sudden change" (of fortune, in a tragedy), from peri- "around" (see peri-) + stem of piptein "to fall" (see symptom).
peripheral (adj.) Look up peripheral at Dictionary.com
1803, from periphery + -al (1). An earlier formation was peripherial (1670s). Related: Peripherally. As a noun, peripherals, "peripheral devices of a computer," is from 1966.
periphery (n.) Look up periphery at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "atmosphere around the earth," from Old French periferie (Modern French périphérie), from Medieval Latin periferia, from Late Latin peripheria, from Greek peripheria "circumference, outer surface, line round a circular body," literally "a carrying around," from peripheres "rounded, moving round, revolving," peripherein "carry or move round," from peri- "round about" (see peri-) + pherein "to carry" (see infer). Meaning "outside boundary of a surface" attested in English from 1570s; general sense of "boundary" is from 1660s.
periphrasis (n.) Look up periphrasis at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Latin periphrasis "circumlocution," from Greek periphrasis, from periphrazein "speak in a roundabout way," from peri- "round about" (see peri-) + phrazein "to express" (see phrase (n.)).
periphrastic (adj.) Look up periphrastic at Dictionary.com
1805, from French périphrastique and directly from Greek periphrastikos, from periphrazein (see periphrasis). Related: Periphrastical (1630s).
periscope (n.) Look up periscope at Dictionary.com
viewing apparatus on a submarine, 1899, formed in English from peri- "around" + -scope "instrument for viewing." Earlier (1865) a technical term in photography. Related: Periscopic.
perish (v.) Look up perish at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., from periss- present participle stem of Old French perir "perish, be lost, be shipwrecked" (12c.), from Latin perire "to be lost, perish," literally "to go through," from per- "through, completely, to destruction" (see per) + ire "to go" (see ion). Related: Perished; perishing.
perishable (adj.) Look up perishable at Dictionary.com
late 15c., perysabyl, from Middle French périssable, and later (in modern form), 1610s, directly from perish + -able. As a noun, perishables, in reference to foodstuffs, is attested from 1895.
peristalsis (n.) Look up peristalsis at Dictionary.com
1859, Modern Latin peristalsis; see peristaltic.
peristaltic (adj.) Look up peristaltic at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Modern Latin, from Greek peristaltikos (Galen), literally "contracting around," from peri (see peri-) "around, about" + stalsis "checking, constriction," related to stellein "draw in, bring together; set in order" (see diastole).
peristyle (n.) Look up peristyle at Dictionary.com
1610s, from French péristyle "row of columns surrounding a building" (mid-16c.), from Latin peristylum, from Greek peristylon "colonnade around a temple or court," noun use of neuter of peristylos "surrounded with a colonnade," from peri- "around" (see peri-) + stylos "pillar" (see stet).
peritoneum (n.) Look up peritoneum at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Late Latin peritonaeum, from Greek peritonaion "abdominal membrane," literally "part stretched over," noun use of neuter of peritonaios "stretched over," from peri- "around" (see peri-) + teinein "to stretch" (see tenet). Related: Peritoneal.
peritonitis (n.) Look up peritonitis at Dictionary.com
1776, medical Latin, coined c.1750 by French pathologist François-Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1706-1767) from Greek peritonos (from peritonaion; see peritoneum) + -itis.