partner (n.) Look up partner at
c. 1300, altered from parcener (late 13c.), from Old French parçonier "partner, associate; joint owner, joint heir," from parçon "partition, division. portion, share, lot," from Latin partitionem (nominative partitio) "a sharing, partition, division, distribution" from past participle stem of partire "to part, divide" (from pars "a part, piece, a share," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). Form in English influenced by part (n.). The word also may represent Old French part tenour "part holder."
partnership (n.) Look up partnership at
1570s, from partner (n.) + -ship. In the commercial sense from c. 1700.
partridge (n.) Look up partridge at
late 12c., from Old French pertis, alteration of perdis (perhaps influenced by fem. suffix -tris), from Latin perdicem (nominative perdix) "plover, lapwing," from Greek perdix, the Greek partridge, probably related to perdesthai "to break wind," in reference to the whirring noise of the bird's wings, from PIE imitative base *perd- "to break wind" (source also of Sanskrit pardate "breaks wind," Lithuanian perdzu, Russian perdet, Old High German ferzan, Old Norse freta, Middle English farten).
parts (n.) Look up parts at
"personal qualities, gifts of ability," 1560s, from part (n.).
parturient (adj.) Look up parturient at
"about to give birth," 1590s, from Latin parturientem (nominative parturiens), present participle of parturire "be in labor," literally "desire to bring forth," desiderative of parere "to bear" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth"). Related: Parturiency.
parturition (n.) Look up parturition at
1640s, from Latin parturitionem (nominative parturitio), noun of action from past participle stem of parturire (see parturient).
party (v.) Look up party at
"have a good time," 1922, from party (n.). Earlier as "to take the side of" (1630s). Related: Partied; partying.
party (n.) Look up party at
late 13c., "part, portion, side," from Old French partie "side, part; portion, share; separation, division" (12c.), literally "that which is divided," noun use of fem. past participle of partir "to divide, separate" (10c.), from Latin partire/partiri "to share, part, distribute, divide," from pars "a part, piece, a share" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

Political sense of "side in a contest or dispute" evolved by 1300; meaning "a person" is from mid-15c. Sense of "gathering for social pleasure" is first found 1716, from general sense of persons gathered together (originally for some specific purpose, such as dinner party, hunting party). Phrase the party is over is from 1937; party line is first recorded 1834 in the sense of "policy adopted by a political party," 1893 in the sense of "telephone line shared by two or more subscribers." Party pooper is from 1951, American English.
parvenu (n.) Look up parvenu at
"upstart," 1802, from French parvenu, "said of an obscure person who has made a great fortune" (Littré); noun use of past participle of parvenir "to arrive" (12c.), from Latin pervenire "to come up, arrive, attain," from per- "through" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "through") + venire "to come," from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." As an adjective from 1828.
parvi- Look up parvi- at
word-forming element used in science and meaning "small, little," from comb. form of Latin parvus "small," from metathesized form of PIE *pau-ro-, suffixed form of root *pau- (1) "few, little."
parvovirus (n.) Look up parvovirus at
1965, from parvi- "small, little" + connecting element -o- + virus.
Parzival Look up Parzival at
also Parsifal, hero of medieval legends, from Old French Perceval, literally "he who breaks through the valley," from percer "to pierce, break through" (see pierce) + val "valley" (see vale).
pas (n.) Look up pas at
"a step in dancing," 1775, from French pas "step, track, passage," from Latin passus "step, pace" (from PIE root *pete- "to spread"). Used in forming names for types of dances, such as pas de deux (1762).
pas devant les enfants Look up pas devant les enfants at
French: "Not in front of the children."
high-level computer programming language, 1971, named for French scholar Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who invented a calculating machine c. 1642.
Pasch Look up Pasch at
"Easter," early 12c.; see paschal.
paschal (adj.) Look up paschal at
early 15c., "of or pertaining to Easter," from Old French paschal (12c.) and directly from Late Latin paschalis, from pascha "Passover, Easter," from Greek pascha "Passover," from Aramaic (Semitic) pasha "pass over," corresponding to Hebrew pesah, from pasah "he passed over." (see Passover). Pasche was an early Middle English term for "Easter" (see Easter).
pash (n.) Look up pash at
"head," 1610s, now obsolete or dialectal, of uncertain origin. In 20c. the word was used as an colloquial shortening of passion.
pasha Look up pasha at
Turkish honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank, 1640s, from Turkish pasha, earlier basha, from bash "head, chief" (no clear distinction between -b- and -p- in Turkish), from Old Persian pati- "master," from PIE *poti- (see potent) + root of shah. Earlier in English as bashaw (1530s).
pashmina (adj.) Look up pashmina at
from Persian pashmin "woolen," from pashm "wool, down," from PIE *pek- "to pluck out" (see fight (v.)).
Pashto (n.) Look up Pashto at
1784, from Persian pashto (Afghan pakhto). Related: Pashtun.
Pasiphae Look up Pasiphae at
wife of Minos, mother of Phaedra and Ariadne, from Latin, from Greek Pasiphae, from pasiphaes "shining for all," from pasi "for all," dative plural of pas, pan "all" (see pan-) + phaos "light" (see fantasy).
pasquinade (n.) Look up pasquinade at
"a lampoon," 1650s, from Middle French, from Italian pasquinata (c. 1500), from Pasquino, name given to a mutilated ancient statue (now known to represent Menelaus dragging the dead Patroclus) set up by Cardinal Caraffa in his palace in Rome in 1501; the locals named it after a schoolmaster (or tailor, or barber) named Pasquino who lived nearby. A custom developed of posting satirical verses and lampoons on the statue.
pass (n.2) Look up pass at
"written permission to pass into, or through, a place," 1590s, from pass (v.). Sense of "ticket for a free ride or admission" is first found 1838. Colloquial make a pass "offer an amorous advance" first recorded 1928, perhaps from a sporting sense. Phrase come to pass (late 15c.) uses the word with a sense of "completion, accomplishment."
pass (n.1) Look up pass at
"mountain defile," c. 1300, from Old French pas "step, track, passage," from Latin passus "step, pace" (from PIE root *pete- "to spread").
pass (v.) Look up pass at
late 13c. (transitive) "to go by (something)," also "to cross over," from Old French passer "to pass" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *passare "to step, walk, pass" (source also of Spanish pasar, Italian passare), from Latin passus "step, pace" (from PIE root *pete- "to spread").

Intransitive sense of "to go on, to move forward, make one's way" is attested from c. 1300. Figurative sense of "to experience, undergo" (as in pass the time) is first recorded late 14c. Sense of "to go through an examination successfully" is from early 15c. Meaning "decline to do something" is attested from 1869, originally in cards (euchre). In football, hockey, soccer, etc., the meaning "to transfer the ball or puck to another player" is from c. 1865. Related: Passed; passing.

The meaning "to be thought to be something one is not" (especially in racial sense) is from 1935, from pass oneself off (as), first found 1809. The general verb sense of "to be accepted as equivalent" is from 1590s. Pass up "decline, refuse" is attested from 1896. Pass the buck is from 1865, said to be poker slang reference to the buck horn-handled knife that was passed around to signify whose turn it was to deal. Pass the hat "seek contributions" is from 1762. Pass-fail as a grading method is attested from 1955, American English.
pass out (v.) Look up pass out at
"lose consciousness," 1915, from pass (v.) + out. Probably from weakened sense of earlier meaning "to die" (1899). Meaning "to distribute" is attested from 1926. Related: Passed out.
passable (adj.) Look up passable at
early 15c., "that may be crossed," from pass (v.) + -able, or from Old French passable "fordable, affording passage" (14c.). Sense of "tolerable" is first attested late 15c. Related: Passably.
passacaglia (n.) Look up passacaglia at
dance tune of Spanish origin, 1650s, from Italian, from Spanish pasacalle, from pasar "to pass" (from Latin passus "step, pace," from PIE root *pete- "to spread") + calle "street," from Latin callis "path, rough track," perhaps related to callum "hard skin" (see callus). So called because the songs often were played in the streets.
passage (n.) Look up passage at
early 13c., "a road, passage;" late 13c., "action of passing," from Old French passage "mountain pass, passage" (11c.), from passer "to go by," from Vulgar Latin *passare "to step, walk, pass," from Latin passus "step, pace" (from PIE root *pete- "to spread"). Meaning "corridor in a building" first recorded 1610s. Meaning "a portion of writing" is from 1610s, of music, from 1670s.
passageway (n.) Look up passageway at
1640s, American English, from passage + way (n.).
Passamaquoddy Look up Passamaquoddy at
Indian tribe of southeast Maine, from Micmac, literally "place where pollack are plentiful," or else, if it originally is a tribal name, "those of the place of many pollack."
passant (adj.) Look up passant at
late 14c., from Old French passant, present participle of passer (see pass (v.)).
passbook (n.) Look up passbook at
also pass-book, 1828, from pass (v.) + book (n.); apparently the notion is of the document "passing" between bank and customer.
passe (adj.) Look up passe at
1775, from French passé (fem. passée) "past, faded," past participle of passer "to pass," from Vulgar Latin *passare "to step, walk, pass," from Latin passus "step, pace" (from PIE root *pete- "to spread"). Originally of a woman past the period of greatest beauty.
passe-partout (n.) Look up passe-partout at
"master-key," 1670s, French, literally "pass everywhere," from passer "to pass" (see pass (v.)) + partout "everywhere," from par "through" (see per) + tout "all."
passel (n.) Look up passel at
1835, dialectal variant of parcel (n.).
passenger (n.) Look up passenger at
early 14c., passager "passer-by," from Old French passagier "traveler, passer-by" (Modern French passager), noun use of passagier (adj.) "passing, fleeting, traveling," from passage "mountain pass, passage" (11c.), from passer "to go by," from Vulgar Latin *passare "to step, walk, pass," from Latin passus "step, pace" (from PIE root *pete- "to spread").
And in this I resemble the Lappwing, who fearing hir young ones to be destroyed by passengers, flyeth with a false cry farre from their nestes, making those that looke for them seeke where they are not .... [John Lyly, "Euphues and His England," 1580]
The -n- was added early 15c. (compare messenger, harbinger, scavenger, porringer). Meaning "one traveling in a vehicle or vessel" first attested 1510s. Passenger-pigeon of North America so called from 1802; extinct since 1914.
passer-by (n.) Look up passer-by at
also passerby, 1560s, from agent noun of pass (v.) + by; earlier, this sense was in passager (see passenger).
passerine (adj.) Look up passerine at
1776, from Latin passerinus "of a sparrow," from passer "sparrow," possibly of imitative origin. The noun is 1842, from the adjective.
passim (adv.) Look up passim at
"occurring in various places," Latin, literally "scatteredly, in every direction," adverb from passus, past participle of pandere "to stretch" (from nasalized form of PIE root *pete- "to spread").
passing (adv.) Look up passing at
"in a (sur)passing degree, surpassingly," late 14c., from pass (v.).
passing (n.) Look up passing at
"death," 1869, verbal noun from pass (v.).
passion (n.) Look up passion at
late 12c., "sufferings of Christ on the Cross," from Old French passion "Christ's passion, physical suffering" (10c.), from Late Latin passionem (nominative passio) "suffering, enduring," from past participle stem of Latin pati "to endure, undergo, experience," a word of uncertain origin.

Sense extended to sufferings of martyrs, and suffering generally, by early 13c.; meaning "strong emotion, desire" is attested from late 14c., from Late Latin use of passio to render Greek pathos. Replaced Old English þolung (used in glosses to render Latin passio), literally "suffering," from þolian (v.) "to endure." Sense of "sexual love" first attested 1580s; that of "strong liking, enthusiasm, predilection" is from 1630s. The passion-flower so called from 1630s.
The name passionflower -- flos passionis -- arose from the supposed resemblance of the corona to the crown of thorns, and of the other parts of the flower to the nails, or wounds, while the five sepals and five petals were taken to symbolize the ten apostles -- Peter ... and Judas ... being left out of the reckoning. ["Encyclopaedia Britannica," 1885]
passionate (adj.) Look up passionate at
early 15c., "angry; emotional," from Medieval Latin passionatus "affected with passion," from Latin passio (genitive passionis) "passion" (see passion). Specific sense of "amorous" is attested from 1580s. Related: Passionately.
passive (adj.) Look up passive at
late 14c., in grammatical sense (opposed to active), Old French passif "suffering, undergoing hardship" (14c.) and directly from Latin passivus "capable of feeling or suffering," from pass-, past participle stem of pati "to suffer" (see passion). Meaning "not active" is first recorded late 15c.; sense of "enduring suffering without resistance" is from 1620s. Related: Passively. Passive resistance first attested 1819 in Scott's "Ivanhoe," used throughout 19c.; re-coined by Gandhi c. 1906 in South Africa. Passive-aggressive with reference to behavior is attested by 1971.
passiveness (n.) Look up passiveness at
1650s, from passive + -ness.
passivist (n.) Look up passivist at
1895, originally in reference to sex roles, from passive + -ist.
passivity (n.) Look up passivity at
1650s, from passive + -ity.
Passover Look up Passover at
1530, coined by Tyndale from verbal phrase pass over, to translate Hebrew ha-pesah "Passover," from pesah (see paschal), in reference to the Lord "passing over" the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when he killed the first-born of the Egyptians (Exodus xii).