over-estimate (v.)
1768, from over- + estimate (v.). Related: Over-estimated; over-estimating.
over-estimation (n.)
1793, noun of action from over-estimate (v.).
over-excite (v.)
1708 (implied in over-excited), from over- + excite. Related: Over-exciting.
over-excitement (n.)
1815, from over- + excitement.
over-expose (v.)
1869, in photography, from over- + expose (v.). Figurative sense, in reference to celebrity, first attested 1969 (implied in overexposure). Related: Over-exposed; over-exposing.
over-extend (v.)
"to take on too much" (work, debt, etc.), 1937, from over- + extend. Related: Over-extended; over-extending.
over-indulge (v.)
1741, from over- + indulge. Related: Over-indulged; over-indulging.
over-indulgence (n.)
also overindulgence, 1630s, from over- + indulgence. First attested in Donne.
over-long (adv.)
"for too long a time," late 14c., from over- + long (adj.).
over-populate (v.)
also overpopulate, "to overrun with too many people," 1828 (implied in overpopulated), from over- + populate (v.). Related: Overpopulating. Over-populous "over-populated" is attested from 1670s.
over-population (n.)
"over-populousness," 1807, from over- + population. Malthus (1798) had over-populousness.
over-react (v.)
also overreact, 1961, from over- + react (v.). First attested in Lewis Mumford. Related: Over-reacting; overreacting; over-reaction.
over-ripe (adj.)
1670s, from over- + ripe (adj.).
over-sexed (adj.)
1898, from over- + past participle of sex (v.).
over-stuffed (adj.)
also overstuffed, of furniture, "completely covered with a thick layer of stuffing," 1883, from over- + past participle of stuff (v.).
over-trouble (v.)
1580s, from over- + trouble (v.). Related: Over-troubled; over-troubling.
over-use (v.)
1670s, from over- + use (v.). Related: Overused; overusing.
over-wind (v.)
also overwind, "wind too tight," c.1600, from over- + wind (v.1). Related: Over-wound; over-winding.
overact (v.)
1610s, "to go too far in action," from over- + act (v.). Meaning "to play a part with too much emphasis, to chew the scenery" is from 1630s. Related: Overacted; overacting.
overage (n.)
"a surplus amount," 1945, a banking term, coined from over on model of shortage.
overall (adv.)
"everywhere," Old English ofer eall, from ofer "over" (see over) + eall (see all). Sense of "including everything" is from 1894. The noun in the clothing sense (usually plural) of "loose trousers of a strong material worn by cowboys, etc." is from 1782. Specific sense "loose fitting canvas trousers with a bib and strap top" (originally worn by workmen over other clothes to protect them from wet, dirt, etc.) is attested from 1897.
overalls (n.)
see overall. Compare French surtout "overcoat," literally "an over all," from sur- "over" + tout "all."
overarching (adj.)
1720, from present participle of verb overarch (1660s), from over- + arch (v.).
overawe (v.)
1570s, from over- + awe (v.). Perhaps coined by Spenser. Related: Overawed; overawing.
overbear (v.)
late 14c., "to carry over," from over- + bear (v.). Meaning "to bear down by weight of physical force" is from 1535 (in Coverdale), originally nautical, of an overwhelming wind; figurative sense of "to overcome and repress by power, authority, etc." is from 1560s.
overbearing (adj.)
figurative present participle adjective from overbear (v.) in its sense "to bear down."
overbite (n.)
"overlapping of the lower teeth by the upper ones," 1887, from over- + bite (n.).
overblown (adj.)
late 15c., "blown over, passed away," past participle adjective from verb overblow "to blow over the top of," of a storm, "to abate, pass on" (late 14c.), from over- + blow (v.1). Meaning "inflated, puffed up" (with vanity, etc.) is from 1864.
overboard (adv.)
"over the side of a ship," Old English ofor bord, from over + bord "side of a ship" (see board (n.2)). Figurative sense of "excessively, beyond one's means" (especially in phrase go overboard) first attested 1931 in Damon Runyon.
overbook (v.)
"to sell more tickets than there are seats," 1903, from over- + book (v.); originally in reference to theaters. Related: Overbooked; overbooking.
overburden (v.)
also over-burden, "to put too much weight on," 1530s, from over- + burden (v.). Earliest uses are figurative. Related: Overburdened; overburdening.
overcast (adj.)
c.1300, of weather, past participle adjective from verb overcast (early 13c.), "to overthrow," also "to cover, to overspread" as with a garment, usually of weather, from over- + cast (v.).
overcharge (v.)
c.1300, "to overload, overburden," from over- + charge (v.). Meaning "to charge someone too much money" is from 1660s. Related: Overcharged; overcharging.
overcloud (v.)
1590s, from over- + cloud (v.). Related: Overclouded; overclouding.
overcoat (n.)
"large coat worn over ordinary clothing," 1802, from over- + coat (n.).
overcome (v.)
Old English ofercuman "to reach, overtake," also "to conquer, prevail over," from ofer (see over) + cuman "to come" (see come (v.)). A common Germanic compound (Middle Dutch overkomen, Old High German ubarqueman, German überkommen). In reference to mental or chemical force, "to overwhelm, render helpless," it is in late Old English. Meaning "to surmount" (a difficulty or obstacle) is from c.1200. The Civil Rights anthem "We Shall Overcome" was put together c.1950s from lyrics from Charles Tindley's spiritual "I'll Overcome Some Day" (1901), and melody from pre-Civil War spiritual "No More Auction Block for Me." Related: Overcame; overcoming.
overcrowd (v.)
1766, from over- + crowd (v.). Related: Overcrowded; overcrowding.
overdo (v.)
Old English oferdon "to do too much," from ofer (see over) + don (see do (v.)). Common Germanic (for example Old High German ubartuan). Meaning "to overtax, exhaust" (especially in phrase to overdo it) is attested from 1817. Of food, "to cook too long," first recorded 1680s (in past participle adjective overdone).
overdone (adj.)
Old English ofer-done "carried to excess;" see overdo. Of cooking from 1680s.
overdose (n.)
1700, "an excessive dose," from over- + dose (n.).
overdose (v.)
1727, "to administer medicine in too large a dose" (transitive); from 1968 as "to take an overdose of drugs;" see over- + dose (v.). Related: Overdosed; overdosing.
overdraft (n.)
1878, in the banking sense, from over- + draft (n.).
overdraw (v.)
late 14c., "to draw across;" 1734 in the banking sense, from over- + draw (v.). Related: Overdrawn; overdrawing.
overdrive (n.)
"speed-increasing gear in an automobile," 1929, from over- + drive (n.).
overdub (v.)
1954, from over- + dub (v.). As a noun (over-dub) from 1953. Related: Overdubbed; overdubbing.
overdue (adj.)
"past the due date," 1845 of bills, 1890 of library books, 1970 of menstrual periods, from over- + due (adj.).
overeat (v.)
"to eat too much," 1590s, from over- + eat (v.). Related: Overate; overeating. Old English had oferæt (n.) "gluttony; oferæte (adj.) "gluttonous."
overfed (adj.)
1570s, from over- + fed (adj.).
overfeed (v.)
also over-feed, c.1600, from over- + feed (v.). Related: overfed; overfeeding.
overflow (v.)
Old English oferfleow "to flow across, flood, inundate," also "to flow over (a brim or bank);" see over- + flow (v.). Related: Overflowed; overflowing.