mock (adj.)
1540s, from mock, verb and noun. Mock-heroic is attested from 1711, describing a satirical use of a serious form; mock-turtle "calf's head dressed to resemble a turtle," is from 1763; as a kind of soup from 1783.
mock (n.)
"derisive action or speech," early 15c., from mock (v.).
mock (v.)
mid-15c., mokken, "make fun of," also "to trick, delude, make a fool of, treat with scorn;" from Old French mocquer "deride, jeer," a word of unknown origin. Perhaps from Vulgar Latin *muccare "to blow the nose" (as a derisive gesture), from Latin mucus; or possibly from Middle Dutch mocken "to mumble" or Middle Low German mucken "grumble." Or perhaps simply imitative of such speech. Related: Mocked; mocking; mockingly. Replaced Old English bysmerian. Sense of "imitating," as in mockingbird and mock turtle (1763), is from notion of derisive imitation.
mocker (n.)
late 15c., agent noun from mock (v.).
mockery (n.)
early 15c., from Old French moquerie "sneering, mockery, sarcasm" (13c.), from moquer (see mock (v.)).
mockingbird (n.)
also mocking-bird, 1670s, from mocking (adj.), 1520s, from present participle of mock (v.) + bird (n.1). Earlier form was mock-bird (1640s).
mockup (n.)
also mock-up, "model, simulation" 1919, perhaps World War I, from mock (v.) + up (adv.). The verbal phrase mock up is attested from 1911.
mod (n.1)
"tidy, sophisticated teen" (usually contrasted with rocker), 1960, slang shortening of modern.
mod (n.2)
short for modification, c. 1920, originally among aviators.
modal (adj.)
1560s, term in logic, from Middle French modal and directly from Medieval Latin modalis "of or pertaining to a mode," from Latin modus "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure, rhythm, song; a way, manner, fashion, style" (in Late Latin also "mood" in grammar and logic), from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Musical sense is from 1590s.
modality (n.)
1610s, from Old French modalité or directly from Medieval Latin modalitatem (nominative modalitas) "a being modal," from modalis (see modal). Related: Modalities.
mode (n.1)
"manner," late 14c., "kind of musical scale," from Latin modus "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure, rhythm, song; a way, manner, fashion, style" (in Late Latin also "mood" in grammar and logic), from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Meaning "manner in which a thing is done" first recorded 1660s.
mode (n.2)
"current fashion," 1640s, from French mode "manner, fashion, style" (15c.), from Latin modus "a way, manner, fashion, style," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."
model (v.)
1660s, "fashion in clay or wax," from model (n.). Earlier was modelize (c. 1600). From 1915 in the sense "to act as a fashion model, to display (clothes)." Related: Modeled; modeling; modelled; modelling.
model (adj.)
1844, from model (n.).
model (n.)
1570s, "likeness made to scale; architect's set of designs," from Middle French modelle (16c., Modern French modèle), from Italian modello "a model, mold," from Vulgar Latin *modellus, from Latin modulus "a small measure, standard," diminutive of modus "manner, measure" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures").

Sense of "thing or person to be imitated" is 1630s. Meaning "motor vehicle of a particular design" is from 1900 (such as Model T, 1908; Ford's other early models included C, F, and B). Sense of "artist's model" is first recorded 1690s; that of "fashion model" is from 1904. German, Swedish modell, Dutch, Danish model are from French or Italian.
modeling (n.)
also modelling, 1650s, "action of bringing into desired condition," verbal noun from model (v.). Meaning "action of making models" (in clay, wax, etc.) is from 1799. Meaning "work of a fashion model" is from 1941.
modem (n.)
by 1937 in reference to electrical transmission of sound and other signals, contracted from modulator-demodulator; see modulator.
Modena
Italian city, the name probably is from a pre-Latin language, but folk etymology connects it with Mutina, epithet of the nymph Lara who was stricken dumb by Zeus in punishment for her loquacity, from Latin mutus. Related: Modenese.
moderate (n.)
"one who holds moderate opinions on controversial subjects," 1794, from moderate (adj.). Related: Moderatism; -moderantism.
moderate (adj.)
late 14c., originally of weather and other physical conditions, from Latin moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE *med-es-, from root *med- "take appropriate measures." The notion is "keeping within due measure." In English, of persons from early 15c.; of opinions from 1640s; of prices from 1904. Related: Moderateness.
moderate (v.)
early 15c., "to abate excessiveness;" from Latin moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Meaning "to preside over a debate" is first attested 1570s. Related: Moderated; moderating.
moderately (adv.)
late 14c., from moderate (adj.) + -ly (2).
moderation (n.)
early 15c., from Old French moderacion (14c.) "alteration, modification; mitigation, alleviation," from Latin moderationem (nominative moderatio) "a controlling, guidance, government, regulation; moderation, temperateness, self-control," noun of action from moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."
moderator (n.)
late 14c., "ruler, governor," from Latin moderator "manager, ruler, director," literally "he who moderates," from moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Meaning "one who acts as an umpire" is from 1560s. Fem. form moderatrix attested from 1530s.
modern (n.)
1580s, "person of the present time" (contrasted to ancient, from modern (adj.). From 1897 as "one who is up to date."
modern (adj.)
c. 1500, "now existing;" 1580s, "of or pertaining to present or recent times;" from Middle French moderne (15c.) and directly from Late Latin modernus "modern" (Priscian, Cassiodorus), from Latin modo "just now, in a (certain) manner," from modo (adv.) "to the measure," ablative of modus "manner, measure" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Extended form modern-day attested from 1909.

In Shakespeare, often with a sense of "every-day, ordinary, commonplace." Slang abbreviation mod first attested 1960. Modern art is from 1807 (in contrast to ancient; in contrast to traditional by 1930s); modern dance first attested 1912; first record of modern jazz is from 1954. Modern conveniences first recorded 1926.
modernism (n.)
1737, "deviation from the ancient and classical manner" [Johnson, who calls it "a word invented by Swift"], from modern + -ism. From 1830 as "modern ways and styles." Used in theology since 1901. As a movement in the arts (away from classical or traditional modes), from 1929.
modernist (n.)
1580s, "a modern person," from modern + -ist. Later, "a supporter of the modern" (as opposed to the classical), c. 1700. As a follower of a movement in the arts (modernism), attested from 1927.
modernistic (adj.)
1878, from modernist + -ic.
modernity (n.)
1620s, from Medieval Latin modernitatem, noun of quality from modernus (see modern).
modernization (n.)
1770, from modernize + noun ending -ation.
modernize (v.)
1748, from modern + -ize, or from French moderniser. Related: Modernized; modernizing; modernizer.
modest (adj.)
1560s, "having moderate self-regard," from Middle French modeste (14c.), from Latin modestus "moderate, keeping due measure, sober, gentle, temperate," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Of women, "not improper or lewd," 1590s; of female attire, 1610s. Of demands, etc., c. 1600. Related: Modestly.
modesty (n.)
1530s, "freedom from exaggeration, self-control," from Middle French modestie or directly from Latin modestia "moderation, sense of honor, correctness of conduct," from modestus "moderate, keeping due measure, sober, gentle, temperate," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "quality of having a moderate opinion of oneself" is from 1550s; that of "womanly propriety" is from 1560s.
La pudeur donne des plaisirs bien flatteurs à l'amant: elle lui fait sentir quelles lois l'on transgresse pour lui; (Modesty both pleases and flatters a lover, for it lays stress on the laws which are being transgressed for his sake.) [Stendhal "de l'Amour," 1822]
modicum (n.)
"small quantity or portion," late 15c., Scottish, from Latin modicum "a little," noun use of neuter of modicus "moderate, having a proper measure; ordinary, scanty, small, few," from modus "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."
modification (n.)
c. 1500, in philosophy, from Middle French modification (14c.) and directly from Latin modificationem (nominative modificatio) "a measuring," noun of action from past participle stem of modificare (see modify). Meaning "alteration to an object to bring it up to date" is from 1774. Biological sense is attested by 1896.
modifier (n.)
1580s, agent noun of modify. Grammatical sense is from 1865.
modify (v.)
late 14c., from Old French modifier (14c.), from Latin modificare "to limit, measure off, restrain," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures") + comb. form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Modified; modifying.
modish (adj.)
1650s, from mode (n.2) + -ish. "Very common in 17-18 c.; now somewhat arch[aic]." [OED].
modist (n.)
"follower of fashion," 1837, from mode (n.2) + -ist.
modular (adj.)
1798, as a term in mathematics, from French modulaire or directly from Modern Latin modularis, from Latin modulus "a small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "composed of interchangeable units" first recorded 1936.
modularity (n.)
1909, from modular + -ity.
modulate (v.)
1610s, in music, back-formation from modulation, or else from Latin modulatus, past participle of modulari "regulate, measure off properly, measure rhythmically; play, play upon," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). General sense from 1620s. In telecommunications from 1908. Related: Modulated; modulating.
modulation (n.)
late 14c., "act of singing or making music," from Old French modulation "act of making music" (14c.), or directly from Latin modulationem (nominative modulatio) "rhythmical measure, singing and playing, melody," noun of action from past participle stem of modulari "regulate, measure off properly, measure rhythmically; play, play upon," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "act of regulating according to measure or proportion" is from 1530s. Musical sense of "action of process of changing key" is first recorded 1690s.
modulator (n.)
c. 1500, from Latin modulator, literally "one who modulates" in various senses (such as "musical director"), agent noun from past participle stem of modulari (see modulation). Meaning "device that produces modulation of a wave" is from 1919.
module (n.)
1580s, "allotted measure," from Middle French module (1540s) or directly from Latin modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "interchangeable part" first recorded 1955; that of "separate section of a spacecraft" is from 1961.
modus (n.)
"way in which anything is done," 1640s, from Latin modus (plural modi) "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure, rhythm, song; a way, manner, fashion, style," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Especially in modus operandi and modus vivendi.
modus operandi (n.)
"way of doing or accomplishing," 1650s, Latin, literally "mode of operating" (see modus). Abbreviation m.o. is attested from 1955.
modus vivendi (n.)
1879, Latin, literally "way of living or getting along" (see modus).
Modus vivendi is any temporary compromise that enables parties to carry on pending settlement of a dispute that would otherwise paralyse their activities. [Fowler]