- Lombard (n.)
- from Late Latin Langobardus, proper name of a Germanic people who conquered Italy 6c. and settled in the northern region that became known as Lombardy, from Proto-Germanic Langgobardoz, often said to mean literally "Long-beards," but perhaps rather from *lang- "tall, long" + the proper name of the people (Latin Bardi). Their name in Old English was Langbeardas (plural), but also Heaðobeardan, from heaðo "war."
In Middle English the word meant "banker, money-changer, pawnbroker" (late 14c.), from Old French Lombart "Lombard," also "money-changer; usurer; coward," from Italian Lombardo (from Medieval Latin Lombardus).
Lombards in Middle Ages were notable throughout Western Europe as bankers and money-lenders, also pawn-brokers; they established themselves in France from 13c., especially in Montpellier and Cahors, and London's Lombard Street (c. 1200) originally was the site of the houses of Lombard bankers. French also gave the word in this sense to Middle Dutch and Low German. Lombardy poplar, originally from Italy but planted in North American colonies as an ornamental tree, is attested from 1766.
- 1690s, from Lombard + -ic.
- chief city and capital of England, Latin Londinium (c.115), often explained as "place belonging to a man named Londinos," a supposed Celtic personal name meaning "the wild one," "but this etymology is rejected in an emphatic footnote in Jackson 1953 (p.308), and we have as yet nothing to put in its place" [Margaret Gelling, "Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England," Chichester, 1978]. London Bridge the children's singing game is attested from 1827. London broil "large flank steak broiled then cut in thin slices" attested by 1939, American English; London fog first attested 1830.
- Londoner (n.)
- mid-15c., from London + -er (1).
- lone (adj.)
- late 14c., "having no companion, solitary," shortening of alone (q.v.) by weakening of stress or else by misdivision of what is properly all one. The Lone Star in reference to "Texas" is first recorded 1843, from its flag. Lone wolf in the figurative sense is 1909, American English.
- loneliness (n.)
- 1580s, from lonely + -ness.
- lonely (adj.)
- c. 1600, "solitary, lone," from lone + -ly (1). Meaning "dejected for want of company" is from 1811. Lonely heart (n.) "a lonely-hearted person" is from 1922. Lonely hearted (adj.) is attested from 1820.
- loner (n.)
- "one who avoids company," 1946; see lone. Apparently first in U.S. baseball slang (earliest reference is to Ted Williams).
Ted is likable enough in spite of his obsession with his specialty. He is something of a "loner," and he refuses to pal around with his teammates in off hours, but in the clubhouse he does his share of the talking. ["Life" magazine, Sept. 23, 1946]
- lonesome (adj.)
- 1640s, from lone + -some (1). Related: Lonesomeness.
- long (adj.)
- "that extends considerably from end to end," Old English lang "long," from Proto-Germanic *langgaz (cognates: Old Frisian and Old Saxon lang, Old High German and German lang, Old Norse langr, Middle Dutch lanc, Dutch lang, Gothic laggs "long").
The Germanic words are perhaps from PIE *dlonghos- (cognates: Latin longus, Old Persian darga-, Persian dirang, Sanskrit dirghah, Greek dolikhos "long," Greek endelekhes "perpetual," Latin indulgere "to indulge"), from root *del- "long."
The adverb is from Old English lange, longe, from the adjective. No longer "not as formerly" is from c. 1300; to be not long for this world "soon to die" is from 1714.
The word illustrates the Old English tendency for short "a" to become short "o" before -n- (also retained in bond/band and West Midlands dialectal lond from land and hond from hand).
Long vowels (c. 1000) originally were pronounced for an extended time. Sporting long ball is from 1744, originally in cricket. Long jump as a sporting event is attested from 1864. A ship's long-boat so called from 1510s. Long knives, name Native Americans gave to white settlers (originally in Virginia/Kentucky) is from 1774.
Long in the tooth (1841 of persons) is from horses showing age by recession of gums. Long time no see, imitative of American Indian speech, is first recorded 1900. To be long on something, "have a lot" of it, is from 1900, American English slang.
- long (v.)
- Old English langian "to yearn after, grieve for," literally "to grow long, lengthen," from Proto-Germanic *langojanan (see long (adj.)). Cognate with Old Norse langa, Old Saxon langon, Middle Dutch langhen, Old High German langen "to long," German verlangen "to desire." Related: Longed; longing.
- long johns (n.)
- type of warm underwear, 1943, originally for U.S. GIs. By 1919 as a type of pastry. Long john also was used of various sorts of worm, potato, sled, etc.
- long pig (n.)
- "human being eaten as food," 1848, in a Pacific Islander context:
Bau literally stank for many days, human flesh having been cooked in every house, and the entrails thrown outside as food for pigs, or left to putrefy in the sun. The Somosomo people were fed with human flesh during their stay at Bau, they being on a visit at that time; and some of the Chiefs of other towns, when bringing their food, carried a cooked human being on one shoulder, and a pig on the other; but they always preferred the "long pig," as they call a man when baked. ["FEEJEE.--Extract of a Letter from the Rev. John Watsford, dated Ono, October 6th, 1846." in "Wesleyan Missionary Notices," Sept. 1847]
- long run (n.)
- also long-run, "ultimate outcome," 1620s, from long (adj.) + run (n.), on notion of "when events have run their course." As an adjective from 1804.
- long shot (n.)
- in the figurative sense of "something unlikely," 1867, from long (adj.) + shot (n.). The notion is of a shot at a target from a great distance, thus difficult to make. Cinematic sense is from 1922.
- long-ago (adj.)
- 1834, from long (adj.) + ago.
- long-distance (adj.)
- 1884, in reference to telephoning, from long (adj.) + distance (n.).
- long-headed (adj.)
- "discerning," c. 1700, from long (adj.) + head (n.).
- long-lived (adj.)
- early 15c., from long (adj.) + past participle of live (v.). Old English had langlife "long-lived."
- long-playing (adj.)
- 1910, of recordings, from long (adj.) + present participle of play (v.).
- long-running (adj.)
- 1943, of theatrical productions, from long (adj.) + running.
- also longsuffering, 1520s (n.), 1530s (adj.), from long (adj.) + suffering (see suffer). Old English had langmodig in this sense.
- long-term (adj.)
- also longterm, long term, 1876, originally in insurance, from long (adj.) + term (n.).
- long-winded (adj.)
- also longwinded, 1580s, "given to lengthy speeches," from long (adj.) + wind (n.) in the secondary Middle English sense "breath in speaking" (early 14c.).
- longanimity (n.)
- "patience," mid-15c., from Late Latin longanimitas "long-suffering, patient," from longanimus, from longus (see long (adj.)) + animus "soul, spirit, mind" (see animus).
- longbow (n.)
- also long-bow, the characteristic medieval English weapon, c. 1500, from long (adj.) + bow (n.1).
- longeron (n.)
- 1912, from French longeron, from longer "to skirt, extend along," from allonger "to lengthen" (see lunge).
- longevity (n.)
- 1610s, from Late Latin longaevitatem (nominative longaevitas) "great age, long life," from Latin longaevus "long-lived," from longus (see long (adj.)) + aevum "lifetime, age" (see eon).
- longhair (n.)
- also long-hair, "cat with long hair," 1893, from long (adj.) + hair. As "intellectual," especially in musical tastes, "devotee of classical music," 1920. Sense of "hippie" attested from 1969.
- longhand (adj.)
- also long-hand, of handwriting, 1660s,
from long (adj.) + hand (n.).
- longhorn (adj.)
- also long-horn, in reference to a type of cattle, 1808, from long (adj.) + horn (n.).
- word-forming element meaning "long," from Latin longi-, comb. form of longus (see long (adj.)).
- longing (n.)
- "yearning, desire," Old English langung "longing, weariness, sadness, dejection," from long (v.). Related: Longingly.
- longinquity (n.)
- "remoteness," 1540s, from Latin longinquitas "length, extent, duration," from longinquus "long, extensive, remote, distant," from longus (see long (adj.)) -inquus.
- longish (adj.)
- 1610s, from long (adj.) + -ish.
- longitude (n.)
- late 14c., "length," from Latin longitudo "length, duration," from longus (see long (adj.)). For origins, see latitude.
- longitudinal (adj.)
- 1706, from Latin longitudo (see longitude) + -al (1).
- longship (n.)
- Old English langscip "man of war;" see long (adj.) + ship (n.).
- longshoreman (n.)
- 1811, shortening of alongshore + man (n.).
- also long-standing, c. 1600 (n.), 1814 (adj.), from long (adj.) + standing.
- longtime (adj.)
- also long-time, 1580s, from long (adj.) + time (n.).
- longways (adv.)
- 1580s, from long (adj.) + way (n.) + adverbial genitive -s.
- loo (n.1)
- "lavatory," 1940, but perhaps 1922, probably from French lieux d'aisances, "lavatory," literally "place of ease," picked up by British servicemen in France during World War I. Or possibly a pun on Waterloo, based on water closet.
- loo (n.2)
- type of card game, 1670s, short for lanterloo (1660s), from French lanturelu, originally (1620s) the refrain of a popular comic song; according to French sources the refrain expresses a mocking refusal or an evasive answer and was formed on the older word for a type of song chorus, turelure; apparently a jingling reduplication of loure "bagpipe" (perhaps from Latin lura "bag, purse").
From its primary signification -- a kind of bagpipe inflated from the mouth -- the word 'loure' came to mean an old dance, in slower rhythm than the gigue, generally in 6-4 time. As this was danced to the nasal tones of the 'loure,' the term 'loure' was gradually applied to any passage meant to be played in the style of the old bagpipe airs. ["Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians," London, 1906]
The refrain sometimes is met in English as turra-lurra.
- looey (n.)
- 1916, American English, colloquial familiar form of lieutenant.
- loof (n.)
- "palm of the hand," Scottish and Northern English, c. 1300, from Old Norse lofe, cognate with Gothic lofa, Russian lapa "paw," Lettish lepa "paw."
- loofah (n.)
- 1879, from Egyptian Arabic lufah, the name of the plant (Luffa ægyptiaca) with fibrous pods from which flesh-brushes are made.
- loogie (n.)
- "nasal mucus," U.S. slang, by 1990.
- look (v.)
- Old English locian "use the eyes for seeing, gaze, look, behold, spy," from West Germanic *lokjan (cognates: Old Saxon lokon "see, look, spy," Middle Dutch loeken "to look," Old High German luogen, German dialectal lugen "to look out"), of unknown origin, perhaps cognate with Breton lagud "eye." In Old English, usually with on; the use of at began 14c. Meaning "seek, search out" is c. 1300; meaning "to have a certain appearance" is from c. 1400. Of objects, "to face in a certain direction," late 14c.
Look after "take care of" is from late 14c., earlier "to seek" (c. 1300), "to look toward" (c. 1200). Look into "investigate" is from 1580s; look up "research in books or papers" is from 1690s. To look down upon in the figurative sense is from 1711; to look down one's nose is from 1921. To look forward "anticipate" is c. 1600; meaning "anticipate with pleasure" is mid-19c. To not look back "make no pauses" is colloquial, first attested 1893. In look sharp (1711) sharp originally was an adverb, "sharply."
- look (n.)
- c. 1200, "act or action of looking," from look (v.). Meaning "appearance of a person" is from late 14c. Expression if looks could kill ... attested by 1827 (if looks could bite is attested from 1747).