joviality (n.) Look up joviality at
1620s, from French jovialite, from jovial (see jovial).
Jovian (adj.) Look up Jovian at
1520s, "of Jove," from Latin Jovis (see Jove) + -ian. Meaning "of the planet Jupiter" is recorded from 1794. Latin Jovianus was a masculine proper name.
jowl (n.1) Look up jowl at
"jaw," 1570s, alteration of Middle English chawl (late 14c.), chavel (early 14c.), from Old English ceafl, from Proto-Germanic *kefalaz (cognates: Middle High German kiver, German kiefer, Old Norse kjoptr "jaw," Danish kæft, Flemish kavel, Dutch kevel "gum"), from PIE *gep(h)- "jaw, mouth" (cognates: Old Irish gop, Irish gob "beak, mouth"). The change from ch- to j- has not been explained.
jowl (n.2) Look up jowl at
"fold of flesh under the jaw," 1590s, alteration of Middle English cholle "fold of flesh hanging from the jaw" (c. 1300), perhaps from Old English ceole "throat," from PIE root *gwele- (3) "to swallow" (see glut (v.)). This word and jowl (n.1) influenced one another in form and sense.
joy (n.) Look up joy at
c. 1200, "feeling of pleasure and delight;" c. 1300, "source of pleasure or happiness," from Old French joie (11c.), from Latin gaudia, plural of gaudium "joy," from gaudere "rejoice," from PIE root *gau- "to rejoice" (cognates: Greek gaio "I rejoice," Middle Irish guaire "noble"). Joy-riding is American English, 1908.
Joyce Look up Joyce at
proper name, earlier Josse, Goce, etc., and originally used of both men and women. Of Celtic origin. Joycean, in reference to the fiction of Irish writer James Joyce (1882-1941) is attested from 1927.
joyful (adj.) Look up joyful at
mid-13c., from joy + -ful. Related: Joyfully; joyfulness.
joyless (adj.) Look up joyless at
mid-14c., from joy + -less. Related: Joylessly; joylessness.
joyous (adj.) Look up joyous at
c. 1300, from Anglo-French joyous, Old French joios "happy, cheerful, merry, glad" (12c., Modern French joyeux), from joie (see joy). Related: Joyously; joyousness.
joystick (n.) Look up joystick at
also joy stick, 1910, aviators' slang for the control lever of an airplane, from joy + stick (n.).
Juan Look up Juan at
masc. proper name, Spanish form of John.
jubate (adj.) Look up jubate at
"having a mane," 1826, from Latin jubatus "maned," from juba "mane."
jubilance (n.) Look up jubilance at
1860; see jubilant + -ance.
jubilant (adj.) Look up jubilant at
1660s, from Latin jubilantem (nominative jubilans), present participle of jubilare "to call to someone," in Christian writers, "to shout for joy," related to jubilum "wild shout." First attested in Milton. Related: Jubilantly.
jubilate (v.) Look up jubilate at
"make a joyful noise," 1640s, from Latin jubilatus, past participle of jubilare (see jubilant). Related: Jubilated; jubilating.
jubilation (n.) Look up jubilation at
late 14c., from Old French jubilacion "jubilation, rejoicing," and directly from Latin jubilationem (nominative jubilatio), noun of action from past participle stem of jubilare (see jubilant).
jubilee (n.) Look up jubilee at
late 14c., in the Old Testament sense, from Old French jubileu "jubille; anniversary; rejoicing," from Late Latin jubilaeus "the jubilee year," originally an adjective, "of the jubilee," altered (by association with Latin jubilare "to shout with joy") from Greek iabelaios, from iobelos, from Hebrew yobhel "jubilee," formerly "a trumpet, ram's horn," literally "ram."

The original notion was of a year of emancipation of slaves and restoration of lands, to be celebrated every 50th year (Levit. xxv:9); it was proclaimed by the sounding of a ram's horn on the Day of Atonement. The Catholic Church sense of "a period for remission of sin penalties in exchange for pilgrimages, alms, etc." was begun in 1300 by Boniface VIII. The general sense of "season of rejoicing" is first recorded mid-15c., though through early 20c. the word kept its specific association with 50th anniversaries. As a type of African-American folk song, it is attested from 1872.
Judah Look up Judah at
masc. proper name, biblical son of Jacob by Leah, also the name of a tribe of Israel, from Hebrew Yehudah, from stem of y-d-h, literally "praised."
Judaic (adj.) Look up Judaic at
1610s, from Middle French judaïque (15c.), and directly from Latin Iudaicus, from Greek Ioudaikos, from Ioudaios "Jew" (see Jew). Earlier in same sense was Judaical (late 15c.).
Judaism (n.) Look up Judaism at
c. 1400 (attested in Anglo-Latin from mid-13c.), from Old French Judaisme and directly from Late Latin Judaismus (Tertullian), from Greek Ioudaismos, from Ioudaios "Jew" (see Jew). The Anglo-Latin reference is from a special tax levied on the Jews of England. Earlier in same sense was Juhede "Jewish faith, Judaism," literally "Jew-hood" (early 14c.).
Judas Look up Judas at
biblical betrayer of Christ, Latin form of Greek Ioudas, from Hebrew Yehudha (see Judah). As a name for a malicious traitor, it is attested from late 15c. Judas priest as an exclamation in place of "Jesus Christ" is from 1914. Judas tree (1660s) supposedly was the type from which Judas hanged himself. The Judas goat (1941) leads sheep to the shackling pen.
Jude Look up Jude at
masc. proper name, Hellenized form of Judah (q.v.), maintained in the Bible for the names of two disciples of Christ, to distinguish them from Judas (q.v.).
Judea Look up Judea at
from Latin Judaea, from Judah (see Judah).
judge (v.) Look up judge at
c. 1300, "to form an opinion about; make a decision," also "to try and pronounce sentence upon (someone) in a court," from Anglo-French juger, Old French jugier "to judge, pronounce judgment; pass an opinion on," from Latin iudicare "to judge, to examine officially; form an opinion upon; pronounce judgment," from iudicem (nominative iudex) "a judge," a compound of ius "right, law" (see just (adj.)) + root of dicere "to say" (see diction). Related: Judged; judging. From mid-14c. as "to regard, consider." The Old English word was deman (see doom). Spelling with -dg- emerged mid-15c.
judge (n.) Look up judge at
mid-14c. (early 13c. as a surname), also judge-man; see judge (v.). In Hebrew history, it refers to a war leader vested with temporary power (as in Book of Judges), from Latin iudex being used to translate Hebrew shophet.
judgement (n.) Look up judgement at
see judgment. Related: Judgemental.
judgeship (n.) Look up judgeship at
1670s, from judge (n.) + -ship.
judgment (n.) Look up judgment at
mid-13c., "action of trying at law, trial," also "capacity for making decisions," from Old French jugement "legal judgment; diagnosis; the Last Judgment" (11c.), from jugier (see judge (v.)). From late 13c. as "penalty imposed by a court;" early 14c. as "any authoritative decision, verdict." From c. 1300 in referfence to the Last Judgment. Also from c. 1300 as "opinion." Sense of "discernment" is first recorded 1530s.
judgmental (adj.) Look up judgmental at
1892, from judgment + -al (1). Meaning "inclined to make moral judgments" is attested from 1952. Related: Judgmentally.
judicable (adj.) Look up judicable at
1640s, from Late Latin iudicabilis, from iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem (see judge (v.)).
judication (n.) Look up judication at
1620s, from Latin iudicationem (nominative iudicatio), noun of action from past participle stem of iudicare "to judge," related to iudicem (see judge (v.)).
judicative (adj.) Look up judicative at
1640s, from Latin iudicat-, past participle stem of iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem (see judge (v.)) + -ive.
judicatory (n.) Look up judicatory at
1570s, from French judicatoire, from Late Latin iudicatorius "judicial, pertaining to judgment," from iudicat-, past participle stem of Latin iudicare "to judge" (see judge (v.)).
judicature (n.) Look up judicature at
1520s, from Medieval Latin iudicatura, from iudicat-, past participle stem of Latin iudicare "to judge" (see judge (v.)).
judicial (adj.) Look up judicial at
late 14c., from Latin iudicalis "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, decision," from iudicem (see judge (v.)). Related: Judicially.
judiciary (adj.) Look up judiciary at
"relating to courts," early 15c., from Latin iudiciarius "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment," from iudicem (see judge (v.)). The noun meaning "a body of judges, judges collectively" is from 1802 (judicature was used in this sense from 1590s).
judicious (adj.) Look up judicious at
1590s, "having sound judgment," from Middle French judicieux (16c.), from Latin iudicium "judgment," from iudicem (see judge (v.)). Meaning "careful, prudent" is from c. 1600. Related: Judiciously; judiciousness.
Judith Look up Judith at
fem. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Ioudith, from Hebrew Yehudith, fem. of Yehudh "Jewish, Jewess," from Yehudha (see Judah). Judy is a pet form of it.
judo (n.) Look up judo at
1889, from Japanese judo, from ju "softness, gentleness" (from Chinese jou "soft, gentle") + do "way, art," from Chinese tao "way." "A refined form of ju-jitsu introduced in 1882 by Dr. Jigoro Kano, using principles of movement and balance, and practiced as a sport or form of physical exercise" [OED].
Judy Look up Judy at
pet form of Judith. Figurative uses often are from the Punch and Judy puppet show.
jug (n.) Look up jug at
"deep vessel for carrying liquids," late 15c., jugge, variant of jubbe, of unknown origin, perhaps from jug "a low woman, a maidservant" (mid-16c.), a familiar alteration of a common personal name, Joan or Judith. Use as a musical instrument is attested from 1946. Jughead "klutz" is from 1926; jughandle "tight curved road used for turns" is from 1961. Jugs for "woman's breasts" first recorded 1920 in Australian slang, short for milk jugs.
jug band (n.) Look up jug band at
musical ensemble in which the bass line is carried or augmented by a player blowing on the open lip of a jug (n.), 1886, American English.
Jugendstil (n.) Look up Jugendstil at
German equivalent of art nouveau, from "Jugend," literally "youth," name of a German magazine begun in 1896 + stil "style."
juggernaut (n.) Look up juggernaut at
1630s, "huge wagon bearing an image of the god Krishna," especially that at the town of Puri, drawn annually in procession in which (apocryphally) devotees allowed themselves to be crushed under its wheels in sacrifice. Altered from Jaggernaut, a title of Krishna (an incarnation of Vishnu), from Hindi Jagannath, literally "lord of the world," from Sanskrit jagat "world" (literally "moving," present participle of *jagati "he goes," from PIE *gwa- "to go, come" (see come (v.)) + natha-s "lord, master," from nathate "he helps, protects," from PIE *na- "to help." The first European description of the festival is by Friar Odoric (c. 1321). Figurative sense of "anything that demands blind devotion or merciless sacrifice" is from 1854.
juggle (v.) Look up juggle at
late 14c., "entertain by clowning or doing tricks," back-formation from juggler and in part from Old French jogler "play tricks, sing songs," from Late Latin ioculare (source of Italian giocolare), from Latin ioculari "to jest" (see jocular). Related: Juggled; juggling.
juggler (n.) Look up juggler at
c. 1100, iugulere "jester, buffoon," also "wizard, sorcerer," from Old English geogelere "magician, conjurer," also from Anglo-French jogelour, Old French jogleor (accusative), from Latin ioculatorem (nominative ioculator) "joker," from ioculari "to joke, to jest" (see jocular). Connecting notion between "magician" and "juggler" is dexterity.
Jugoslavia Look up Jugoslavia at
see Yugoslavia. Related: Jugoslav; Jugoslavian.
jugular (adj.) Look up jugular at
1590s, "pertaining to the throat or neck" (especially in reference to the great veins of the neck), from Modern Latin jugularis, from Latin iugulum "collarbone, throat, neck," diminutive of iugum "yoke," related to iungere "to join," from PIE *yeug- "to join" (cognates: Sanskrit yugam "yoke," yunjati "binds, harnesses," yogah "union;" Hittite yugan "yoke;" Greek zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite;" Old Church Slavonic igo, Old Welsh iou "yoke;" Lithuanian jungas "yoke," jungiu "fastened in a yoke;" Old English geoc "yoke;" probably also Latin iuxta "close by"). As a noun, 1610s, from the adjective.
juice (n.) Look up juice at
c. 1300, "liquid extract obtained by boiling herbs," from Old French jus "juice, sap, liquid" (13c.), from Latin ius "broth, sauce, juice," from PIE root *yeue- "to blend, mix food" (cognates: Sanskrit yus- "broth," Greek zyme "a leaven," Old Church Slavonic jucha "broth, soup," Lithuanian juse "fish soup"). Meaning "liquor" is from 1828; that of "electricity" is first recorded 1896.
juice (v.) Look up juice at
1630s, "to suffuse with juice," from juice (n.). Meaning "to enliven" attested by 1964; juiced "drunk" attested by 1946; in reference to steroids, by 2003. Related: Juiced; juicing.