junk (n.2) Look up junk at Dictionary.com
"large, seagoing Chinese sailing ship," 1610s, from Portuguese junco, from Malay jong "ship, large boat" (13c.), probably from Javanese djong. In English 16c. as giunche, iunco.
junk (v.) Look up junk at Dictionary.com
1803, "to cut off in lumps," from junk (n.1). The meaning "to throw away as trash, to scrap" is from 1908. Related: Junked; junking.
New settlers (who should always be here as early in the spring as possible) begin to cut down the wood where they intend to erect their first house. As the trees are cut the branches are to be lopped off, and the trunks cut into lengths of 12 or 14 feet. This operation they call junking them; if they are not junked before fire is applied, they are much worse to junk afterwards. [letter dated Charlotte Town, Nov. 29, 1820, in "A Series of Letters Descriptive of Prince Edward Island," 1822]
junk-shop (n.) Look up junk-shop at Dictionary.com
1800, "marine shop," from junk (n.1) in the sense "discarded articles from ships." By 1951 in the non-marine sense "junk-dealer."
junker (n.) Look up junker at Dictionary.com
"young German noble," 1550s, from German Junker, from Old High German juncherro, literally "young lord," from junc "young" (see young (adj.)) + herro "lord" (see Herr). Pejorative sense of "reactionary younger member of the Prussian aristocracy" (1865) is from Bismarck's domestic policy. Related: Junkerism. Meaning "drug addict" is from 1922; that of "old worn-out automobile" is from 1969, both from junk (n.1).
junket (n.) Look up junket at Dictionary.com
late 14c., jonket, "basket in which fish are caught or carried," from Medieval Latin iuncata "rush basket," perhaps from Latin iuncus "rush" (see jonquil). The English word shifted meaning by 1520s to "feast, banquet," probably via the notion of a picnic basket; this led to extended sense of "pleasure trip" (1814), and then to "tour by government official at public expense for no discernible public benefit" (by 1886, American English).

Compare Italian cognate giuncata "cream cheese-like dish" (so called because originally made or served on a bed of rushes); Middle English jonket also had this sense, which survived longer in dialects. Johnson (1755) also records a verb junket "to feast secretly; to make entertainments by stealth."
junkie (n.) Look up junkie at Dictionary.com
"drug addict," 1923, from junk (n.1) in the narcotics sense + -y (3). Junker in the same sense is recorded from 1922. Junk for "narcotic" is older.
junkman (n.) Look up junkman at Dictionary.com
"dealer in junk," 1872, from junk (n.1) + man (n.).
junky (adj.) Look up junky at Dictionary.com
"run-down, seedy, trashy," 1876, from junk (n.1) + -y (2).
Juno Look up Juno at Dictionary.com
Roman goddess of adult women and marriage, sister and wife of Jupiter, mid-14c., probably literally "the young one" (if so, perhaps as goddess of the new moon), from Proto-Italic *juwen- "young," which also is the source of Latin iunior "younger," iuvenis "young man" (see young (adj.)). Noted for her stately beauty and fits of jealous rage. Also the patron of national finances. Usually identified with Greek Hera, but Juno also had qualities of Athena.
Junoesque (adj.) Look up Junoesque at Dictionary.com
"of stately, mature beauty," 1861, from Juno + -esque. Those qualities were attributed to the Roman goddess. Junonian is from 1717.
junta (n.) Look up junta at Dictionary.com
1620s, "Spanish legislative council," from Spanish and Portuguese junta "council, meeting, convention," from Medieval Latin iuncta "joint," from Latin iuncta, fem. past participle of iungere "to join together," from nasalized form of PIE root *yeug- "to join."

Meaning "political or military group in power" first recorded 1640s as junto (from confusion with Spanish nouns ending in -o), originally with reference to the Cabinet Council of Charles I. Modern spelling in this sense is from 1714; popularized 1808 in connection with private councils formed secretly across Spain to resist Napoleon. In English history, a group of leading Whigs in the reigns of William III and Queen Anne.
junto (n.) Look up junto at Dictionary.com
1640s, alternative formation of junta at a time when English considered Spanish nouns to properly end in -o. In U.S. history the Essex Junto (1802) were a group of extreme Massachusetts Federalists, adherents of Hamilton during the John Adams presidency and later bitter opponents of the policies of Jefferson and Madison.
jupe (n.) Look up jupe at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "men's loose jacket," from Old French jupe "tunic worn under the armor," also a gown or woman's skirt (12c.), from Arabic jubbah "loose outer garment." As a woman's bodice, from 1810. Jupon is from a French variant form.
Jupiter (n.) Look up Jupiter at Dictionary.com
also Juppiter, c. 1200, "supreme deity of the ancient Romans," from Latin Iupeter, Iupiter, Iuppiter, "Jove, god of the sky and chief of the gods," from PIE *dyeu-peter- "god-father" (originally vocative, "the name naturally occurring most frequently in invocations" [Tucker]), from *deiw-os "god" (from root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god") + peter "father" in the sense of "male head of a household" (see father (n.)).
The Latin forms Diespiter, Dispiter ... together with the word dies 'day' point to the generalization of a stem *dije-, whereas Iupiter, Iovis reflect [Proto-Italic] *djow~. These can be derived from a single PIE paradigm for '(god of the) sky, day-light', which phonetically split in two in [Proto-Italic] and yielded two new stems with semantic specialization. [de Vaan]
Compare Greek Zeu pater, vocative of Zeus pater "Father Zeus;" Sanskrit Dyaus pitar "heavenly father." As the name of the brightest of the superior planets from late 13c. in English, from Latin (Iovis stella). The Latin word also meant "heaven, sky, air," hence sub Iove "in the open air." As god of the sky he was considered to be the originator of weather, hence Jupiter Pluvius "Jupiter as dispenser of rain" !704), used jocularly from mid-19c.
jural (adj.) Look up jural at Dictionary.com
"legal, juristic," 1630s, from Latin iur- (see jury (n.)) + -al (1).
Jurassic (adj.) Look up Jurassic at Dictionary.com
"of or pertaining to the geological period between the Triassic and the Cretaceous," 1823, from French Jurassique, literally "of the Jura Mountains," between France and Switzerland, whose limestones were laid down during this geological period. The name was chosen by von Humboldt. As a noun from 1831. The name is said to be from Gaulish *iuris "wooded mountain."
jurat (n.) Look up jurat at Dictionary.com
also jurate, "one who has taken an oath," early 15c. (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin iuratus "sworn man," noun use of past participle of Latin iurare "to swear" (see jury (n.)). Meaning "official memorandum at the end of an affidavit" (showing when and before whom it was sworn) is from 1796, from Latin iuratum, noun use of the neuter past participle.
jure divino Look up jure divino at Dictionary.com
"by divine right," Latin phrase, from ablative of jus "law, right, justice" (see jurist) + ablative of divinus (see divine (adj.)).
juridical (adj.) Look up juridical at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to law," c. 1500, from Latin iuridicalis "relating to right; pertaining to justice," from iuridicus, from ius (genitive iuris) "right, law" (see jurist) + dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). Related: Juridically.
juried (adj.) Look up juried at Dictionary.com
"judged by a jury," in reference to art shows, etc., 1963, from jury (n.).
jurisconsult (n.) Look up jurisconsult at Dictionary.com
"one who gives his opinion in cases of law," c. 1600, from Latin iurisconsultus, originally two words, genitive of ius "law" (see jurist) + present participle of consultare "consult, take the advice of" (see consultation).
jurisdiction (n.) Look up jurisdiction at Dictionary.com
early 14c., jurisdiccioun, jurediction, etc., "administration of justice," from Old French juridicion (13c., Modern French juridiction) and directly from Latin iurisdictionem (nominative iurisdictio) "administration of justice, jurisdiction," from phrase iuris dictio, genitive of ius "law, right" (see jurist) + dictio "a saying" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

Meaning "extent or range of administrative power, domain over which a legal or judicial authority extends" is from late 14c. Meaning "judicial authority, right of making and enforcing laws" is from early 15c. The form in English assimilated to Latin 16c. Related: Jurisdictional.
jurisprudence (n.) Look up jurisprudence at Dictionary.com
1620s, "systematic knowledge of law," from French jurisprudence (17c.) and directly from Late Latin iurisprudentia "the science of law," from iuris "of right, of law" (genitive of ius; see jurist) + prudentia "knowledge, a foreseeing" (see prudence). Meaning "the philosophy of law" is first attested 1756. Related: Jurisprudent; jurisprudential.
jurist (n.) Look up jurist at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "one who practices law;" 1620s, "a legal writer, one who professes the science of the law," from Middle French juriste (14c.), from Medieval Latin iurista "jurist," from Latin ius (genitive iuris) "a right," especially "legal right or authority, law," also "place where justice is administered, court of justice," from Old Latin ious, perhaps literally "sacred formula," a word peculiar to Latin (not general Italic) that originated in the religious cults, from PIE root *yewes- "law" (compare Latin iurare "to pronounce a ritual formula," Vedic yos "health," Avestan yaoz-da- "make ritually pure," Irish huisse "just"). Related: Juristic. The more mundane Latin law-word lex meant specific laws as opposed to the body of laws.

The Germanic root represented by Old English æ "custom, law," Old High German ewa, German Ehe "marriage," sometimes is associated with this group, or it is traced to PIE *ei- "to go."
juror (n.) Look up juror at Dictionary.com
"one who serves on a jury," c. 1300 (late 12c. in Anglo-Latin), from Anglo-French jurour (late 13c.), Old French jureor "character witness, person who swears an oath," from Latin iuratorem (nominative iurator) "swearer, sworn census-clerk," agent noun from iurare "to swear," from ius (genitive iuris) "law" (see jurist). Meaning "one of a group selected to award prizes, etc. at a public exhibition" is from 1851; this particular use seems to have arisen with the great Industrial Exhibition held that year at the Crystal Palace in London.
jury (n.) Look up jury at Dictionary.com
"set number of persons, selected according to law and sworn to determine the facts and truth of a case or charge submitted to them and render a verdict," early 14c. (late 12c. in Anglo-Latin), from Anglo-French and Old French juree (13c.), from Medieval Latin iurata "an oath, a judicial inquest, sworn body of men," noun use of fem. past participle of Latin iurare "to swear," from ius (genitive iuris) "law, an oath" (see jurist).

Meaning "body of persons chosen to award prizes at an exhibition" is from 1851. Grand jury attested from early 15c. in Anglo-French (le graund Jurre), literally "large," so called with reference to the number of its members (usually 12 to 23). Jury-box is from 1729; juryman from 1570s. Figurative phrase jury is still out "no decision has been made" is from 1957.
jury (adj.) Look up jury at Dictionary.com
"temporary," 1610s (in jury-mast, a nautical term for a temporary mast put in place of one broken or blown away), a sailors' word of uncertain origin. Perhaps it is ultimately from Old French ajurie "help, relief," from Latin adjutare (see aid (n.)). Jury-leg for "wooden leg" is from 1751; Denham once used jury-buttocks.
jus Look up jus at Dictionary.com
a word that has entered English in expressions from Latin, where it means "law, right" (see jurist) and French, where it means "juice" (see juice (n.)).
jussive (adj.) Look up jussive at Dictionary.com
"of a grammatical mode expressing command," 1825, with -ive + Latin iuss-, past participle stem of iubere "to bid, command, to order," from PIE root *yeudh- "to cause to move" (cognates: Sanskrit yudhya- "to fight," yodha- "to rebel;" Greek hysmine "battle, fight;" Lithuanian judeti "to move" (intransitive), judus "belligerent"). The sense evolution in Latin was from "cause to move" to "order." As a noun from 1836.
just (adj.) Look up just at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "morally upright, righteous in the eyes of God; justifiable; equitable, impartial, fair; conforming to rules," also "marked or characterized by precision; exact, having correct dimensions," from Old French juste "just, righteous; sincere" (12c.), from Latin iustus "upright, righteous, equitable; in accordance with law, lawful; true, proper; perfect, complete," from ius "a right," especially "legal right, law" (see jurist). The more mundane Latin law-word lex covered specific laws as opposed to the body of laws. The noun meaning "righteous person or persons" is from late 14c.
just (adv.) Look up just at Dictionary.com
"merely, barely," 1660s, from Middle English sense of "exactly, precisely, punctually" (c. 1400), from just (adj.), and paralleling the adverbial use of French juste. Just now "a short time ago" is from 1680s. For sense decay, compare anon, soon. Just-so story first attested 1902 in Kipling, from the expression just so "exactly that, in that very way" (1751).
justice (n.) Look up justice at Dictionary.com
mid-12c., "the exercise of authority in vindication of right by assigning reward or punishment;" also "quality of being fair and just; moral soundness and conformity to truth," from Old French justice "justice, legal rights, jurisdiction" (11c.), from Latin iustitia "righteousness, equity," from iustus "upright, just" (see just (adj.)).
Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit. ["The Federalist," No. 51]
Meaning "right order, equity, the rewarding to everyone of that which is his due" in English is from late 14c. The Old French word had widespread senses including also "uprightness, equity, vindication of right, court of justice, judge." In English c. 1400-1700 sometimes also with a vindictive sense "infliction of punishment, legal vengeance." As a title for a judicial officer, c. 1200. Justice of the peace first attested early 14c. To do justice to (someone or something) "deal with as is right or fitting" is from 1670s. In the Mercian hymns, Latin iustitia is glossed by Old English rehtwisnisse.
justiciable (adj.) Look up justiciable at Dictionary.com
"amenable to law, subject to judicial trial," mid-15c., from Anglo-French and Old French justiciable "pertaining to justice or law," hence "proper to be brought before a court of justice," from justicier, from Latin iustitia "righteousness; equity" (see justice).
justiciary (n.) Look up justiciary at Dictionary.com
"administrator of justice," 1540s; later as an adjective, "pertaining to the law" (1580s), from Medieval Latin justiciarius, from Latin iustitia (see justice (n.)).
justifiability (n.) Look up justifiability at Dictionary.com
1835, from justifiable + -ity. Justifiableness is from 1630s.
justifiable (adj.) Look up justifiable at Dictionary.com
"capable of being proved just or true, morally defensible," 1520s, from Old French justifiable, from justifiier (see justify). Earlier in same sense was justificable (mid-15c.). Related: Justifiably (mid-15c.).
justification (n.) Look up justification at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "administration of justice," from Late Latin iustificationem (nominative iustificatio), noun of action from past participle stem of iustificare "act justly toward; make just" (see justify). Meaning "action of justifying, showing something to be just or right" is from late 15c. Theological sense "act by which the soul is reconciled to God" is from 1520s. Meaning "act of adjusting or making exact" in typography is from 1670s.
justificative (adj.) Look up justificative at Dictionary.com
"having the power to justify," 1610s; see justification + -ative. Related: Justificator; justificatory.
justified (adj.) Look up justified at Dictionary.com
1580s, "made right," past participle adjective from justify. Typesetting sense is from 1670s.
justify (v.) Look up justify at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "to administer justice;" late 14c., "to show (something) to be just or right," from Old French justifiier "submit to court proceedings" (12c.), from Late Latin iustificare "act justly toward; make just," from Latin iustificus "dealing justly, righteous," from iustus "just" (see just (adj.)) + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").

Meaning "declare to be innocent or blameless" is from 1520s. Of circumstances, "to afford justification," from 1630s. Meaning "to make exact" (now largely restricted to typesetting) is from 1550s. Related: Justified; justifier; justifying.
Justin Look up Justin at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Latin Iustinus, literally "just," from iustus (see just (adj.)) + common name-forming element -inus (see -ine (1)). The Justinian Code was a compilation made by Justinian, emperor of the East, in 529.
Justine Look up Justine at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, fem. of Latin Iustinus (see Justin).
justly (adv.) Look up justly at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "in an adjacent position, closely" (obsolete except in dialect), from just (adj.) + -ly (2). Meanings "truthfully, honestly" and "equitably, with justice, fairly" are from late 14c. Sense of "justifiably, with good reason, accurately" is from c. 1400; that of "legally, legitimately, rightfully" is early 15c.
justness (n.) Look up justness at Dictionary.com
"quality or fact of being equitable or by right," early 15c., from just (adj.) + -ness.
jut (v.2) Look up jut at Dictionary.com
"to strike, hit, shove, push," 1540s, echoic. Related: Jutted; jutting.
jut (v.1) Look up jut at Dictionary.com
"to protrude, extend forward beyond the main body," mid-15c., corruption of obsolete verb jet, from Old French jeter "to throw," from Latin iacere "to lie, rest," related to iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). Related: Jutted; jutting. As a noun, "a jutting out, a projecting point" from 1786.
jute (n.) Look up jute at Dictionary.com
name of a plant fiber used in making coarse fabrics and paper, and the plant which produces it, 1746, from Bengali jhuto, ultimately from Sanskrit juta-s "twisted hair, matted hair," related to jata "braid of hair," a word of unknown origin, perhaps from a non-Indo-European language.
Jute Look up Jute at Dictionary.com
Old English Eotas, Iutas (plural), one of the ancient Germanic inhabitants of Jutland, the peninsula between modern Germany and Denmark, who, with the Angles and Saxons invaded Britain in 5c.. Traditionally they were said to have settled in Kent and Hampshire. The name is related to Old Norse Iotar. Related: Jutish (1775).
juvenal (n.) Look up juvenal at Dictionary.com
1580s, "a younth, a young man, a juvenile," from noun use of Latin iuvenalis "youthful, suitable for young persons," from iuvenis "young man" (see young (adj.)). The Roman satirist is Decimius Junius Juvenalis. As an adjective from 1630s.
juvenescence (n.) Look up juvenescence at Dictionary.com
"the state of growing or being young," 1766; see juvenescent + -ence.