ilia Look up ilia at
Latin plural of ilium (see ileum).
iliac (adj.) Look up iliac at
1510s, "pertaining to colic," from Middle French iliaque (16c.) or directly from Late Latin iliacus, from ileus "severe colic" (see ileus).
Iliad Look up Iliad at
from Latin Ilias (genitive Iliadis), from Greek Ilias poiesis "poem of Ilion" (Troy), literally "city of Ilius," the mythical founder. With -ad.
ilium (n.) Look up ilium at
pelvic bone, 1706, Modern Latin, from Latin ilia (plural) "groin, flank, side of the body from the hips to the groin" (see ileum). In Middle English it meant "lower part of the small intestine." Vesalius gave the name os ilium to the "bone of the flank."
Ilium Look up Ilium at
"Troy;" see Iliad.
ilk (adj.) Look up ilk at
Old English ilca "the same" (pron.), from Proto-Germanic *ij-lik (compare German eilen), in which the first element is from the PIE demonstrative particle *i- (see yon) and the second is that in Old English -lic "form" (see like (adj.)). Of similar formation are each, which and such, but this word disappeared except in Scottish and thus did not undergo the usual southern sound changes. Phrase of that ilk implies coincidence of name and estate, as in Lundie of Lundie; it was applied usually to families, so that by c. 1790 ilk began to be used with the meaning "family," then broadening to "type, sort."
ill (adj.) Look up ill at
c. 1200, "morally evil; offensive, objectionable" (other 13c. senses were "malevolent, hurtful, unfortunate, difficult"), from Old Norse illr "evil, bad; hard, difficult; mean, stingy," a word of unknown origin. Not considered to be related to evil. From mid-14c. as "marked by evil intentions; harmful, pernicious." Sense of "sick, unhealthy, diseased, unwell" is first recorded mid-15c., probably from a use similar to that in the Old Norse idiom "it is bad to me." Slang inverted sense of "very good, cool" is 1980s. As a noun, "something evil," from mid-13c.
ill (v.) Look up ill at
early 13c., "do evil to," from ill (adj.). Meaning "speak disparagingly" is from 1520s. Related: Illed; illing.
ill (adv.) Look up ill at
c. 1200, "wickedly; with hostility," from ill (adj.). Meaning "not well, poorly" is from c. 1300. It generally has not shifted to the realm of physical sickess, as the adjective has done. Ill-fated recorded from 1710; ill-informed from 1824; ill-tempered from c. 1600; ill-starred from c. 1600. Generally contrasted with well, hence the useful, but now obsolete or obscure illcome (1570s), illfare (c. 1300), and illth.
ill-advised (adj.) Look up ill-advised at
1590s, from ill (adv.) + advise (v.). Related: Ill-advisedly.
ill-bred (adj.) Look up ill-bred at
1620s, from ill (adv.) + bred (adj.).
ill-fated (adj.) Look up ill-fated at
1710 (Pope), from ill (adv.) + fated.
ill-favored (adj.) Look up ill-favored at
of persons, "ugly," 1520s, from ill (adv.) + favored (q.v.).
ill-gotten (adj.) Look up ill-gotten at
1550s, from ill (adv.) + gotten.
ill-mannered (adj.) Look up ill-mannered at
early 15c., from ill (adv.) + mannered.
ill-timed (adj.) Look up ill-timed at
1690s, from ill (adv.) + time (v.).
illative (adj.) Look up illative at
1610s, "stating or introducing an inference" (of words such as because, then, therefore); 1630s, "inferential, arising from inference," from Late Latin illativus, from Latin illatus "brought in," used as past participle of inferre "to bring in, introduce" (see infer). Grammatical sense "case expressing motion into" is from 1890. As a noun from 1590s, "illative word." Related: Illation "action of inferring" (1530s).
illegal (adj.) Look up illegal at
1630s, from French illégal (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin illegalis, from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin legalis (see legal). Term illegal immigrant first recorded 1892 in American English (illegal immigration is from 1887); used in British English in 1940s in reference to the Jewish movement to Palestine.
illegality (n.) Look up illegality at
quality of being illegal," 1630s, from illegal (adj.) + -ity; or else from French illegalité (14c.).
illegally (adv.) Look up illegally at
1620s, from illegal (adj.) + -ly (2).
illegible (adj.) Look up illegible at
1630s, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not, opposite of" + legible. Related: Illegibly; illegibility.
illegitimacy (n.) Look up illegitimacy at
1670s; see illegitimate + -acy.
illegitimate (adj.) Look up illegitimate at
1530s, "born out of wedlock," formed in English (and replacing earlier illegitime, c. 1500), modeled on Late Latin illegitimus "not legitimate" (see il- + legitimate). Sense of "unauthorized, unwarranted" is from 1640s. Phrase illegitimi non carborundum, usually "translated" as "don't let the bastards grind you down," is fake Latin (by 1965, said to date from c. 1939). Carborundum was a brand of abrasives. Related: Illegitimately.
illiberal (adj.) Look up illiberal at
1530s, "ungentlemanly, base, mean," from Middle French illiberal (14c.), from Latin illiberalis "ungenerous, mean, sordid; unworthy of a freeman; stingy, disobliging," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + liberalis (see liberal (adj.)). A sense of "narrow-minded politically; unconcerned with the rights or liberties of others" is attested from 1640s (as a noun in this sense 1818), and might be revived to ease the load of meanings that weighs on conservative.
illicit (adj.) Look up illicit at
c. 1500, from Old French illicite "unlawful, forbidden" (14c.), from Latin illicitus "not allowed, unlawful, illegal," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + licitus "lawful," past participle of licere "to be allowed" (see licence (n.)). Related: Illicitly.
illimitable (adj.) Look up illimitable at
1590s, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not" + limitable.
illing (n.) Look up illing at
"evil-doing, malevolent treatment," early 13c., verbal noun from ill (v.).
Illinois Look up Illinois at
1703, in reference to the language, from the name of a native Algonquian people who called themselves Inoca (1725), also written Ilinouek, Old Ottawa for "ordinary speaker." The modern form represents a 17c. French spelling, pronounced "ilinwe" at that time. The U.S. territory was created 1809, admitted as a state 1818. Related: Illinoisan (1836), which seems to be the usual form; Illinoian is used in geology to refer to one of the Pleistocene ice ages in North America (1896) and earlier it was a newspaper name (1838) and a steamboat (1837). Illinoisian (adj.) was used in England in 1818.
illiquid (adj.) Look up illiquid at
1690s, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not" + liquid (adj.) in the financial sense.
illiteracy (n.) Look up illiteracy at
1650s, "inability to read and write," from illiterate + -cy. Earlier in this sense was illiterature (1590s).
illiterate (adj.) Look up illiterate at
early 15c., "uneducated, unable to read and write" (originally meaning Latin), from Latin illiteratus "unlearned, unlettered, ignorant; without culture, inelegant," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + literatus "educated," literally "furnished with letters" (see literate). Rendered in Old English as unstæfwis. As a noun meaning "illiterate person" from 1620s. Hence, illiterati (1788, Horace Walpole).
illness (n.) Look up illness at
"disease, sickness, ailment, malady," 1680s, from ill (adj.) + -ness. Earlier it meant "bad moral quality" (c. 1500).
illocution (n.) Look up illocution at
1955, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not, opposite of" + locution.
illocutionary (adj.) Look up illocutionary at
1955, from illocution + -ary.
illogical (adj.) Look up illogical at
"without sound reasoning according to rules of logic," 1580s, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not, opposite of" + logical. Related: Illogically.
illth (n.) Look up illth at
"what leads one to a bad state or condition," 1867, coined by John Ruskin from ill (adv.) on model of wealth (also see -th (2)).
[S]uch things, and so much of them as he can use, are, indeed, well for him, or Wealth; and more of them, or any other things, are ill for him, or Illth. [Ruskin, "Munera Pulveris"]
illude (v.) Look up illude at
early 15c., to trick, deceive; treat with scorn or mockery," from Latin illudere "to make sport of, scoff at, mock, jeer at," from assimilated form of in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous).
illume (v.) Look up illume at
"illuminate," c. 1600, from French illumer, contraction of illuminer, from Latin illuminare "light up, make light, illuminate" (see illumination). Related: Illumined; illumining.
illuminate (v.) Look up illuminate at
c. 1500, "to light up, shine on," a back-formation from illumination or else from Latin illuminatus, past participle of illuminare "light up, make light, illuminate." Earlier was enlumyen (late 14c.) "decorate written material by hand with gold, silver, or bright colors," from Old French enluminer, from Late Latin inluminare; also illumine (late 14c.). Related: Illuminated; illuminating; illuminable.
illuminati (n.) Look up illuminati at
1590s, plural of Latin illuminatus "enlightened" (in figurative sense), past participle of illuminare "light up, make light, illuminate" (see illumination). Originally a name applied to a 16c. Spanish sect (the Alumbrados), then to other sects on the continent; since 1797 used as a translation of German Illuminaten, name of a secret society founded 1776 in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, (repressed there 1785) and holding deistic and republican principles; hence used generally of free-thinkers and sarcastically of those professing intellectual enlightenment (1816). Related: Illuminatism; illuminatist.
illumination (n.) Look up illumination at
late 14c., "spiritual enlightenment," from Late Latin illuminationem (nominative illuminatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin illuminare "to throw into light, make bright, light up;" figuratively, in rhetoric, "to set off, illustrate," from assimilated form of in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + lumen (genitive luminis) "light," related to lucere "to shine" (see light (n.)). Meaning "action of lighting" in English is from 1560s; sense of "intellectual enlightenment" is from 1630s.
illumine (v.) Look up illumine at
late 14c., "to enlighten spiritually;" mid-15c., "to light up, shine light on," from Old French illuminer (13c.), from Latin illuminare "make bright, light up" (see illumination). Related: illumined.
illusion (n.) Look up illusion at
mid-14c., "mockery, scorning, derision;" late 14c., "act of deception; deceptive appearance, apparition; delusion of the mind," from Old French illusion "a mocking, deceit, deception" (12c.), from Latin illusionem (nominative illusio) "a mocking, jesting, jeering; irony," from past participle stem of illudere "mock at," literally "to play with," from assimilated form of in- "at, upon" (see in- (2)) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). Sense of "deceptive appearance" first developed in Church Latin. Related: Illusioned "full of illusions" (1920).
illusionary (adj.) Look up illusionary at
1811, from illusion + -ary.
illusionist (n.) Look up illusionist at
"conjurer, magic act performer," 1840, from illusion + -ist. Earlier "one suffering from illusions" (1812). Middle English had illusor "deceiver, deluder."
illusive (adj.) Look up illusive at
"deceptive, false, illusory," 1670s, from stem of illusion + -ive. The older adjective is illusory.
illusory (adj.) Look up illusory at
1590s, from French illusorie, from Late Latin illusorius "ironical, of a mocking character," from illus-, past participle stem of Latin illudere "mock, jeer at, make fun of," literally "play with," from assimilated form of in- "at, upon" (see in- (2)) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous).
illustrate (v.) Look up illustrate at
1520s, "light up, shed light on;" 1610s, "educate by means of examples," back-formation from illustration, and in some cases from Latin illustratus, past participle of illustrare "light up, make light, illuminate." Sense of "provide pictures to explain or decorate" is 1630s. Related: Illustrated; illustrating.
illustrated (adj.) Look up illustrated at
"provided with drawings, etc., as illustration," 1831, past participle adjective from illustrate (v.).
illustration (n.) Look up illustration at
c. 1400, "a shining;" early 15c., "a manifestation;" mid-15c., "a spiritual illumination," from Old French illustration "apparition, appearance" (13c.) and directly from Latin illustrationem (nominative illustratio) "vivid representation" (in writing), literally "an enlightening," from past participle stem of illustrare "light up, make light, illuminate;" figuratively "make clear, disclose, explain; adorn, render distinguished," from assimilated form of in- "in" (see in- (2)) + lustrare "make bright, illuminate," related to lucere "shine," lux "light" (see light (n.)). Mental sense of "act of making clear in the mind" is from 1580s. Meaning "an illustrative picture" is from 1816.