invite (v.) Look up invite at
1530s, a back-formation from invitation, or else from Middle French inviter, from Latin invitare "to invite," also "to summon, challenge." As a noun variant of invitation it is attested from 1650s. Related: Invited; inviting.
invite (n.) Look up invite at
1650s, from invite (v.).
invitee (n.) Look up invitee at
1837, from invite (v.) + -ee.
inviting (adj.) Look up inviting at
“attractive, alluring,” c. 1600, from present participle of invite (v.).
invocation (n.) Look up invocation at
late 14c., "petition (to God or a god) for aid or comfort; invocation, prayer;" also "a summoning of evil spirits," from Old French invocacion (12c.), from Latin invocationem (nominative invocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of invocare "to call upon, invoke, appeal to" (see invoke).
invoice (n.) Look up invoice at
1550s, apparently from Middle French envois, plural of envoi "dispatch (of goods)," literally "a sending," from envoyer "to send" (see envoy). As a verb, 1690s, from the noun.
invoke (v.) Look up invoke at
late 15c., from Middle French envoquer (12c.), from Latin invocare "call upon, implore," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + vocare "to call," related to vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (see voice (n.)). Related: Invoked; invoking.
involuntary (adj.) Look up involuntary at
mid-15c., from Late Latin involuntarius "involuntary," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin voluntarius (see voluntary). Related: Involuntarily.
involute (adj.) Look up involute at
early 15c., from Latin involutus "rolled up, intricate, obscure," past participle of involvere (see involve).
involution (n.) Look up involution at
late 14c., from Latin involutionem (nominative involutio) "a rolling up," noun of action from past participle stem of involvere (see involve). Related: Involutional.
involve (v.) Look up involve at
late 14c., "envelop, surround," from Latin involvere "envelop, surround, overwhelm," literally "roll into," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + volvere "to roll" (see volvox). Originally "envelop, surround," sense of "take in, include" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Involved; Involving.
involved (adj.) Look up involved at
"complicated," 1640s, past participle adjective from involve.
involvement (n.) Look up involvement at
1706, from involve + -ment.
invulnerability (n.) Look up invulnerability at
1775, from invulnerable + -ity.
invulnerable (adj.) Look up invulnerable at
1590s, from Latin invulnerabilis "invulnerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vulnerabilis (see vulnerable). Related: Invulnerably.
inward Look up inward at
Old English inweard, inneweard (adj., adv.) "inmost; sincere; internal, intrinsic; deep," from Proto-Germanic *inwarth "inward" (cognates: Old Norse innanverðr, Old High German inwart, Middle Dutch inwaert), from root of Old English inne "in" (see in) + -weard (see -ward).
inwardly (adv.) Look up inwardly at
Old English inweardlice; see inward + -ly (2).
inwardness (n.) Look up inwardness at
late 14c., from inward + -ness.
inwit (n.) Look up inwit at
Middle English word meaning "conscience" (early 13c.), "reason, intellect" (c. 1300), from in (adj.) + wit (n.). Not related to Old English inwit, which meant "deceit." Joyce's use in "Ulysses" (1922), which echoes the 14c. work "Ayenbite of Inwyt," is perhaps the best-known example of the modern use of the word as a conscious archaism.
Þese ben also þy fyve inwyttys: Wyl, Resoun, Mynd, Ymaginacioun, and Thoght [Wyclif, c. 1380]

If ... such good old English words as inwit and wanhope should be rehabilitated (and they have been pushing up their heads for thirty years), we should gain a great deal. [Robert Bridges, 1922]
Io Look up Io at
in Greek mythology, daughter of the river god Inachus, she was pursued by Zeus and consequently changed into a heifer. The Jovian moon was discovered in 1610 and named for her by Galileo.
iodide (n.) Look up iodide at
from comb. form of iodine + -ide.
iodine (n.) Look up iodine at
1814, formed by English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) from French iode "iodine," coined 1812 by French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac from Greek ioeides "violet-colored," from ion "the violet; dark blue flower," + eidos "appearance" (see -oid). Davy added the chemical suffix -ine (2) to make it analogous with chlorine and fluorine. So called from the color of the vapor given off when the crystals are heated.
iodize (v.) Look up iodize at
1841, from comb. form of iodine + -ize. Related: Iodized; iodizing.
ion (n.) Look up ion at
1834, introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (suggested by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath), coined from Greek ion, neuter present participle of ienai "go," from PIE root *ei- (1) "to go, to walk" (cognates: Greek eimi "I go;" Latin ire "to go," iter "a way;" Old Irish ethaim "I go;" Irish bothar "a road" (from *bou-itro- "cows' way"), Gaulish eimu "we go," Gothic iddja "went," Sanskrit e'ti "goes," imas "we go," ayanam "a going, way;" Avestan ae'iti "goes;" Old Persian aitiy "goes;" Lithuanian eiti "to go;" Old Church Slavonic iti "go;" Bulgarian ida "I go;" Russian idti "to go"). So called because ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge.
Ionian (adj.) Look up Ionian at
"of Ionia," the districts of ancient Greece inhabited by the Ionians (including Attica and the north coast of the Peloponnesus, but especially the coastal strip of Asia Minor, including the islands of Samos and Chios). The name (which Herodotus credits to an ancestral Ion, son of Apollo and Creusa) probably is pre-Greek, perhaps related to Sanskrit yoni "womb, vulva," and a reference to goddess-worshipping people.

Also used of the sea that lies between Italy and the northern Peloponnesus (1630s). The musical Ionian mode (1844) corresponds to our basic major scale but was characterized by the Greeks as soft and effeminate, as were the Ionians generally.
The Ionians delighted in wanton dances and songs more than the rest of the Greeks ... and wanton gestures were proverbially termed Ionic motions. [Thomas Robinson, "Archæologica Græca," 1807]
Ionic (adj.) Look up Ionic at
"pertaining to Ionia," 1570s of music; 1580s of architecture, from Latin Ionicus, from Greek Ionikos (see Ionian).
ionic (adj.) Look up ionic at
"pertaining to ions," 1890, from ion + -ic.
ionization (n.) Look up ionization at
1891; see ionize + -ation.
ionize (v.) Look up ionize at
1896, from ion + -ize. Related: Ionized; ionizing.
ionosphere (n.) Look up ionosphere at
1926, from ion + sphere. Coined by Scottish radar pioneer Robert A. Watson-Watt (1892-1973). So called because it contains many ions.
iota (n.) Look up iota at
"very small amount," 1630s, figurative use of iota, ninth and smallest letter in the Greek alphabet. Modern use is after Matt. v:18 (see jot), but iota in classical Greek also was proverbially used of anything very small. The letter name is from Semitic (compare Hebrew yodh).
IOU. Look up IOU. at
also I.O.U., I O U, 1610s, originally written IOV (see V); a punning reference to "I Owe You."
Iowa Look up Iowa at
organized as a U.S. territory 1838; admitted as a state 1846, ultimately from the name of the native people, of the Chiwere branch of the Aiouan family; said to be from Dakota ayuxba "sleepy ones."
IPA (n.) Look up IPA at
also I.P.A., 1952, abbreviation of India pale ale.
ipecac Look up ipecac at
1710, borrowing via Portuguese of a shortened form of Tupi ipecacuana (a word attested in English from 1682), a medicinal plant of Brazil. The Indian word is said to mean "small plant causing vomit."
ipse dixit Look up ipse dixit at
Latin, literally "he (the master) said it," translation of Greek autos epha, phrase used by disciples of Pythagoras when quoting their master.
ipseity (n.) Look up ipseity at
1650s, from Latin ipse "self" + -ity.
ipsilateral (adj.) Look up ipsilateral at
1907, from Latin ipse "self" + lateral.
ipso facto Look up ipso facto at
Latin, literally "by that very fact."
ir- Look up ir- at
assimilated form of Latin prefixes in- (see in-) before -r-.
Ira Look up Ira at
masc. proper name, from Hebrew, literally "watchful," from stem of 'ur "to awake, to rouse oneself."
Iran Look up Iran at
from Persian Iran, from Middle Persian Ērān "(land) of the Iranians," genitive plural of ēr- "an Iranian," from Old Iranian *arya- (Old Persian ariya-, Avestan airya-) "Iranian", from Indo-Iranian *arya- or *ārya- (see Aryan), a self-designation, perhaps meaning "compatriot." In 1935 the government of Reza Shah Pahlavi requested governments with which it had diplomatic relations to call his country Iran, after the indigenous name, rather than the Greek-derived Persia.
Iranian Look up Iranian at
1841 (adj.); 1873 (n.), from Iran + -ian.
Iraq Look up Iraq at
country name, 1920, from an Arabic name attested since 6c. for the region known in Greek as Mesopotamia; often said to be from Arabic `araqa, covering notions such as "perspiring, deeply rooted, well-watered," which may reflect the impression the lush river-land made on desert Arabs. But the name may be from, or influenced by, Sumerian Uruk (Biblical Erech), anciently a prominent city in what is now southern Iraq (from Sumerian uru "city"). Related: Iraqi.
irascibility (n.) Look up irascibility at
1750, from irascible + -ity.
irascible (adj.) Look up irascible at
late 14c., from Middle French irascible (12c.) and directly from Late Latin irascibilis, from Latin irasci "be angry, be in a rage," from ira "anger" (see ire).
irate (adj.) Look up irate at
1838, from Latin iratus "angry, enraged, violent, furious," past participle of irasci "grow angry," from ira "anger" (see ire).
ire (n.) Look up ire at
c. 1300, from Old French ire "anger, wrath, violence" (11c.), from Latin ira "anger, wrath, rage, passion," from PIE root *eis- (1), forming various words denoting "passion" cognates: Greek hieros "filled with the divine, holy," oistros "gadfly," originally "thing causing madness;" Sanskrit esati "drives on," yasati "boils;" Avestan aesma "anger;" Lithuanian aistra "violent passion").

Old English irre in a similar sense is from an adjective irre "wandering, straying, angry," cognate with Old Saxon irri "angry," Old High German irri "wandering, deranged," also "angry;" Gothic airzeis "astray," and Latin errare "wander, go astray, angry" (see err (v.)). (cognates: Avestan aešma- "anger," Lithuanian aistra "violent passion," Latin ira "anger")
Ireland Look up Ireland at
12c., Anglo-Norman, with land + native Eriu (see Irish).
Irene Look up Irene at
fem. proper name, from French Irène, from Latin Irene, from Greek Eirene, literally "peace, time of peace."