invalidate (v.) Look up invalidate at
1640s, from invalid + -ate (2). Related: Invalidated; invalidating.
invalidation (n.) Look up invalidation at
1771, noun of action from invalidate (v.).
invalidity (n.) Look up invalidity at
1540s, from Latin invalidatus (see invalid (adj.)).
invaluable (adj.) Look up invaluable at
1570s, "above value," from in- (1) "not" + value (v.) "estimate the worth of" + -able. It also has been used in a sense "without value, worthless" (1630s).
invariability (n.) Look up invariability at
1640s, from invariable + -ity.
invariable (adj.) Look up invariable at
early 15c., from Old French invariable (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin invariabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + variabilis (see variable). Related: Invariably.
invariant (adj.) Look up invariant at
1851, from in- (1) "not" + variant.
invasion (n.) Look up invasion at
mid-15c., from Old French invasion "invasion, attack, assaut" (12c.), from Late Latin invasionem (nominative invasio) "an attack, invasion," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin invadere "go into, fall upon, attack, invade," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + vadere "go, walk" (see vamoose).
invasive (adj.) Look up invasive at
mid-15c., from Middle French invasif (15c.), from Medieval Latin invasivus, from invas-, past participle stem of invadere (see invasion).
invective (n.) Look up invective at
1520s, from Medieval Latin invectiva "abusive speech," from Late Latin invectivus "abusive," from Latin invectus, past participle of invehi "to attack with words" (see inveigh). For nuances of usage, see humor. The earlier noun form was inveccion (mid-15c.).
inveigh (v.) Look up inveigh at
late 15c., "to introduce," from Latin invehi "to attack with words," originally "carry oneself against," passive infinitive of invehere "bring in, carry in," from in- "against" (see in- (1)) + vehere "to carry" (see vehicle). Meaning "to give vent to violent denunciation" is from 1520s. Related: Inveighed; inveighing.
inveigle (v.) Look up inveigle at
late 15c., "to blind (someone's) judgment," alteration of Middle French aveugler "delude, make blind," from Vulgar Latin *aboculus "without sight, blind," from Latin ab- "without" (see ab-) + oculus "eye" (see eye (n.)). Loan-translation of Greek ap ommaton "without eyes." Meaning "to win over by deceit, seduce" is 1530s.
invent (v.) Look up invent at
late 15c., "find, discover," a back-formation from invention or else from Latin inventus, past participle of invenire “to come upon; devise, discover” (see invention). Meaning "make up, think up" is from 1530s, as is that of "produce by original thought." Related: Invented; inventing.
invention (n.) Look up invention at
c. 1400, "devised method of organization," from Old French invencion (13c.) and directly from Latin inventionem (nominative inventio) "faculty of invention; a finding, discovery," noun of action from past participle stem of invenire "devise, discover, find," from in- "in, on" (see in- (2)) + venire "to come" (see venue).

Meaning "finding or discovering of something" is early 15c. in English; sense of "thing invented" is first recorded 1510s. Etymological sense preserved in Invention of the Cross, Church festival (May 3) celebrating the reputed finding of the Cross of the Crucifixion by Helena, mother of Constantine, in 326 C.E.
inventive (adj.) Look up inventive at
early 15c., "skilled in invention," from Old French inventif (15c.), from Latin invent-, past participle stem of invenire (see invention). Related: Inventively; inventiveness.
inventor (n.) Look up inventor at
c. 1500, "a discoverer," from Latin inventor (fem. inventrix) "contriver, author, discoverer," agent noun from past participle stem of invenire (see invention). Meaning "one who contrives or produces a new thing or process" is from 1550s.
inventory (n.) Look up inventory at
early 15c., from Old French inventoire "inventory, detailed list of goods, catalogue," from Medieval Latin inventorium (Late Latin inventarium) "list of what is found," from Latin inventus, past participle of invenire "to find" (see invention). The verb is first recorded c. 1600, from the noun.
inverse (adj.) Look up inverse at
mid-15c., from Latin inversus, past participle of invertere (see invert). Related: Inversely. As a noun, 1680s, from the adjective.
inversion (n.) Look up inversion at
1550s, from Latin inversionem (nominative inversio) "an inversion," noun of action from past participle stem of invertere (see invert).
invert (v.) Look up invert at
1530s, from Middle French invertir or directly from Latin invertere "turn upside down, turn about," from in- "in, on" (see in- (2)) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). Related: Inverted; inverting; invertedly.
invertebrate (n.) Look up invertebrate at
1826, from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vertebra "joint" (see vertebra). Invertebrata as a biological classification was coined 1805 by French naturalist Georges Léopole Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832). As an adjective by 1838.
invest (v.) Look up invest at
late 14c., "to clothe in the official robes of an office," from Latin investire "to clothe in, cover, surround," from in "in, into" (see in- (2)) + vestire "to dress, clothe" (see wear (v.)). The meaning "use money to produce profit" first attested 1610s in connection with the East Indies trade, and is probably a borrowing of Italian investire (13c.) from the same Latin root, via the notion of giving one's capital a new form. The military meaning "to besiege" is from c. 1600. Related: Invested; investing.
investigable (adj.) Look up investigable at
c. 1400, from Late Latin investigabilis "that may be searched into," from investigare (see investigation).
investigate (v.) Look up investigate at
c. 1500, back-formation from investigation, or else from Latin investigatus, past participle of investigare "to trace out, search after" (see investigation). Related: Investigated; investigating.
investigation (n.) Look up investigation at
early 15c., from Old French investigacion (14c.), from Latin investigationem (nominative investigatio) "a searching into, a searching for," noun of action from past participle stem of investigare "to trace out, search after," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + vestigare "to track, trace," from vestigium "footprint, track" (see vestige).
investigative (adj.) Look up investigative at
1803, from Latin investigat-, past participle stem of investigare (see investigation) + -ive. Journalism sense is from 1951.
investigator (n.) Look up investigator at
1550s, a native agent-noun formation from investigate, or else from Latin investigator "he that searches into," agent noun from past participle stem of investigare (see investigation).
investiture (n.) Look up investiture at
late 14c., from Medieval Latin investitura, from past participle stem of Latin investire "to clothe" (see invest).
investment (n.) Look up investment at
1590s, "act of putting on vestments" (a sense now found in investiture); later "act of being invested with an office, right, endowment, etc." (1640s); and "surrounding and besieging of a military target" (1811); see invest + -ment. Commercial sense is from 1610s, originally of the finances of the East India Company; general use is from 1740 in the sense of "conversion of money to property in hopes of profit," and by 1837 in the sense "amount of money so invested; property viewed as a vehicle for profit." For evolution of commercial senses, see invest.
investor (n.) Look up investor at
1580s, "one who clothes;" 1862, "one who invests money," agent noun from invest.
inveteracy (n.) Look up inveteracy at
1690s, from inveterate + -cy.
inveterate (adj.) Look up inveterate at
late 14c., from Latin inveteratus "of long standing, chronic," past participle of inveterare "become old in," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + veterare "to make old," from vetus (genitive veteris) "old" (see veteran).
inviable (adj.) Look up inviable at
1918, from in- (1) "not" + viable. Related: Inviability.
invictus Look up invictus at
Latin adjective, "unconquered, unsubdued, invincible."
invidious (adj.) Look up invidious at
c. 1600, from Latin invidiosus "full of envy, envious," from invidia "envy, grudge, jealousy, ill will" (see envy). Related: Invidiously; invidiousness.
invigilate (v.) Look up invigilate at
1550s, from Latin invigilatus, past participle of invigilare "watch over, be watchful, be devoted," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + vigilare (see vigil). Especially in reference to student exams. Related: Invigilated; invigilating.
invigilator (n.) Look up invigilator at
1892, agent noun from invigilate.
invigorate (v.) Look up invigorate at
1640s, from in- (2) + vigor + -ate (2). Earlier verb was envigor (1610s). Related: Invigorated; invigorating.
invigorating (adj.) Look up invigorating at
1690s, adjective from present participle of invigorate. Related: Invigoratingly.
invigoration (n.) Look up invigoration at
1660s, noun of action from invigorate.
invincibility (n.) Look up invincibility at
1670s, from invincible + -ity.
invincible (adj.) Look up invincible at
early 15c., from Middle French invincible (14c.) or directly from Latin invincibilis "unconquerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vincibilis "conquerable," from vincere "to overcome" (see victor). Related: Invincibly. Noun meaning "one who is invincible" is from 1630s. Invincible ignorance is from Church Latin ignorantia invincibilis (Aquinas). Related: Invincibly.
inviolability (n.) Look up inviolability at
1793, from inviolable + -ity.
inviolable (adj.) Look up inviolable at
mid-15c., from Latin inviolabilis "inviolable, invulnerable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + violabilis, from violare "to do violence to" (see violation). Related: Inviolably.
inviolate (adj.) Look up inviolate at
"unbroken, intact," early 15c., from Latin inviolatus “unhurt,” from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + violatus (see violation).
invisibility (n.) Look up invisibility at
1560s, from Late Latin invisibilitas, from invisibilis (see invisible).
invisible (adj.) Look up invisible at
mid-14c., from Old French invisible (13c.), from Latin invisibilis "unseen, invisible," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + visibilis (see visible). As a noun, "things invisible," from 1640s. Invisible Man is from H.G. Wells's novel (1897). Related: Invisibly.
invision (n.) Look up invision at
"want of vision," 1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + vision.
invita Minerva Look up invita Minerva at
Latin, literally "Minerva (goddess of wisdom) unwilling;" i.e. "without inspiration, not being in the mood for it."
invitation (n.) Look up invitation at
mid-15c., from Latin invitationem (nominative invitatio) "an invitation, incitement, challenge," noun of action from past participle stem of invitare "invite, treat, entertain," originally "be pleasant toward," from in- "toward" (see in- (2)). Second element is obscure; Watkins suggests a suffixed form of root *weie- "to go after something, pursue with vigor," and a connection to English gain (see venison). Meaning "the spoken or written form in which a person is invited" is from 1610s.