intern (n.) Look up intern at
"one working under supervision as part of professional training," originally "assistant resident physician, doctor in training in a hospital," 1879, American English, from French interne "assistant doctor," noun use of interne "internal," from Latin internus "within, inward" (see internal). Extended to other professions (originally teaching) from 1963 in reference to one under training and acquiring practical experience.
internal (adj.) Look up internal at
early 15c., "extending toward the interior," from Medieval Latin internalis, from Latin internus "within, inward, internal," figuratively "domestic," expanded from pre-Latin *interos, *interus "on the inside, inward," from PIE *en-ter- (source also of Old Church Slavonic anter, Sanskrit antar "within, between," Old High German unter "between," and the "down" sense of Old English under); suffixed (comparative) form of root *en "in."

Meaning "situated within" is from 1590s. Meaning "of or pertaining to the domestic affairs of a country (as in internal revenue) is from 1795; the notion is "pertaining to the subject itself; independent of others." Internal-combustion in reference to an engine in which fuel is burned inside it, is from 1884. Related: Internally.
internality (n.) Look up internality at
1802, from internal + -ity.
internalization (n.) Look up internalization at
1853, from internal + -ization.
internalize (v.) Look up internalize at
1856, American English, from internal + -ize. Related: Internalized; internalizing.
international (adj.) Look up international at
1780, coined by Jeremy Bentham from inter- "between" + national (adj.). In the phrase international jurisprudence. He footnotes the word with:
The word international, it must be acknowledged, is a new one; though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible. It is calculated to express, in a more significant way, the branch of law which goes commonly under the name of the law of nations: an appellation so uncharacteristic, that, were it not for the force of custom, it would seem rather to refer to internal jurisprudence. [Bentham, "Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation"]
As a noun and with a capital -i-, it is short for International Working Men's Association, a socialistic worker's movement with global aims, the first chapter of which was founded in London by Marx in 1864. The group lends its name to "The Internationale" (from fem. of French international, which is from English), the socialist hymn, written 1871 by Eugène Pottier. International Dateline is from 1882. Related: Internationally (1821).
internationalise (v.) Look up internationalise at
chiefly British English spelling of internalize (q.v.). For spelling, see -ize. Related: Internationalisation.
internationalism (n.) Look up internationalism at
1851, from international + -ism. Related: Internationalist.
internationalization (n.) Look up internationalization at
1860, with reference to law; see international + -ization.
internationalize (v.) Look up internationalize at
1864, from international (adj.) + -ize. Related: Internationalized; internationalizing.
internecine (adj.) Look up internecine at
1660s, "deadly, destructive," from Latin internecinus "very deadly, murderous, destructive," from internecare "kill or destroy," from inter (see inter-) + necare "kill" (from PIE root *nek- (1) "death").

Considered by OED as misinterpreted in Johnson's Dictionary [1755], which defined it as "endeavouring mutual destruction," but a notion of "mutually destructive" has been imported into the word in English because in English inter- usually conveys the idea of "mutual." The Latin prefix is said to have had here only an intensive sense; "the Latin word meant merely of or to extermination ... without implying that of both parties" [Fowler].
internee (n.) Look up internee at
"one who is interned," from intern (v.1) + -ee.
internet (n.) Look up internet at
1984, "the linked computer networks of the U.S. Defense Department," shortened from internetwork, inter-network, which was used from 1972 in reference to (then-hypothetical) networks involving many separate computers. From inter- "between" + network (n.). Associated Press style guide decapitalized it from 2016.
interneuron (n.) Look up interneuron at
1939, from neuron + first element from internuncial (adj.) "communicating between different parts of the body," from Latin internuncius "a messenger, mediator," from inter "between" (see inter-) + nuntius "messenger" (from PIE root *neu- "to shout").
internist (n.) Look up internist at
1897, from internal (medicine) + -ist.
internment (n.) Look up internment at
1840, "confinement within a place," from intern (v.1) + -ment. Compare French internement. Internment camp is attested from 1916.
internship (n.) Look up internship at
1899, from intern (n.) + -ship.
interoffice (adj.) Look up interoffice at
also inter-office, 1864, from inter- "between" + office (n.).
interoperable (adj.) Look up interoperable at
1969, from inter- "between" + operable. Related: Interoperability.
interpellate (v.) Look up interpellate at
1590s, "interrupt," from Latin interpellatus, past participle of interpellare "to interrupt by speaking" (see interpellation). Parliamentary sense of "question formally or publically" is from 1874, from French. Related: Interpellated; interpellating.
interpellation (n.) Look up interpellation at
late 15c., "an appeal" (obsolete), from Latin interpellationem (nominative interpellatio) "an interruption," noun of action from past participle stem of interpellare "to interrupt by speaking," from inter "between" (see inter-) + pellare, collateral form of pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). The parliamentary sense is attested in English from 1837, from French.
interpenetrate (v.) Look up interpenetrate at
1809, from inter- "between" + penetrate (v.). Related: Interpenetrated; interpenetrating.
interpenetration (n.) Look up interpenetration at
1809, from inter- + penetration.
interpersonal (adj.) Look up interpersonal at
1911 (OED finds an isolated use from 1842), from inter- "between" + person (n.) + -al. Introduced in psychology (1938) by H.S. Sullivan (1892-1949) to describe behavior between people in an encounter. Related: Interpersonally.
interphase (n.) Look up interphase at
in cytology, 1913, from German interphase (1912); see inter- "between" + phase (n.).
interplanetary (adj.) Look up interplanetary at
1690s, "existing between planets," from inter- "between" + planet + -ary. In reference to travel between planets, attested from 1897. Boyle and Locke both used intermundane in the same sense; the Roman Epicureans had intermundia (neuter plural) for "spaces between the worlds" (translating Greek metakosmia).
interplay (n.) Look up interplay at
1838, from inter- "between" + play (n.). "Reciprocal play," thus "free interaction."
Interpol Look up Interpol at
1952, contraction of international police (in full, The International Criminal Police Commission), founded 1923 with headquarters in Paris.
interpolate (v.) Look up interpolate at
1610s, "to alter or enlarge (a writing) by inserting new material," from Latin interpolatus, past participle of interpolare "alter, freshen up, polish;" of writing, "falsify," from inter "among, between" (see inter-) + polare, which is related to polire "to smoothe, polish," from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive," the connecting notion being "to full cloth" [Watkins].

Sense evolved in Latin from "refurbish," to "alter appearance of," to "falsify (especially by adding new material)." Middle English had interpolen (early 15c.) in a similar sense. Related: Interpolated; interpolating.
interpolation (n.) Look up interpolation at
1610s, "act of interpolating;" 1670s, "that which is interpolated," from French interpolation (17c.) or directly from Latin interpolationem (nominative interpolatio), noun of action from past participle stem of interpolare "to alter; falsify" (see interpolate).
interpolator (n.) Look up interpolator at
1650s, from Late Latin interpolator "one who corrupts or spoils," agent noun from past participle stem of Latin interpolare "to polish; to alter; to falsify" (see interpolate).
interpose (v.) Look up interpose at
1590s (trans.); 1610s (intrans.), from Middle French interposer (14c.), from inter- "between" (see inter-) + poser "to place" (see pose (v.1)). Related: Interposed; interposing.
interposition (n.) Look up interposition at
late 14c., from Old French interposicion "interpolation, intercalation; suspension, break" (12c.), from Latin interpositionem (nominative interpositio) "an insertion," noun of action from past participle stem of interponere "to put between, place among; put forward," from inter "between" (see inter-) + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)).
interpret (v.) Look up interpret at
late 14c., "expound the meaning of, render clear or explicit," from Old French interpreter "explain; translate" (13c.) and directly from Latin interpretari "explain, expound, understand," from interpres "agent, translator," from inter "between" (see inter-) + second element probably from PIE *per- (5) "to traffic in, sell." Related: Interpreted; interpreting.
interpretable (adj.) Look up interpretable at
1610s, from Late Latin interpretabilis "that can be explained or translated," from Latin interpretari "explain, expound, understand" (see interpret).
interpretation (n.) Look up interpretation at
mid-14c. "a translated text, a translation" (late 13c. in Anglo-French), from Old French interpretacion, entrepretatiun "explanation, translation" (12c.) and directly from Latin interpretationem (nominative interpretatio) "explanation, exposition," noun of action from past participle stem of interpretari "explain, expound; understand" (see interpret).

From late 14c. as "act or process of explaining or interpreting; an explanation; construction placed upon an action." Meaning "dramatic or musical representation" is from 1880.
interpretative (adj.) Look up interpretative at
"meant to explain," 1560s, from past participle stem of Latin interpretari "explain, expound; understand" (see interpret). Interpretive means the same but is considered to be less correctly formed, because -ive adjectives are normally formed on the Latin past participle. Related: Interpretatively.
interpreter (n.) Look up interpreter at
"one who translates spoken languages; a translator of written texts," late 14c., from Old French interpreteor, entrepreteur, from Late Latin interpretator "an explainer," agent noun from interpretari "explain, expound" (see interpret).
interpretive (adj.) Look up interpretive at
1670s, from interpret + -ive, perhaps on model of assertive or other like words, where the -t- belongs to the Latin stem. The preferred formation is interpretative. Listed by Fowler among the words "that for one reason or another should not have been brought into existence."
interpunction (n.) Look up interpunction at
"punctuation, a point inserted in writing," 1610s, from Latin interpunctionem (nominative interpunctio) "a putting of points between (words), division by points," noun of action from past participle stem of interpungere "to put points between," from inter "between" (see inter-) + pungere "to prick, pierce" (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick").
interracial (adj.) Look up interracial at
also inter-racial, "existing or taking place between races," 1883, from inter- "between" + racial (adj.).
interregnum (n.) Look up interregnum at
1580s, from Latin interregnum "an interval between two reigns," literally "between-reign," from inter "between" (see inter-) + regnum "kingship, dominion, rule, realm," related to regere "to rule, to direct, keep straight, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). In the republic, it meant a vacancy in the consulate. The earlier English noun was interreign (1530s), from French interrègne (14c.).
interrelate (v.) Look up interrelate at
also inter-relate, 1831 (implied in interrelated), transitive, "bring into reciprocal relation," from inter- "between" + relate (v.). Intransitive sense "come into reciprocal relation" is attested from 1912. Related: Interrelating.
interrelation (n.) Look up interrelation at
1841, from inter- "between" + relation.
interrelationship (n.) Look up interrelationship at
also inter-relationship, "state of being interrelated," 1841, from inter- "between" + relationship.
interrogate (v.) Look up interrogate at
late 15c., a back-formation from interrogation or else from Latin interrogatus, past participle of interrogare "to ask, question, inquire; interrogate judicially, cross-examine," from inter "between" (see inter-) + rogare "to ask, to question," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line." The Old French word was interroger (14c.) which yielded English interroge (late 15c.), now obsolete. Related: Interrogated; interrogating.
interrogation (n.) Look up interrogation at
late 14c., "a question;" c. 1500, "a questioning; a set of questions," from Old French interrogacion "a questioning" (13c.) or directly from Latin interrogationem (nominative interrogatio) "a question; questioning; judicial inquiry," noun of action from past participle stem of interrogare "to ask, question, inquire; interrogate judicially, cross-examine," from inter "between" (see inter-) + rogare "to ask, to question," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line."
interrogative (adj.) Look up interrogative at
"asking or denoting a question," c. 1500, from Late Latin interrogativus "pertaining to a question," from interrogat-, past participle stem of Latin interrogare "to ask, question, inquire; interrogate judicially, cross-examine," from inter "between" (see inter-) + rogare "to ask, to question," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line." As a noun, "word implying a question," 1520s. Related: Interrogatively.
interrogator (n.) Look up interrogator at
1751, from French interrogateur (16c.) or directly from Late Latin interrogator, agent noun from Latin interrogare "to ask, question" (see interrogation).
interrogatory (adj.) Look up interrogatory at
"containing or expressing a question," 1570s, from Late Latin interrogatorius "consisting of questions," from past participle stem of Latin interrogare "to ask, question, inquire; interrogate judicially, cross-examine," from inter "between" (see inter-) + rogare "to ask, to question," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line."