instruction (n.)
c.1400, instruccioun, "action or process of teaching," from Old French instruccion (14c.), from Latin instructionem (nominative instructio) "building, arrangement, teaching," from past participle stem of instruere "arrange, inform, teach," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + struere "to pile, build" (see structure (n.)). Meaning "an authoritative direction telling someone what to do; a document giving such directions," is early 15c. Related: Instructions.
instructional (adj.)
1801, from instruction + -al (1).
instructive (adj.)
1610s, from instruct + -ive. Related: Instructively; instructiveness.
instructor (n.)
mid-15c., from Old French instructeur and directly from Medieval Latin instructor "teacher" (in classical Latin, "preparer"), agent noun from instruere (see instruct).
instrument (n.)
late 13c., "musical instrument," from Old French instrument "means, device; musical instrument" (14c., earlier estrument, 13c.) and directly from Latin instrumentem "a tool, apparatus, furniture, dress, document," from instruere "arrange, furnish" (see instruct). Meaning "tool, implement, utensil" is early 14c. in English; meaning "written document by which formal expression is given to a legal act" is from early 15c.
instrumental (adj.)
late 14c., "of the nature of an instrument," from Old French instrumental, from Medieval Latin instrumentalis, from Latin instrumentum (see instrument). Meaning "serviceable, useful" is from c.1600. Of music, c.1500; noun meaning "musical composition for instruments only" is attested by 1940. Related: Instrumentally; instrumentality.
instrumentalist (n.)
1823, from instrumental in the musical sense + -ist.
instrumentation (n.)
"composition and arrangement of music for instruments," 1845, from French instrumentation, from instrument (see instrument) + -ation.
insubordinate (adj.)
1849, on model of French insubordonné (1789); from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordinate. Related: Insubordinately.
insubordination (n.)
1790, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordination. Perhaps on model of French insubordination (1788).
insubstantial (adj.)
c.1600, from Medieval Latin insubstantialis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + substantialis (see substantial). Related: Insubstantially.
insubstantiality (n.)
1827, from insubstantial + -ity.
insue (v.)
obsolete form of ensue.
insufferable (adj.)
early 15c., from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + sufferable (see suffer). Related: Insufferably.
insufficiency (n.)
1520s, from Late Latin insufficientia, noun of quality from insufficientem (see insufficient). Insufficience "deficiency" is from early 15c.
insufficient (adj.)
late 14c., from Old French insufficient (14c.), from Latin insufficientem (nominative insufficiens) "insufficient," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + sufficientem (see sufficient). Originally of persons, "inadequate, unable;" of things, from late 15c. Related: Insufficiently.
insula (n.)
Latin, literally "an island" (also, in ancient Rome, "a block of buildings"); see isle.
insular (adj.)
1610s, "of or pertaining to an island," from Late Latin insularis, from Latin insula "island" (see isle). Metaphoric sense "narrow, prejudiced" is 1775, from notion of being cut off from intercourse with other nations, especially with reference to the situation of Great Britain. Earlier adjective in the literal sense was insulan (mid-15c.), from Latin insulanus.
insularity (n.)
1755, "narrowness of feelings," from insular + -ity. Literal sense attested from 1790.
insulate (v.)
1530s, "make into an island," from Latin insulatus, from insula (see insular). Sense of "cause a person or thing to be detached from surroundings" is from 1785. Electrical/chemical sense of "block from electricity or heat" is from 1742. Related: Insulated; insulating.
insulation (n.)
1848, "act of making (something) into an island," noun of action from insulate. Transferred sense attested by 1798. Electrical sense is from 1767. The concrete sense of "insulating material" is recorded by 1870.
insulator (n.)
1801, agent noun in Latin form from insulate.
insulin (n.)
1922 (earlier insuline, 1914), coined in English from Latin insula "island," so called because the hormone is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insuline was coined independently in French in 1909.
insult (v.)
1560s, "triumph over in an arrogant way," from Middle French insulter (14c.) and directly from Latin insultare "to assail, to leap upon" (already used by Cicero in sense of "insult, scoff at, revile"), frequentative of insilire "leap at or upon," from in- "on, at" (see in- (2)) + salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)). Sense of "to verbally abuse, affront, assail with disrespect" is from 1610s. Related: Insulted; insulting.
insult (n.)
c.1600 in the sense of "attack;" 1670s as "an act of insulting," from Middle French insult (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insultus, from insilire (see insult (v.)). To add insult to injury translates Latin injuriae contumeliam addere.
insuperable (adj.)
mid-14c., "unconquerable," from Latin insuperabilis "that cannot be passed over, unconquerable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + superabilis "that may be overcome," from superare "to overcome," from superus "one that is above," from super "over" (see super-). Figurative use from 1650s. Related: Insuperably.
insupportable (adj.)
1520s, from French insupportable (14c.) or directly from Late Latin insupportabilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Latin supportare "to carry" (see support).
insurance (n.)
1550s, "engagement to marry," a variant of ensurance (see ensure). Commercial sense of "security against loss or death in exchange for payment" is from 1650s. Assurance was the older term for this (late 16c.).
insure (v.)
mid-15c., insuren, spelling variant of ensuren (see ensure). Took on its particular sense of "make safe against loss by payment of premiums" from mid-17c. (replacing assure in that meaning). Related: Insured; insuring.
insurer (n.)
1650s, agent noun from insure.
insurgence (n.)
1847; see insurgency + -ence.
insurgency (n.)
1803, from insurgent + -cy.
insurgent (n.)
"one who rises in revolt," 1765, from Latin insurgentem (nominative insurgens), present participle of insurgere "rise up, rise against, revolt," from in- "against," or perhaps merely intensive, + surgere "to rise" (see surge). An obsolete verb insurge "to rise in opposition or insurrection" is attested from 1530s.
insurmountable (adj.)
1690s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + surmountable (see surmount). Related: Insurmountably.
insurrection (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French insurrection, from Late Latin insurrectionem (nominative insurrectio) "a rising up," noun of action from past participle stem of insurgere "to rise up" (see insurgent).
insurrectionary
1796 (adj.), 1893 (n.), from insurrection + -ary.
intact (adj.)
mid-15c., from Latin intactus "untouched, uninjured, undefiled," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + tactus, past participle of tangere "to touch" (see tangent (adj.)).
intaglio (n.)
1640s, from Italian intaglio "engraved work" (plural intagli), from intagliare "to cut in, engrave," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + tagliare "to cut" (see entail).
intail (v.)
obsolete form of entail.
intake (n.)
c.1800, "place where water is taken into a channel or pipe," from verbal phrase, from in (adv.) + take (v.). Meaning "act of taking in" (food, breath, etc.) is first attested 1808.
intangible (adj.)
1630s, "incapable of being touched," from French intangible (c.1500) or directly from Medieval Latin intangibilis, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Late Latin tangibilis "that may be touched" (see tangible). Figurative sense of "that cannot be grasped by the mind" is from 1880. Noun meaning "anything intangible" is from 1914. Related: Intangibly.
integer (n.)
"a whole number" (opposed to fraction), 1570s, from Latin integer (adj.) "whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + root of tangere "to touch" (see tangent (adj.)). The word was used earlier in English as an adjective meaning "whole, entire" (c.1500).
integral (adj.)
late 15c., "of or pertaining to a whole," from Middle French intégral (14c.), from Medieval Latin integralis "forming a whole," from Latin integer "whole" (see integer). Related: Integrally. As a noun, 1610s, from the adjective.
integrate (v.)
1630s, "to render (something) whole," from Latin integratus, past participle of integrare "make whole," from integer "whole" (see integer). Meaning "to put together parts or elements and combine them into a whole" is from 1802. Integrate in the "racially desegregate" sense is a back-formation from integration, dating to the 1948 U.S. presidential contest. Related: Integrated; integrating.
integrated (adj.)
1580s, "combined into a whole," past participle adjective from integrate (v.). Sense of "not divided by race, etc." is from 1948.
integration (n.)
1610s, from French intégration and directly from Latin integrationem (nominative integratio) "renewal, restoration," noun of action from past participle stem of integrare (see integrate). Anti-discrimination sense is recorded from 1940 in a S.African context.
integrity (n.)
c.1400, "innocence, blamelessness; chastity, purity," from Old French integrité or directly from Latin integritatem (nominative integritas) "soundness, wholeness, blamelessness," from integer "whole" (see integer). Sense of "wholeness, perfect condition" is mid-15c.
integument (n.)
1610s, from Latin integumentum "a covering," from integere "to cover over," from in- "in, upon" (see in- (2)) + tegere "to cover" (see stegosaurus).
integumentary (adj.)
1826, from integument + -ary.
intellect (n.)
late 14c. (but little used before 16c.), from Old French intellecte "intellectual capacity" (13c.), and directly from Latin intellectus "discernment, a perception, understanding," from noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence).